1. Place the dough in a lightly oiled container and oil the surface to prevent a crust from forming. (This may not be necessary if humidity is high—about 75 percent.)
2. Cover the container lightly and let the dough rise at a temperature of about 80°F ( 27°C).
3. Fermentation is complete when the dough has doubled in volume. If fermentation is complete, a dent will remain after the hand is pressed into the top of the dough.
Gluten becomes smoother and more elastic during fermentation. An underfer-mented dough does not develop proper volume, and the texture will be coarse. A dough that ferments too long or at too high a temperature becomes sticky, hard to work, and slightly sour.
An underfermented dough is called a young dough. An overfermented dough is called an old dough.
Doughs with weak gluten, such as rye doughs and rich doughs, are usually under-fermented or "taken to the bench young."
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