The major leading sauces—béchamel;veal, chicken, and fish veloutés; and espagnole— are rarely used by themselves as sauces.They are more important as the bases for other sauces, called small sauces.Tomato sauce and hollandaise are used as they are, but they, too, are important as bases for small sauces.
Let's expand our sauce family chart one more generation to include examples of the small sauces in order to show the relationships (see Chart 8.2).
Chart 8.2 is probably a little more complicated than you expected because of the extra arrows and the extra category of secondary leading sauces.These are relatively easy to explain.
These three sauces—allemande, suprême, and white wine—are really finished sauces, like other small sauces. But they are used so often to build other small sauces that they rate a special category.
For example, to make suprême sauce, you add cream to chicken velouté. To make Albufera sauce, you can add meat glaze (glace de viande) to your suprême sauce. Or, if you don't have suprême sauce, you can make it by adding both cream and meat glaze to chicken velouté.This is why there are two sets of arrows in the chart.
Allemande, suprême, and white wine sauces are also known as the main small sauces. If the concept of secondary leading white sauces seems confusing at first,you may simply think of them as small sauces.The important thing is to understand how the sauces are derived.
• Demi-glace is defined as half brown sauce plus half brown stock, reduced by half. Most chefs prefer demi-glace to espagnole as a base for small sauces because of its more concentrated, more fully developed flavor.
Note: It is possible to make small sauces directly from espagnole, but they will not be as fine.
• Some modern chefs feel that espagnole is too heavy for modern tastes and that lighter sauces are required.These chefs prepare demi-glace from fond lié by reducing it with mirepoix, white wine, and seasonings, or by simply reducing by half a flavorful brown stock. In other words, demi-glace may be
The Small Sauces
Cheddar Cheese Nantua Soubise Mustard
White Veal Stock
Chicken Velouté I_
White Wine Sauce
Poulette Aurora Hungarian Curry
Mushroom Albufera or Ivory Hungarian Curry
Normandy Bercy Mushroom Herb
Brown Stock I I_
Tomato plus stock
Espagnole Fond Lié -
Demi-glace f Bordelaise Robert Charcutière Chasseur Deviled (Diable) Lyonnaise Madeira Périgueux Piquante Mushroom Bercy
Choron Foyot considered a well-flavored brown stock, reduced by half (demi means "half"), thickened with roux or other starch or left unthickened (except by natural gelatin).
Notice,for example, that mushroom sauce is listed under both chicken velouté and fish velouté.This means you should use the stock of the product you are serving with the sauce. Mushroom sauce for chicken should be made with chicken velouté,for fish, with fish velouté.To be even more confusing, mushroom sauce is also made with brown sauce. Bercy sauce is also made as both a white and a brown sauce.These are considered unrelated sauces that happen to have the same name.
4. Hollandaise and béarnaise.
These are essentially two variations of the same kind of sauce, with different flavorings. Each has its own small family of small sauces.
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