1. High heat toughens and shrinks protein and results in excessive moisture loss. Therefore, low-heat cooking should be the general practice for most meat cooking methods.
2. Broiling seems to be a contradiction to this rule.The reason carefully broiled meat stays tender is that it is done quickly. It takes time for the heat to be conducted to the interior of the meat, so the inside never gets very hot. Meat broiled to the point of being well done, however, is likely to be dry.
3. Roasts cooked at low temperatures have better yields than those roasted at high heat.That is, they shrink less and lose less moisture.
4. Because both liquid and steam are better conductors of heat than air, moist heat penetrates meat quickly. Therefore, to avoid overcooking, meat should be simmered, never boiled.
MILK-FED, GRAIN-FED, OR GRASS-FED
The properties of meats are determined, in part, by the diet of the animals. Most of the beef on the market in North America is grain-fed, even though grass, not grain, is the natural diet of cattle. Feeding cattle grain enables producers to raise and fatten them for market more quickly than letting them browse on grass does. Grain-fed beef is tender and has more marbling than grass-fed beef, and it is preferred by most North American consumers. Grass-fed or pastured beef is usually perceived as less tender and less juicy, although it is lower in saturated fat and may have more health benefits. Its flavor is often described as "beefier" than that of grain-fed beef. Grass-fed beef is common in some other countries, such as the beef-eating and -producing nation of Argentina. In North America, producers of pastured beef are campaigning for more consumer recognition.
The effect of diet can be seen in other meat animals. Traditionally,
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