Breads to be served within eight hours may be left on racks. For longer storage, wrap cooled breads in moistureproof bags to retard staling. Bread must be thoroughly cool before wrapping, or moisture will collect inside the bags.

Wrapping and freezing maintains quality for longer periods. Refrigeration, on the other hand, increases staling.

Hard-crusted breads should not be wrapped (unless frozen), or the crusts will soften. Because of the complexity of bread production, many things can go wrong.To remedy common bread faults, check Table 30.1 for possible causes and correct your procedures.

Table 30.1

Bread Faults and Their Causes




Too little yeast

Weak flour

Under- or overmixing

Improper fermentation or proofing

Oven too hot

Too much yeast

Too much dough scaled


Poor shape

Too much liquid Improper molding or makeup Improper proofing Too much steam in oven

Split or burst crust

Overmixing Underfermentation

Improper molding—seam not on bottom

Oven too hot

Not enough steam in oven

Texture and crumb

Too dense or close grained

Too little yeast Underproofing Too much salt Too little liquid

Too coarse or open

Too much yeast Too much liquid Incorrect mixing time Improper fermentation Overproofing Pan too large

Streaked crumb

Improper mixing procedure Poor molding or makeup techniques Too much flour used for dusting

Poor texture or crumbly

Fermentation time too long or too short Overproofing

Baking temperature too low Flour too weak Too little salt

Gray crumb

Fermentation time too long or temperature too high


Underfermentation (young dough)

Oven temperature too high

Baking time too long

Insufficient steam at beginning of baking

Overfermentation (old dough)


Oven temperature too low

Baking time too short

Too much steam in oven

Overfermentation (old dough)

Baked too long and/or at too low a temperature

Too little steam

Blisters on crust

Too much liquid Improper fermentation Improper shaping of loaves


Flat taste

Too little salt

Poor flavor

Inferior,spoiled,or rancid ingredients Poor bakeshop sanitation Under- or overfermentation

Continue reading here: Bread And Roll Formulas

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