Professional Cooking Glossary

Note: Phonetic guides are included for difficult French words, giving the approximate pronunciation using English sounds. Exact rendering is impossible in many cases because French has a number of sounds that don't exist in English.

Aboyeur (ah bwah yer) Kitchen worker who accepts and transmits orders from waiters, calls for orders to be finished,inspects finished dishes, and passes them to the dining room staff.

Adductor Muscle The muscle with which a mollusk closes its shell. In the case of American and Canadian scallops, this is usually the only part that is eaten.

Aerobic Requiring oxygen to live and grow; said of bacteria.

Aging Holding meats in coolers under controlled conditions to allow natural tenderizing to take place.

A la Carte (1) Referring to a menu on which each individual item is listed with a separate price. (2) Referring to cooking to order, as opposed to cooking ahead in large batches.

Al Dente Firm, not soft or mushy, to the bite. Said of vegetables and pasta.

Allemande (1) German style. (2) A sauce made of velouté (usually veal), a liaison, and lemon juice.

Allumette Cut into matchstick shapes;usually refers to potatoes.

Americano Espresso diluted with hot water.

Anadromous Referring to fish that live in salt water but spawn in fresh water.

Anaerobic Requiring an absence of oxygen to live and grow; said of bacteria.

Anthocyanins Red or purple pigments in vegetables and fruits.

Antipasto Italian hors d'oeuvre.

AP Weight As purchased; the weight of an item before trimming.

Arborio Rice A variety of short-grain rice from Italy.

Argenteuil (ar zhawn toy) Garnished with asparagus.

Artisan(al) Cheese A cheese produced primarily by hand, in small batches, with particular attention to the tradition of the cheese-maker's art and using as little mechanization as possible.

Aspic Jelly A clarified stock that contains enough gelatin to solidify when cold.

Aspic Powder Unflavored gelatin mixed with a powdered stock base.

AS Weight As served; the weight of an item as sold or served, after processing and/or cooking.

Au Gratin (oh gra tan) Having a browned or crusted top, often made by topping with bread crumbs, cheese, and/or a rich sauce and passing under the broiler or salamander.

Au Jus (oh zhoo) Served with its natural juices, usually unthickened pan drippings.

Au Sec (oh seck) Until dry.

Avgolemono Greek soup made of chicken stock, egg, and lemon juice.

Bacteria Microscopic organisms, some of which can cause disease,in-cluding food-borne disease.

Bain-Marie A container of hot water used for keeping foods hot.

Bake To cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air. Similar to roast, but the term bake usually applies to breads, pastries, vegetables, and fish.

Baked Alaska A dessert consisting of ice cream on a sponge cake base, covered with meringue and browned in the oven.

Barbecue To cook with dry heat created by the burning of hardwood or by the hot coals of this wood.

Bard To tie thin slices of fat, such as pork fatback, over meats with no natural fat cover to protect them while roasting.

Basic Grind Referring to sausages made simply by grinding meats to various stages of coarseness or fineness.

Basmati Rice A variety of long-grain rice from India.

Batonnet Cut into sticks,about x /4 x 2/3-3 inches (6 mm x 6 mm x 6-7.5 cm).

Batter Semiliquid mixture containing flour or other starch, used for the production of such products as cakes and breads and for coating products to be deep-fried.

Bavarian Cream A dessert made of custard sauce, gelatin, and whipped cream.

Bean Curd see Tofu.

Bean Paste see Miso.

Béarnaise (bare nez) A sauce made of butter and egg yolks and flavored with a reduction of vinegar, shallots, tarragon, and peppercorns.

Béchamel A sauce made by thickening milk with a roux.

Beignet Fritter.

Beurre Manié (burr mahn yay) A mixture of equal parts raw butter and flour mixed together into a smooth paste.

Beurre Noir (burr nwahr) Butter heated until it is dark brown, then flavored with vinegar.

Beurre Noisette (burr nwah zett) Whole butter heated until it is light brown.

Bisque A cream soup made from shellfish.

Bivalve A mollusk with a pair of hinged shells, such as clam and oyster.

Blanch To cook an item partially and briefly in boiling water or in hot fat. Usually a pre-preparation technique, as to loosen peels from vegetables, fruits, and nuts, to partially cook French fries or other foods before service, to prepare for freezing, or to remove undesirable flavors.

Blancmange (1) An English pudding thickened with cornstarch. (2) A French almond-flavored pudding containing gelatin and milk.

Blanquette A white stew made of white meat or poultry simmered without preliminary browning and served with a white sauce.

Boar Wild pig, or the meat from this animal.

Boeuf à la Mode A classic French dish of braised beef.

Boil To cook in water or other liquid that is bubbling rapidly, about 212°F (100°C) at sea level and at normal pressure.

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Bombe A molded ice cream or sherbet dessert.

Bordelaise A brown sauce flavored with a reduction of red wine, shal-lots,pepper, and herbs and garnished with marrow.

Botulism A deadly food-borne intoxication usually associated with improperly canned foods.

Bouquet Garni A combination of fresh herbs tied together, used for flavoring.

Bouquetière (book tyair) Garnished with an assortment or bouquet of fresh vegetables, such as artichokes, carrots, turnips, green beans, peas, cauliflower, and potatoes.

Braise (1) To cook covered in a small amount of liquid, usually after preliminary browning. (2) To cook (certain vegetables) slowly in a small amount of liquid without preliminary browning.

Breve (bray vay) A mixture of espresso and steamed half-and-half.

Brine Cure A curing method in which the food is immersed in a solution (brine) made of the curing ingredients dissolved in water.

Brioche Rich yeast dough containing large amounts of eggs and butter, or the product made from this dough.

Broil To cook with radiant heat from above.

Broth A flavorful liquid obtained from the simmering of meats and/or vegetables.

Brunoise (broon wahz) (1) Cut into very small (!8 inch/3 mm) dice. (2) Garnished with vegetables cut in this manner.

Bruschetta (broo sket ta) A slice of toasted Italian bread served as an appetizer, usually rubbed with garlic and moistened with olive oil, often served with additional toppings.

Bulgur A type of cracked wheat that has been partially cooked.

Buttercream An icing made of butter and/or shortening blended with confectioners' sugar or sugar syrup and, sometimes, other ingredients.

Butterflied Cut partially through and spread open to increase the surface area.

Calamari Italian for "squid"(plural).

Calorie The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg water by 1°C. Used as a measure of food energy. More correctly called a kilocalorie.

Canapé (can ah pay) Tiny open-faced sandwich, served as an hors d'oeuvre.

Capon A castrated male chicken.

Cappuccino Mixture of equal parts espresso and frothy, steamed milk.

Caramelization The browning of sugars caused by heat.

Carbohydrates Any of a group of compounds,including starches and sugars, that supply energy to the body.

Carême, Marie-Antoine Famous nineteenth-century French chef, often considered the founder of classical cuisine.

Carotenoids Yellow or orange pigments in vegetables and fruits.

Carpaccio Very thin slices of meat or fish, served raw.

Carry-over Cooking The rise in temperature inside roast meat after it is removed from the oven.

Catadromous Referring to fish that live in fresh water but spawn in the ocean.

Caul A fatty membrane that covers the stomach of a pig; used for wrapping meats for cooking and for lining terrines.

Caviar (1) The salted roe or eggs of sturgeon. (2) The salted roe of another fish, such as salmon or whitefish,if that fish is designated in the name, e.g. whitefish caviar.

Celsius Scale The metric system of temperature measurement, with 0°C set at the freezing point of water and 100°C set at the boiling point of water.

Centi- Prefix in the metric system meaning "'one-hundredth."

Cephalopod A member of the class of mollusks that includes octopus and squid.

Certified Pork Pork that is guaranteed or certified to be free of trichinosis.

Chai A sweetened blend of spiced milk and tea.

Charcuterie (shar koo tree) The art of preparing fresh and cured pork products,including sausages and pâtés.

Charcutier (shar koo tyay) One who prepares and sells pork prod-ucts,including sausages and pâtés.

Chasseur (sha sur) "Hunter style," usually referring to items served with a brown sauce containing mushrooms, tomato, and white wine.

Chaud-Froid An opaque sauce containing gelatin,used to coat certain cold foods.

Chef The person in charge of a kitchen or of a department of a kitchen.

Chèvre A cheese made from goat's milk.

Chiffon (1) A light, fluffy dessert or pie filling containing gelatin and beaten egg whites. (2) A type of cake made with an egg-white foam and with oil as a shortening.

Chiffonade Cut into fine shreds; usually said of leafy vegetables and herbs.

China Cap A cone-shaped strainer.

Chitterlings Pork intestines.

Chlorophyll Green pigment in vegetables and fruits.

Cholesterol A fatty substance found in foods derived from animal products and in the human body;it has been linked to heart disease.

Chop To cut into irregularly shaped pieces.

Choucroute (shoo kroot) Sauerkraut.

Choucroute Garni Sauerkraut cooked with sausage, pork, and, some-times,poultry products. A specialty ofAlsace,France.

Chowder A hearty American soup made from fish, shellfish, and/or veg-etables,usually containing milk and potatoes.

Chutney Any of several types of spicy condiments or relishes.

Cilantro The fresh coriander plant,used as an herb.

Clamart Garnished with or containing peas.

Clarified Butter Purified butterfat, with water and milk solids removed.

Clearmeat A mixture of ground meat, egg whites, and flavoring ingre-dients,used to clarify consommés.

Club Sandwich A sandwich consisting of three slices of toast and filled with such ingredients as sliced chicken or turkey, lettuce, tomato, and bacon.

Coagulation The process by which proteins become firm, usually when heated.

Cocktail A type of appetizer generally made of seafood or fruit and often served with a tart or tangy sauce.

Cold Smoking A smoking method in which the foods are smoked at a low temperature,usually at or below 85°F (30°C),so that the food is not cooked during the smoking.

Collagen A type of connective tissue in meats that dissolves when cooked with moisture.

Collagen Casing An edible artificial sausage casing molded from animal materials.

Combi (Combination) Oven An oven that can operate in conventional, convection, and steamer modes.

Complementary Protein Protein supplied by foods that, if eaten together, supply all the amino acids necessary in the human diet.

Complete Protein A protein that supplies all the amino acids necessary in the human diet.

Compound Butter A mixture of raw butter and various flavoring ingredients.

Concasser To chop coarsely.

Conduction The transfer of heat from one item to something touching it or a cooler part of the first item.

Consommé A rich, flavorful seasoned stock or broth that has been clarified to make it perfectly clear and transparent.

Convection The transfer of heat by the movement of a liquid or gas.

Convection Oven An oven in which hot air is circulated by a fan.

Convenience Food Any food product that has been partially or completely prepared or processed by the manufacturer.

Coq au Vin (coke oh van) A French dish of chicken braised in wine.

Coral The roe or eggs of certain shellfish.

Coulis A vegetable or fruit purée, used as a sauce.

Coupe A dessert consisting of one or two scoops of ice cream or sherbet in a dish or glass, topped with syrups, fruits, toppings, and/or gar-nishes;a sundae.

Course A food or group of foods served at one time or intended to be eaten at the same time.

Court Bouillon (koor bwee yohn) Water containing seasonings, herbs, and, usually, an acid; used for cooking fish.

Couscous A type of granular pasta from North Africa, cooked like a grain.

Cream Soup A soup thickened with roux or another thickening agent and containing milk and/or cream.

Crècy (kray see) Garnished with or containing carrots.

Crème Anglaise (krem awng lezz) A light vanilla-flavored custard sauce made of milk, sugar, and egg yolks.

Crème Fraîche A thick, slightly aged heavy cream.

Crépinette A sausage patty wrapped in caul.

Critical Control Point (CCP) An action that can be taken to eliminate or minimize a food safety hazard.

Croissant A crescent-shaped roll made from a rich, rolled-in yeast dough.

Croquette (crow kett) Food that has been puréed or bound with a thick sauce,made into small shapes, breaded, and fried.

Cross-contamination The transfer of bacteria to food from another food or from equipment or work surfaces.

Crudité (croo dee tay) A raw vegetable served as a relish.

Crustacean A sea animal with a segmented shell and jointed legs, such as lobster and shrimp.

Curing Salt See Prague Powder #1.

Custard A liquid that is thickened or set firm by the coagulation of egg protein.

Cuttlefish A cephalopod similar to squid, but with a chalky interior bone and a squatter body shape.

Cycle Menu A menu that changes every day for a certain period, then repeats the same daily items in the same order.

Danish A rich, sweet, flaky yeast dough containing layers of rolled-in fat.

Deci- Prefix in the metric system meaning "one-tenth."

Deep-fry To cook submerged in hot fat.

Deglaze To swirl a liquid in a sauté pan or other pan to dissolve cooked particles or food remaining on the bottom.

Demi-glace A rich brown sauce that has been reduced by half.

Demitasse Literally,"half-cup." Strong, black coffee served in small cups after dinner.

Denature To change the structure of protein molecules by heat or by chemical means.

Doria Garnished with cucumbers cooked in butter.

Drawn With entrails removed.

Dressed (1) Poultry market form: killed, bled, and plucked. (2) Fish market form: viscera, scales, head, tail, and fins removed.

Drop Batter A batter that is too thick to pour but that drops from a spoon in lumps.

Dry Cure A curing method in which the curing ingredients are packed or rubbed over the food.

Dry-heat Cooking Method A method in which heat is conducted to foods without the use of moisture.

Dubarry Garnished with or containing cauliflower.

Duchesse Potatoes (doo shess) Potato purée mixed with butter and egg yolks.

Dumpling Any of a variety of small starch products made from soft dough or batter and cooked by simmering or steaming.

Duxelles A coarse paste or hash made of finely chopped mushrooms sautéed with shallots.

Elastin A type of connective tissue in meats that does not dissolve when cooked.

Emincer (em an say) To cut into very thin slices.

Empty Calorie Food A food that supplies few nutrients per calorie.

Emulsified Grind Referring to sausages made by processing the meat and fat to a purée, usually with the addition of water or another liquid.

Emulsion A uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids.

Entremetier (awn truh met yay) The cook who prepares vegetables, starches, soups, and eggs.

Epazote (ep ah so tay) A pungent herb,used in Mexican cooking.

EP Weight Edible portion; the weight of an item after all trimming and preparation is done.

Escoffier, Georges Auguste Great chef of the early twentieth century and the father of modern cookery.

Essential Fatty Acid A fatty acid that must be consumed in the diet because it can't be made by the body.

Espagnole A sauce made of brown stock and flavoring ingredients and thickened with a brown roux.

Espresso, Expresso Strong, dark coffee made from beans roasted until almost black, ground very fine, and brewed under steam pressure.

Étuver (ay too vay) To cook or steam an item in its own juices; to sweat.

Executive Chef The manager of a large kitchen or food production department.

Extended Meal Service Service of a meal at which customers eat at different times.

Expediter Kitchen worker who accepts and transmits orders from waiters, calls for orders to be finished, inspects finished dishes, and passes them to the dining room staff.

Facultative Able to live and grow with or without the presence of oxygen; said of bacteria.

Farmstead Cheese Cheese made entirely with milk from a farmer's own herd or flock, and made on the farm where the animals are raised.

Farro A grain that is the ancestor of modern wheat.

Fermentation The process by which yeast acts on carbohydrates to change them into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.

Fermière (fair myair) Garnished with carrots,turnips,onions,and celery cut into uniform slices.

Fettuccine Flat egg noodles.

Fiber A group of indigestible carbohydrates found in grains,fruits, and vegetables.

Fillet, Filet (1) Meat: Boneless tenderloin. (2) Fish: Boneless side of fish.

Flavones White pigments in vegetables and fruits.

Flavor Profile The combination of flavors and aromas that make up the total taste impression of a dish.

Florentine Garnished with or containing spinach.

Flow of Food The path that food travels in a food service operation from receiving to serving.

Foie Gras (fwah grah) Liver of specially fattened geese and ducks.

Fondant A smooth, creamy white icing or candy consisting of very finely crystallized sugar syrup.

Fond Lié A sauce made by thickening brown stock with cornstarch or a similar starch.

Fondue, Swiss A dish consisting of melted Gruyère and Emmenthaler cheeses and white wine into which cubes of bread are dipped and eaten. From the French word meaning "melted."

Food Danger Zone The temperature range of 41° to 135°F (5° to 57°C),in which bacteria grow rapidly.

Forcemeat A seasoned mixture of ground meats and other foods, used as a filling or stuffing or as a base for terrines and pâtés.

Forestière Garnished with mushrooms.

Four-hour Rule The sanitary practice of permitting foods to remain in the food danger zone for a cumulative total of no more than four hours between receiving and serving.

Free-range Referring to animals, usually poultry, that are allowed to move relatively freely outdoors as they are raised for market.

French Dressing Salad dressing made of oil, vinegar, and seasonings.

French-style Ice Cream Ice cream containing egg yolks.

Fricassée A white stew in which the meat is cooked in fat without browning before liquid is added.

Frisée A variety of curly endive or chicory that is more tender and lighter in color than curly endive.

Frittata A flat,unfolded omelet.

Fry To cook in hot fat.

Fumet (foo may) A flavorful stock, usually fish stock.

Galantine A forcemeat wrapped in the skin of the animal from which it is made, such as a chicken or duck, or rolled into a cylinder without the skin.

Game Meat from animals and birds normally found in the wild; many game animals are now farm-raised.

Garde Manger (gard mawn zhay) (1) The cook in charge of cold food production, including salads and buffet items. (2) The department of a kitchen in which these foods are prepared.

Garni Garnished. Having had garnish added to it.

Garnish (1) Decorative edible item used to ornament or enhance the eye appeal of another food item. (2) To add such a decorative item to food.

Garniture (1) Garnish. (2) The act or process of garnishing.

Gastrique A mixture of caramelized sugar and vinegar, used to flavor sauces.

Gazpacho A cold Spanish soup made of puréed raw vegetables.

Gelatinization The process by which starch granules absorb water and swell in size.

Gelée Aspic jelly.

Genoise (zhen wahz) A French sponge cake.

Glace de Viande (glahss duh vee awnd) Meat glaze; a reduction of brown stock.

Glaze (1) A stock that is reduced until it coats the back of a spoon. (2) A shiny coating, such as a syrup, applied to a food. (3) To make a food shiny or glossy by coating it with a glaze or by browning it under a broiler or in a hot oven.

Gluten A substance made of proteins present in wheat flour that gives structure and strength to baked goods.

Glutinous Rice A type of short-grain rice that becomes sticky and chewy when cooked.

Goulash A Hungarian stew flavored with paprika.

Gram The basic unit of weight in the metric system; equal to about one-thirtieth of an ounce.

Granité (grah nee tay) A coarse, crystalline frozen dessert made of water, sugar, and fruit juice or other flavoring.

Gras Double (grah doo bl') A type of beef tripe that is smooth rather than honeycombed.

Green Meat Meat that has not had enough time after slaughter to develop tenderness and flavor.

Griddle To cook on a flat, solid cooking surface called a griddle.

Grill To cook on an open grid over a heat source.

Grillardin (gree ar dan) Broiler cook.

Gross Pièce (gross pyess) Centerpiece of a buffet platter.

Guinea A domestically raised relative of the pheasant.

HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point; a food safety system of self-inspection designed to highlight hazardous foods and to control food handling to avoid hazards.

Hare A game animal similar to rabbit, with dark red, lean meat.

Hash (1) To chop.(2) A dish made of chopped foods.

Hazard A potentially dangerous food condition due to contamination, growth of pathogens, survival of pathogens, or presence of toxins.

Herbs The leaves of certain plants, used in flavoring.

Hollandaise A sauce made of butter, egg yolks, and flavorings (especially lemon juice).

Hominy Corn that has been treated with lye.

Homogenized Milk Milk that has been processed so the cream doesn't separate out.

Hongroise (ong grwahz) Hungarian style.

Hot Smoking A smoking method in which the foods are smoked at a temperature high enough to cook or partially cook them.

Hygroscopic Readily absorbing moisture.

Induction Cooktop A type of cooktop that works by using magnetic energy to make pots hot without getting hot itself.

Infection Disease,including much food-borne disease, caused by bacteria in the body.

Intoxication Disease caused by poisons that bacteria produce while they are growing in food.

Jardinière (zhar din yair) Garnished with fresh garden vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, green beans, peas, and cauliflower.

Jasmine Rice A type of aromatic rice from Southeast Asia.

Judic Garnished with braised lettuce.

Julienne (1) Cut into small, thin strips, about /é x x 2^2 inches (3 mm x 3 mm x 6.5 cm).(2) Garnished with foods cut in this manner.

Jus (zhoo) Unthickened juices from a roast.

Jus Lié Thickened juices from a roast.

Kasha Whole buckwheat groats.

Ketone Body A toxic compound that can form in the blood if fats are burned with no carbohydrates present.

Ketosis A condition in which the blood becomes unable to carry oxygen; sometimes the result of consuming insufficient carbohydrates.

Kilo- Prefix in the metric system meaning "one thousand."

Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Referring to a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products and eggs.

Lacto-vegetarian Referring to a vegetarian diet that includes milk and other dairy products.

Lard (1) The rendered fat of hogs. (2) To insert strips of fat into meats low in marbling.

Lasagne Broad, flat egg noodles, or a baked, layered casserole made with these noodles.

Latte Short for caffe latte.A mixture of one part espresso and two or more parts steamed milk.

Leading Sauce A basic sauce used in the production of other sauces. The five leading hot sauces are béchamel, velouté, espagnole, tomato, and hollandaise. Mayonnaise and vinaigrette are often considered leading cold sauces.

Leavening The production or incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to produce shape and texture.

Lemon Grass A tropical grass with the aroma of lemon, used for flavoring.

Liaison A binding agent, usually made of cream and egg yolks, used to thicken sauces and soups.

Lipid Any of a group of compounds that includes fats and cholesterol.

Liter The basic unit of volume in the metric system; equal to slightly more than 1 quart.

London Broil Flank steak or other cut of beef broiled rare and cut in thin slices.

Lyonnaise (lee oh nez) Containing or garnished with onions.

Macaroni Noodle product made of flour and water and dried.

Macchiato (mah kee ah toe) Espresso topped with a little frothed milk.

Mâche A small, tender leafy green with a delicate taste.

Magret The boneless breast of the moulard duck.

Maître d'Hôtel Butter (may truh doh tell) Compound butter containing parsley and lemon juice.

Marbling The fat deposited within muscle tissue.

Marinate To soak a food in a seasoned liquid.

Marsala A flavorful sweet to semidry wine from Sicily.

Mayonnaise A semisolid cold sauce or dressing consisting of oil and vinegar emulsified with egg yolks.

Mayonnaise Chaud-Froid A mixture of aspic jelly and mayonnaise, used like regular chaud-froid.

Meringue A foam made of beaten egg whites and sugar.

Meringue Glacée Baked meringue shells served with ice cream.

Mesclun A mixture of tender baby lettuces.

Meter The basic unit of length in the metric system; slightly longer than 1 yard.

Meunière Referring to fish prepared by dredging in flour and sautéing, served with brown butter, lemon juice, and parsley.

Microwave Radiation generated in special ovens and used to cook or heat foods.

Milli- Prefix in the metric system meaning "one-thousandth."

Mince To chop into very fine pieces.

Minestrone Italian vegetable soup.

Minimum Safe Internal Temperature The lowest temperature to which a food item must be heated and at which it must be held for a given time in order to be considered safe.

Mirepoix (meer pwah) A mixture of rough-cut or diced vegetables, herbs, and spices, used for flavoring.

Mise en Place (meez on plahss) French term meaning "everything in place." The setup for food production. All the preparations and organization that must be made before actual production can begin.

Miso A paste made of fermented soybeans, sometimes with the addition of other grains. Also called Bean Paste.

Mocha (moh kah) (1) A variety of Arabian coffee. (2) A mixture of espresso and hot chocolate or cocoa. (2) A flavoring made of coffee and chocolate.

Moist-heat Cooking Methods Methods in which heat is conducted to foods by water or other liquid or by steam.

Mollusk A soft-bodied sea animal, usually inside a pair of hinged shells, such as clam and oyster.

Monter au Beurre (mohn tay oh burr) To finish a sauce or soup by swirling in raw butter until it is melted.

Mornay A sauce made of béchamel and Gruyère cheese.

Moulard A breed of duck with a thick,meaty breast, raised for its large, fatty liver.

Mousse A soft, creamy food, either sweet or savory, made light by the addition of whipped cream, beaten egg whites, or both.

Mousseline Forcemeat A forcemeat made of puréed fish, poultry, or meat, heavy cream, and, usually, egg whites.

Mozzarella A mild unripened cheese, used in pizzas and many other Italian-style dishes.

Natural Casing A sausage casing made from the intestines of meat animals.

Navarin A brown lamb stew.

New England Boiled Dinner A dish consisting of simmered corned beef and simmered vegetables, served together.

Niçoise (nee swahz) (1) Prepared in the style of Nice,France.(2) Garnished with or containing tomato concassé cooked with garlic.

Nitrosamine A cancer-causing compound formed when meats containing sodium nitrate are subjected to high heat.

Nouvelle Cuisine A modern style of cooking that emphasizes lightness of sauces and seasonings, shortened cooking times, and new and sometimes startling combinations of foods.

Nutrient density The amount of nutrients per calorie in a food.

Offal Variety meats.

Oolong A greenish-brown,partially fermented tea.

Organic Grown or raised without chemical growth enhancers or medications or, for plants, without artificial fertilizers or pesticides.

Oven Spring The rapid rise of yeast goods in the oven due to production and expansion of trapped gases as a result of the oven heat.

Overrun The increase in volume of ice cream or frozen desserts due to the incorporation of air while freezing.

Pan Gravy A type of sauce made with the pan drippings of the meat or poultry it is served with.

Pan-Broil To cook uncovered in a sauté pan or skillet without fat.

Pan-Fry To cook in a moderate amount of fat in an uncovered pan.

Panino (1) Originally, a small Italian sandwich made with a dinner roll. (2) A grilled sandwich usually made in a device that grills both sides at once and compresses the sandwich.

Panko Coarse, Japanese-style breadcrumbs.

(en) Papillote (on poppy yote) Wrapped in paper or foil for cooking so that the food is steamed in its own moisture.

Parboil To cook partially in a boiling or simmering liquid.

Parcook To partially cook by any method.

Parfait A dessert consisting of alternating layers of ice cream and fruit or syrup in a tall,narrow glass.

Parmentier (par mawn tyay) Garnished with or containing potatoes.

Par Stock The inventory of goods that an operation must have on hand to continue operating between deliveries.

Pasta General term for any shape of macaroni product or egg noodles.

Pasteurized Heat-treated to kill bacteria that might cause disease or spoilage.

Pastry Cream A thick custard sauce containing eggs and starch.

Pâte A dish made of a baked forcemeat, usually in a crust.

Pâte à Choux (pot a shoo) A soft dough used for making éclairs and cream puffs. Also called éclair paste.

Pâte à Pâté Dough or pastry used to make a crust for pâté.

Pâté de Campagne A pâté or terrine characterized by a coarse texture.

Pathogen A bacteria that causes disease.

Pâtissier (pa tees syay) Pastry cook.

Peach Melba A sundae consisting of vanilla ice cream, a peach half, and Melba (raspberry) sauce.

Persillade (pear see yahd) A mixture of bread crumbs, parsley, and garlic,used to coat roast meat items,usually lamb.

Pesco-vegetarian Referring to a vegetarian diet that includes fish.

Philadelphia-style Ice Cream Ice cream containing no eggs.

Pigment Any substance that gives color to an item.

Pilaf Rice or other grain product that is first cooked in fat, then simmered in a stock or other liquid, usually with onions, seasonings, or other ingredients.

Pizza A thin sheet of lean bread dough baked with a topping.

Poach To cook gently in water or another liquid that is hot but not actually bubbling, about 160° to 180°F (71° to 82°C).

Poissonier (pwah so nyay) Fish cook.

Polenta Italian-style cornmeal.

Portion Control The measurement of portions to ensure that the correct amount of an item is served.

Potentially Hazardous Food A food that provides a good environment for the growth of hazardous bacteria.

Pot Roast A large cut of meat cooked by braising.

Poulette Allemande sauce flavored with mushrooms, parsley, and lemon juice.

Pour Batter A batter that is liquid enough to pour.

Poussin A young chicken weighing 1 pound (500 g) or less.

Pozole Whole-grain hominy.

Prague Powder #1 A blend of 6 percent sodium nitrite and 94 percent sodium chloride (table salt), used to cure meats; also called curing salt and tinted curing mix.

Prague Powder #2 A curing mixture similar to Prague Powder #1 but containing sodium nitrate in addition to sodium nitrite.

Primal Cut One of the primary divisions of meat quarters,foresaddles, hindsaddles, and carcasses as they are broken down into smaller cuts.

Primary Flavor The basic flavor of a main ingredient of a dish; one of the components of a flavor profile.

Primeur (pree mur) Garnished with fresh spring vegetables such as carrots, turnips, green beans, peas, cauliflower, and small potatoes.

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Princesse Garnished with asparagus.

Printanière (pran tawn yair) Garnished with fresh spring vegetables such as carrots, turnips, pearl onions, peas, green beans, and asparagus.

Prix Fixe (pree fix) French term meaning "fixed price";referring to a menu offering a complete meal, with a choice of courses, for one given price.

Process Cheese A product made by grinding and melting one or more cheeses, blending them with other ingredients, and pouring the mixture into molds to solidify.

Profiterole A tiny round pastry made from éclair paste; filled with savory fillings and served as an hors d'oeuvre, or filled with ice cream and served as a dessert.

Provençale (pro vawn sal) Garnished with or containing tomatoes, garlic, parsley, and, sometimes, mushrooms and olives.

Puff Pastry A light, flaky pastry made from a rolled-in dough and leavened by steam.

Pullman Loaf A long, rectangular loaf of bread.

Pumpernickel (1) Coarsely ground rye flour. (2) Bread made with this flour.

Purée (1) A food product that has been mashed or strained to a smooth pulp. (2) To make such a pulp by mashing or straining a food.

Quail A small game bird, now domestically raised, usually weighing 6 ounces (175 g) or less.

Quatre Épices A spice mixture commonly used to season sausages and forcemeats; French for "four spices."

Quiche A savory tart or pie consisting of a custard baked in a pastry shell.

Quick Bread A bread leavened by chemical leaveners or steam rather than yeast.

Radiation The transfer of energy by waves, such as infrared or light waves.

Raft The coagulated clearmeat that forms when stock is clarified.

Ratatouille (ra ta twee) A Southern French vegetable stew of onions, tomatoes, zucchini, eggplant, and green bell peppers.

Ravier (rahv yay) Oval relish dish.

Ravioli Dumplings consisting of filled egg noodles.

Recipe A set of instructions for producing a certain dish.

Reduce To cook by simmering or boiling until quantity is decreased; often done to concentrate flavors.

Reduction (1) A liquid concentrated by cooking it to evaporate part of the water. (2) The process of making such a liquid.

Relish (1) A type of appetizer consisting of raw or pickled vegetables. (2) A mixture of chopped vegetables and sometimes fruits, at least one of which has been pickled in vinegar or a salt solution.

Ricotta An Italian-style cheese similar to cottage cheese but smoother, moister, and sweeter in flavor.

Rillettes (ree yet) A seasoned mixture of meat, such as pork, and fat, mashed to a paste; served as an appetizer.

Risotto A moist Italian dish of rice cooked in butter and stock.

Rissolé (riss oh lay) Browned.Often referring to potatoes cut in small shapes, parboiled, and browned in hot fat.

Roast To cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air, in an oven or on a spit over an open fire.

Roe Fish eggs.

Roesti Potatoes Boiled potatoes that are grated, formed into small cakes, and pan-fried until crisp.

Rolled-In Dough Dough in which a fat is incorporated into the dough in many layers by means of a rolling and folding procedure.

Roquefort A blue-veined cheese made in Roquefort, France, from sheep's milk.

Rotisserie An item of cooking equipment that slowly rotates meat or other foods in front of a heating element.

Rôtisseur (ro tee sur) Cook who prepares roasted, braised, and broiled meats.

Rough Prep The preliminary processing of ingredients to the point at which they can be used in cooking.

Roux A cooked mixture of equal parts flour and fat.

Royal Icing An icing made of confectioners' sugar and egg whites, used for decorating.

Russet Starchy potato often used for baking and deep-frying.

Rye Blend A mixture of rye flour and hard wheat flour.

Sachet (sa shay) A mixture of herbs and spices tied in a cheesecloth bag.

Salamander Small broiler used primarily for browning or glazing the tops of certain items.

Salmonella A widespread food-borne disease, spread by improper food handling and inadequate sanitation.

Sanitize To kill disease-causing bacteria, usually by heat or by chemical disinfectants.

Saturated Fat A fat that is normally solid at room temperature.

Sauce A flavorful liquid, usually thickened, used to season, flavor, and enhance other foods.

Saucier (so see ay) Sauce cook; prepares sauces and stews and sautés foods to order.

Sauerbraten A German dish consisting of beef marinated in and then cooked with vinegar and other ingredients.

Sausage A mixture of ground meat, usually pork, and seasonings, usually stuffed into casings.

Sausage, Cured A sausage that contains nitrites or nitrates.

Sausage, Fresh A sausage that contains no nitrites or nitrates.

Sauté To cook quickly in a small amount of fat.

Scampi A kind of shellfish similar to large shrimp. In the United States, the term is often used for large shrimp, especially if broiled with garlic butter.

Sear To brown the surface of a food quickly at high temperature.

Semolina A hard, high-protein flour often used for the best quality macaroni products.

Set Meal Service Service of a meal at which all the customers eat at one time.

Shirred Egg Egg baked in a shallow, buttered dish.

Short Having a high fat content, which makes the product (such as a cookie or pastry) crumbly and tender.

Shortening (1) Any fat used in baking to tenderize the product by shortening gluten strands. (2) A white, tasteless, solid fat formulated for baking or deep-frying.

Shred To cut into thin but irregular strips, either with the coarse blade of a grater or with a knife.

Sieve Size Size of individual pieces,usually of canned vegetables.

Simmer To cook in water or other liquid that is bubbling gently, about 185° to 200°F (85° to 93°C).

Sirniki Russian pan-fried cheesecakes.

Slurry A mixture of raw starch and cold liquid, used for thickening.

Small Sauce A sauce made by adding one or more ingredients to a leading sauce.

Smoke-Roast To cook with dry heat in the presence of wood smoke.

Sodium Nitrate A compound, NaNO^, used to cure meats.

Sodium Nitrite A compound, NaNO2, used to cure certain meats, especially air-dried meats.

Soft-shell Crab A just-molted crab whose new shell has not yet hardened.

Solanine A poisonous substance found in potatoes that have turned green.

Sorbet (sor bay) Sherbet,usually made without milk products.

Soufflé A light, fluffy baked egg dish consisting of a base (such as a heavy white sauce) mixed with egg yolks and flavoring ingredients into which beaten egg whites are folded just before baking. May be sweet or savory.

Sous Chef (soo shef) Cook who supervises food production and who reports to the executive chef.

Spaetzle Small dumplings or noodles made from a thin egg and flour batter.

Specialty Cheese Cheese in limited production, with particular attention to natural flavor and texture profiles.

Spelt A type of wheat grain similar to farro.

Spice Any part of a plant, other than the leaves, used in flavoring foods.

Squab Young, domestically raised pigeon.

Staling The change in texture and aroma of baked goods due to the loss of moisture by the starch granules.

Standard Breading Procedure The procedure for coating a food product with bread crumbs (or other crumbs or meal) by passing it through flour, then egg wash, then crumbs.

Standardized Recipe A set of instructions describing the way a particular establishment prepares a particular dish.

Staphylococcus, Staph A bacterium that causes food-borne disease by producing a toxin or poison in improperly stored foods.

Static Menu A menu that offers the same dishes every day.

Station Chef Cook in charge of a particular department in a kitchen or food production facility.

Steam To cook by direct contact with steam.

Stew (1) To simmer a food or foods in a small amount of liquid that is usually served with the food as a sauce. (2) A dish cooked by stewing, usually one in which the main ingredients are cut in small pieces.

Stock A clear, thin—that is, unthickened—liquid flavored with soluble substances extracted from meat, poultry, and fish, and their bones, and from vegetables and seasonings.

Streusel (stroy zel) A crumbly topping for baked goods, consisting of fat, sugar, and flour rubbed together.

Strong Flour Flour with a high protein or gluten content.

Supporting Flavor Flavors of seasoning and flavoring ingredients and other secondary ingredients of a dish; flavors that support and enhance the primary flavors.

Suprême Sauce A sauce made of chicken velouté and heavy cream.

Surimi A processed seafood product manufactured to resemble shellfish such as crab.

Sweat To cook in a small amount of fat over low heat, sometimes covered.

Sweetbreads The thymus glands of calves and young animals, used as food.

Swiss Steak Beef round steaks braised in brown sauce.

Table d'Hôte (tobble dote) (1) Referring to a fixed-price menu with no choices. (2) Referring to a menu on which prices are listed for complete meals rather than for each separate item.

Tang The portion of a metal knife blade that is inside the handle.

Tapa Any of a variety of Spanish-style appetizers, intended to be served with wine or other drinks.

Tasting Menu A type of fixed-price menu designed to showcase the chef's art by presenting a series of small courses.

Tatsoi A leafy vegetable or salad green related to mustard and watercress.

Tempeh A fermented soy product with a dense,meaty texture.

Temper To raise the temperature of a cold liquid gradually by slowly stirring in a hot liquid.

Teriyaki A grilled or pan-broiled food that is finished with a soy sauce-based glaze.

Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP) A high-protein product made from defatted soy flour, processed to give it a sponge-like texture; available unflavored or flavored to resemble various meats.

Tinted Curing Mix See Prague Powder #1.

Tofu A bland, white food made by coagulating soy milk. Also called Bean Curd.

Tomalley The liver of lobsters and some other shellfish.

Tournant (toor nawn) Cook who replaces other station cooks; relief cook or swing cook.

Tournedos (toor nuh doe) A small beef steak cut from the tenderloin.

Trans Fat A solid fat, usually manufactured by hydrogenation, which limits the body's ability to rid itself of cholesterol.

Treviso A red-leafed relative of radicchio and Belgian endive with elongated leaves.

Trichinosis A food-borne disease caused by a parasite, sometimes found in undercooked pork.

Tripe The muscular stomach lining of beef or other meat animals.

Truit au Bleu Poached trout that was alive until cooking time and that turns blue when cooked in court bouillon.

Trunnion Kettle A steam-jacketed kettle that can be tilted for emptying.

Truss To tie poultry into a compact shape for cooking.

Tunneling A condition of muffin products characterized by large, elongated holes; caused by overmixing.

TVP see Textured Vegetable Protein.

Univalve A mollusk with a single shell, such as abalone.

Unsaturated Fat A fat that is normally liquid at room temperature.

Variety Meats Various organs, glands, and other meats that don't form a part of the dressed carcass.

Vegan Referring to a vegetarian diet that omits all animal products, including dairy products and eggs.

Velouté A sauce made by thickening white stock with a roux.

Venison The meat of wild or farm-raised deer.

Vent To allow circulation or escape of a liquid or gas, such as by setting a pot of hot stock on blocks in a cold-water bath so that the cold water can circulate around the pot.

Viande (vee awnd) French for "meat."

Vichyssoise (vee she swahz) Cold purée of leek and potato soup with cream.

Vin Wine.

Vin Blanc White wine.

Vin Rouge Red wine.

Vinaigrette Dressing or sauce made of oil, vinegar, and flavoring ingredients.

Vitamin Any of a group of compounds that are present in foods in very small quantities and that are necessary for regulating body functions.

Volatile Evaporating quickly when heated.

Wash (1) To brush or coat a food item with a liquid such as egg wash or milk. (2) The liquid used in this procedure.

Waxy Potato A young potato high in sugar and low in starch.

Weak Flour Flour with a low protein or gluten content.

Welsh Rabbit A dish made of melted cheddar cheese and, usually, ale or beer. Sometimes called Welsh rarebit.

White Pekin The most common breed of domestic duck in the United States.

Whitewash A thin mixture or slurry of flour and cold water.

Winterized Oil Vegetable oil that stays clear and liquid when refrigerated.

Wrap A sandwich in which the filling is wrapped, like a Mexican burrito, in a large flour tortilla or similar flatbread.

Zest The colored part of the peel of citrus fruits.

Continue reading here: USUK Cooking Vocabulary

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