Types And Makeup Methods
We can classify cookie types by makeup method as well as by mixing method. Grouping by the makeup method is perhaps more useful from the point of view of production because mixing methods are relatively simple, whereas makeup procedures vary considerably.
In this section,we present basic procedures for producing seven cookie types:
No matter what makeup method you use, follow one important rule: Make all cookies of uniform size and thickness .This is essential for even baking. Because baking times are so short, small cookies may burn before large ones are done.
Dropped cookies are made from a soft dough or batter. They are fast and easy to make up. Many sponge or foam-type batters are made up as dropped cookies.
1. Select the proper size scoop for accurate portioning. A No. 30 scoop makes a large cookie, about 1 oz (30 g). A No. 40 scoop makes a medium cookie.
Nos. 50,60, or small scoops make small cookies.
2. Drop the cookies onto the prepared baking sheets. Allow enough space between cookies for spreading.
3. Rich cookies spread by themselves. However, if the formula requires it, flatten the mounds of batter slightly with a weight dipped in sugar.
Bagged cookies, or pressed cookies, are also made from soft doughs.The dough must be soft enough to be forced through a pastry bag but stiff enough to hold its shape.
1. Fit a pastry bag with a tip of the desired size and shape.Fill the bag with the cookie dough. Review Figure 18.3 for tips on use of the pastry bag.
2. Press out cookies of desired shape and size directly onto prepared cookie sheets.
Rolled cookies, which are cut from a stiff dough, are not often made in commercial food service because they require excessive labor. Also, scraps are always left over after cutting.When rerolled, these scraps make inferior, tough cookies.
1. Chill dough thoroughly.
2. Roll dough to inch (3 mm) thick on a floured canvas or floured workbench. Use as little flour as possible for dusting because the flour can toughen the cookies.
3. Cut out cookies with cookie cutters and place on prepared baking sheets. Cut as close together as possible to reduce the quantity of scraps.
The first part of the procedure for molded cookies (steps 1 and 2) is simply a fast and fairly accurate way of dividing the dough into equal portions. Each piece is then molded into the desired shape.This usually consists of simply flattening the pieces out with a weight. For some traditional cookies, special molds are used to flatten the dough and, at the same time, stamp it with a design.
The pieces may also be shaped by hand into crescents, fingers, or other shapes.
1. Roll the dough into long cylinders about 1 inch (2.5 cm) thick, or whatever size is required. (Refrigerate the dough if it is too soft to handle.)
2. With a knife or bench scraper, cut the roll into 1-ounce (30-g) pieces, or whatever size is required.
3. Place the pieces on prepared baking sheets, leaving 2 inches (5 cm) of space between them.
4. Flatten cookies with a weight (such as a can) dipped in granulated sugar after pressing each cookie.
A fork is sometimes used for flattening the dough, as for peanut butter cookies.
5. Alternative method: After step 2, shape the dough by hand into desired shapes.
The icebox method, or refrigerator method, is ideal for operations that wish to have freshly baked cookies on hand at all times.The rolls of dough may be made up in advance and stored. Cookies can easily be cut and baked as needed.
1. Scale dough into pieces of uniform size, from pounds (700 g), if you are making small cookies, to 3 pounds (1400 g), for large cookies.
2. Form the dough into cylinders from 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm) in diameter, depending on the size cookie desired.
For accurate portioning,it is important to make all the cylinders of dough the same thickness and length.
3. Wrap the cylinders in parchment or waxed paper, place them on sheet pans, and refrigerate overnight.
4. Unwrap the dough and cut into slices of uniform thickness.The exact thickness required depends on the size of the cookie and how much the dough spreads during baking.The usual range is from 1/s to ^2 inch (3 to 12 mm).
A slicing machine is recommended for ensuring even thickness. Doughs containing nuts or fruits should be sliced by hand with a knife.
5. Place the slices on prepared baking sheets, allowing 2 inches (5 cm) of space between cookies.
Bar cookies are so called because the dough is shaped into long bars, which are baked and then cut. After cutting, they may be baked again, as in the case of biscotti, which means "twice baked." Do not confuse bar cookies with sheet cookies (see below), which are often called bars by consumers.
1. Scale the dough into 1%-pound (800-g) units (1-pound units,or 500-g units,may be used for smaller cookies).
2. Shape the pieces of dough into cylinders the length of the sheet pans. Place three strips on each greased pan, spacing them well apart.
3. Flatten the dough with the fingers into strips about 3 to 4 inches wide and about /4 inch thick (8 to 10 cm wide,6 mm thick).
4. If required,brush with egg wash.
5. Bake as directed in the formula.
6. After baking,while cookies are still warm, cut each strip into bars about 1% inches (4.5 cm) wide.
Sheet cookies vary so much that it is nearly impossible to give a single procedure for all of them. Some of them are almost like sheet cakes, only denser and richer. They may even be iced like sheet cakes. Others consist of two or three layers added and baked in separate stages.The following procedure is a general guideline only.
1. Spread the cookie mixture into prepared sheet pans. Make sure the thickness is even.
2. If required, add topping or brush with an egg wash.
3. Bake as directed. Cool.
4. Apply icing or topping, if any.
5. Cut into individual squares or rectangles.
Continue reading here: Panning Baking And Cooling
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