1. Clean up spills immediately.
2. Throw salt on a slippery spot to make it less slippery while a mop is being fetched.
3. Keep aisles and stairs clear and unobstructed.
4. Don't carry objects too big to see over.
6. Use a safe ladder,not chairs or piles of boxes, to reach high shelves or to clean high equipment.
PREVENTING STRAINS AND INJURIES FROM LIFTING
1. Lift with the leg muscles,not the back.Figure 2.3 shows proper lifting technique.
2. Don't turn or twist your back while lifting, and make sure your footing is secure.
3. Use a cart to move heavy objects long distances, or get help.
Proper lifting technique.
Proper lifting technique.
(a) Squat on one knee, then lift (b) Do not bend over and lift with the leg muscles. with the back.
■ TERMS FOR REVIEW
sanitation contaminated hazard microorganism pathogen bacteria intoxication infection
Food Danger Zone aerobic anaerobic facultative lag phase potentially hazardous food sanitize botulism staph salmonella E. coli parasite trichinosis allergen physical contamination cross-contamination four-hour rule
Minimum Safe Internal
Temperature two-stage cooling method one-stage cooling method HACCP flow of food critical control point Class A, B, and C fires
■ QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
1. True or false: Holding food in a steam table above 135°F (57°C) kills disease-causing bacteria and eliminates the problem of food poisoning. Explain your answer.
2. True or false: Canning foods eliminates air so disease-causing bacteria can't grow. Explain your answer.
3. Which of the following foods can become contaminated by disease-causing organisms?
Chocolate éclairs Dinner rolls
Potato salad Roast beef Lettuce
Shrimp cocktail After-dinner mints Saltine crackers Rice pudding
4. How often should you wash your hands when working on food?
5. Why is temperature control one of the most effective weapons against bacterial growth? What are some important temperatures to remember?
6. What is the importance of cleaning and sanitizing equipment and cutting boards immediately after working on raw poultry?
7. You are making egg salad, and you have just cooked the eggs.What step do you take before chopping the eggs and mixing them with the other ingredients? Why?
8. Is it possible for a dish to be clean but not sanitized? Sanitized but not clean?
9. Explain the concepts of hazards and critical control points. Give at least three examples of each.
10. What are the three general categories of potentially hazardous foods? Give examples of each category. Give examples of foods that are not potentially hazardous.
11. True or false:The lower limit of the Food Danger Zone is the proper refrigeration temperature for perishable foods. Discuss.
12. What are the seven steps of HACCP?
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