Eggs perform the following functions in baking.

1. Structure.

Like gluten protein, egg protein coagulates to give structure to baked products. This is especially important in high-ratio cakes, where the high sugar and fat content weakens the gluten.

If used in large quantities, eggs make baked products tough or chewy unless balanced by high fat and sugar, which are tenderizers.

2. Emulsification of fats.

Egg yolks contain natural emulsifiers, which help produce smooth batters.This contributes to volume and to texture.

3. Leavening.

Beaten eggs incorporate air in tiny cells or bubbles. In a batter, this trapped air expands when heated and aids in leavening.

4. Shortening action.

The fat in egg yolks acts as a shortening.This is an important function in products that are low in other fats.

5. Moisture.

Whole eggs are about 70 percent water, egg whites about 86 percent water, and egg yolks about 49 percent water. This moisture must be calculated as part of the total liquid in a formula.

6. Flavor.

7. Nutritional value.

Yolks impart a yellow color to doughs and batters. Also,eggs brown easily and contribute to crust color.

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