Primal Or Wholesale Cuts

These are the primary divisions of quarters, foresaddles, hindsaddles, and carcasses. These cuts, called primal cuts, are still used, to some extent, in food service, because they

1. Are small enough to be manageable in many food service kitchens.

2. Are still large enough to allow a variety of cuts for different uses or needs.

3. Are easier to utilize completely than quarters or halves.

Each primal may be fabricated, or cut up and trimmed, in several ways. Primal cuts are always the starting point for smaller cuts. For this reason, it will benefit you to be able to identify each one. Study the charts and photos in Figures 10.3 through 10.6. (Please note that the lamb chart in Figure 10.5 shows the traditional cuts,not the new cuts mentioned previously.) Learn the names of the primals, their location on the carcass, and the most important cuts that come from each.Then,whenever you work with a piece of meat, try to identify it exactly and match it with its primal cut.

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Figure 10.3 Beef

Chuck, Square—cut

Chuck, Square—cut

Figure 10.3 (a) Primal (wholesale) beef meat cuts Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board

CHUCK RIB (SHORT LOIN) LOIN (SIRLOIN) ROUND

CHUCK RIB (SHORT LOIN) LOIN (SIRLOIN) ROUND

Figure 10.3 (b) Primal (wholesale) beef cuts and their bone structure

Courtesy National Live Stock and Meat Board

Figure 10.3 (a) Primal (wholesale) beef meat cuts Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board

Beef T-bone steak

Beef tenderloin, trimmed

Beef T-bone steak

Beef tenderloin, trimmed

Beef boneless strip loin

Beef outside (bottom) round

Beef round steak

Beef boneless strip loin

Beef outside (bottom) round

Beef round steak

Beef inside (top) round

Beef knuckle, untrimmed

Beef flank steak

Beef inside (top) round

Beef knuckle, untrimmed

Beef flank steak

Figure 10.4 Veal

LOIN SIRLOIN LEG (ROUND)

LOIN SIRLOIN LEG (ROUND)

Figure 10.4 (a) Primal (wholesale) veal meat cuts Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board

Veal rib roast

Figure 10.4 (b) Primal (wholesale) veal cuts and their bone structure

Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board

Veal breast

Veal rib roast

Veal breast

Figure 10.5 Lamb

SHOULDER NECK RIB LOIN SIRLOIN

Figure 10.5 (a) Primal (wholesale) lamb meat cuts Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board

SHOULDER NECK RIB LOIN SIRLOIN

FORE SHANK

HIND SHANK

FORE SHANK

HIND SHANK

Lamb loin roast

Lamb arm chop

Figure 10.5 (b) Primal (wholesale) lamb cuts and their bone structure

Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board

Lamb loin chop

Lamb loin roast

Lamb arm chop

Lamb shoulder blade chop Lamb rib chop

Lamb loin chop

Lamb shoulder blade chop Lamb rib chop

Lamb, square-cut shoulder, whole Lamb, whole leg

Lamb, boneless shoulder, rolled and tied

Lamb foreshank

Lamb, square-cut shoulder, whole Lamb, whole leg

Lamb, boneless shoulder, rolled and tied

Lamb foreshank

Figure 10.6 Pork

Figure 10.6 Pork

BLADE BOSTON CLEAR PLATE

SHOULDER FAT BACK

LEG (FRESH OR SMOKED HAM)

BLADE BOSTON CLEAR PLATE

SHOULDER FAT BACK

LEG (FRESH OR SMOKED HAM)

PICNIC SHOULDER

SPARERIBS BACON (SIDE PORK)

Figure 10.6 (a) Primal (wholesale) pork meat cuts Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board

PICNIC SHOULDER

SPARERIBS BACON (SIDE PORK)

Figure 10.6 (b) Primal (wholesale) pork cuts and their bone structure

Courtesy National Livestock and Meat Board

Full pork loin (includes ribs)

Pork loin chops

Pork rib half and loin half roasts

Full pork loin (includes ribs)

Pork loin chops

Pork rib half and loin half roasts

FABRICATED CUTS

Primal cuts are fabricated into smaller cuts for roasts, steaks, chops, cutlets, stewing meat, ground meat, and so forth, according to individual customer requirements and, if applicable, IMPS/NAMPS specifications.

The amount of trim and exact specifications can have many variations. For example, a beef primal rib can be trimmed and prepared for roasting at least nine ways.

Portion-controlled cuts are ready-to-cook meats cut according to customer's specifications. Steaks and chops are ordered either by weight per steak or by thickness. Portion-controlled cuts require the least work for the cook of all meat cuts.They are also the most expensive per pound of all categories of cuts.

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