Manual Dishwashing

Figure 2.2 shows the setup of a three-compartment sink for washing dishes,glassware, and eating utensils by hand.

Procedure for Manual Dishwashing


Scrape and rinse.

The purpose of this step is to keep the wash water cleaner longer.



Use warm water at 110°F to 120°F (43°C to 49°C) and a good detergent. Scrub well with a brush to remove all traces of soil and grease.



Use clean, warm water to rinse off detergent. Change the water frequently, or use running water with an overflow, as in Figure 2.2.



Place utensils in a rack and immerse in hot water at 171°F (77°C) for 30 seconds. (A gas or electric heating element is needed to hold

water at this temperature.)


Drain and air dry.

Do not towel dry. This may recontaminate utensils. Do not touch food contact surfaces of sanitized dishes, glasses, and silverware.

Guidelines for Cooling Foods_

1. Never put hot foods directly into the cooler. Not only will they cool too slowly but also they will raise the temperature of other foods in the cooler.

2. If they are available, use quick-chill units or blast chillers to cool foods quickly before transferring them to cold storage.

3. Use ice-water baths to bring down temperatures of hot foods quickly.

4. Stir foods as they are cooling to redistribute the heat and help them cool more quickly.

5. Divide large batches into smaller batches. This increases the amount of surface area for the volume of food and helps it cool more quickly. Pouring foods into flat, shallow pans also increases surface area and cooling speed.

Figure 2.2

Setup of three-compartment sink for manual

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