French English Cooking Vocabulary

Abaisser (ah bay say) To roll a dough to the desired thickness with the aid of a rolling pin.

Abats (ah bah) Offal; internal organs of butchered animals sold mainly by stores called triperies that specialize in this.White offal are sweet-breads,feet,brains. Red offal are heart,lungs,liver.

Abattis (ah bah tee) The feet, neck, head, wingtips, liver, gizzard, and heart of poultry.

Accommoder (ah koh mo day) To prepare and season a dish for cooking.

Acidifier (ah si di fee ay) To add lemon juice or vinegar to fruits, vegetables, and fish to prevent oxidation.

Aciduler (ah see dyoo lay) To make a preparation slightly acidic, tart, or tangy by adding a little lemon juice or vinegar.

Affuter (ah foo tay) To sharpen the cutting edge of a knife by using a steel or sharpening stone.

Aiguillette (ay gee yet) A long, narrow slice of meat cut from the breast of poultry (especially duck) and game birds.

Aiguiser (ay gee zay) See Affuter.

Allumettes (al loo met) (1) A type of savory petits fours (long rectangle of puff pastry) covered with cheese or filled with anchovies. (2) Very thin French fries;pommes allumettes.

Anglaise (on glez) (1) A mixture of whole eggs,oil,water,salt,and pepper, used to help coat food with flour and bread crumbs. (2) A dish cooked in boiling water (e.g.,potatoes).

Aplatir (ah pla teer) To flatten a piece of meat or fish in order to make it more tender and to facilitate cooking.

Appareil (ah pa ray) A mixture of the principal elements of a final recipe (usually egg based).

Aromate (ah row mat) A condiment or vegetable with a characteristic smell or taste (spices and herbs). Often used in reference to a combination of flavoring vegetables, such as carrot, onion, leek, and celery.

Arroser (ah row zay) To baste; the wetting of meat or fish with a liquid or fat during or after cooking.

Aspic (a spik) A dish composed of meat, vegetables, and/or fish that is cooked, chilled, and molded in gelatin.

Assaisonner (ah say zo nay) To season; the addition of a preparation of certain ingredients that bring out the flavor of the food.

Attendrir (ah ton drear) (1) To allow a piece of meat to age under refrigeration for a few days to make it more tender. (2) To become stale.

Au Jus (oh zhu) Served with natural cooking juices.

Bain-marie (ban marie) A hot-water bath; a way of cooking or warming food by placing a container in a pot of very hot water. Used for preparations that must not cook over direct heat, for keeping delicate sauces hot, and for melting chocolate.

Ballotine (ball oh teen) A large piece of meat or a whole bird that is boned and stuffed.

Barder (bar day) To cover or wrap a piece of meat,poultry, and, occasionally, pastry with a very thin piece of pork fat for protection and basting during cooking.This prevents drying out.

Barquette (bar ket) A small,long oval pastry mold.

Basquaise (bas kez) In the Basque style;usually indicates the presence of red peppers in the dish.

Bâtonnet (ba tow nay) Small stick; refers to a type of vegetable cut.

Batterie (bat trie) Set; complete set of kitchen utensils.

Bavarois (ba var wha) Bavarian cream; a cold dessert made from crème anglaise, set with gelatin and whipped cream.

Béchamel (beh sha mel) White sauce made from milk and white roux.

Beignet (ben yay) Food dipped in a thin batter and deep-fried.

Bercy (bear see) A classic sauce with a white wine base,used for fish.

Beurre (burr) Butter.

Beurre Blanc (burr blahn) Butter-based sauce made from a reduction of dry white wine, vinegar, and shallots.Mainly served with poached or grilled fish.

Beurre Clarifié (burr cla ri fee ay) Clarified butter; butter that is gently melted in order to remove the impurities that float to the top and the whey that sinks to the bottom.

Beurre Composé (burr com po zay) Butter mixed with one or more ingredients, such as anchovy butter (butter and crushed anchovies).

Beurre Demi Sel (burr demi cell) Lightly salted butter containing up to 5 percent salt.

Beurre Fermier (burr fair miay) Farm-fresh butter.

Beurre Laitier (burr lay tee ay) Dairy-made butter.

Beurre Manié (burr man yay) Butter mixed with an equal amount of flour;used to thicken sauces.

Beurre Noisette (burr nwa set) Brown butter; butter that is cooked until colored a light brown (see Noisette).

Beurre Pasteurisé (burr pass ter ee zay) Factory-produced and -pasteurized butter.

Beurre en Pommade (burr on poh mahd) Softened (not melted) butter.

Beurrer (burr ray) (1) To lightly coat a container with butter in order to prevent sticking. (2) To add butter to a sauce or dough.

Beurre Salé (burr sa lay) Salted butter containing up to 10 percent salt.

Beurre Sec (burr sek) Dry butter; butter with a minimum water con-tent.The percentage of water can vary from 5 to 8 percent, depending on the quality of butter.

Biscuit (beace quee) (1) A small cake or cookie. (2) A specific type of sponge cake, similar to genoise.

Bisque (bisk) Type of soup usually made from a shellfish base and thickened.

Blanc (blahn) (1) White. (2) A mixture of flour and cold water that is added to acidulated water (usually lemon juice) to prevent certain foods from discoloring during cooking.

Blanchir (blon sheer) To blanch. (1) To place vegetables or meats in cold water and then bring to a boil (or to plunge in boiling water) in order to precook, soften, or remove an excess of flavor (acidity, saltiness, or bitterness). (2) To whip sugar and eggs together until light in color. (3) To soak meat in cold water in order to remove excess blood, salt, and/or impurities.

Blondir (blon deer) To cook in fat in order to color lightly.

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Bouchée (boo shay) A small round of puff pastry that can be filled with different mixtures.

Bouillir (boo year) To boil; to bring a liquid to the boiling point.

Boulangère (boo lawn zhare) Cooked with veal stock, onions, and potatoes; a style of meat preparation.

Bouquet Garni (boo kay gar nee) A mixture of herbs enclosed in the green portion of a leek used to flavor dishes during their cooking.

Braiser (bray zay) To braise; to cook a meat in a covered dish in or over gentle heat with a little liquid and, usually, on a bed of finely diced vegetables.

Brider (bree day) To truss; to tie a bird so that it keeps its shape during cooking.

Brochette (broe shet) (1) A skewer made of wood or bamboo. (2) Small pieces of food stuck on a long piece of metal or wood and grilled.

Broyer (broy yay) To crush or grind finely.

Brunoise (broon waz) Vegetables cut into very small regular cubes.

Calvados (cal vaw dose) An alcoholic beverage distilled from cider, made exclusively in the Normandy region.

Canapé (can ah pay) Bite-sized slice of sandwich or other type of bread, toasted or not toasted, which is spread or garnished with various ingredients.

Canard (can arr) Duck or drake.

Caneton (can e tone) Male duckling.

Canette (can net) Female duckling.

Canneller (can nel lay) To channel, to flute, to groove.

Capre (capr) Caper.

Caraméliser (care a mel lee zay) To caramelize; to coat a mold with cooked sugar; to cook sugar until dark for use in other preparations (to coat or to make a sauce).

Cêpe (sepp) Bolete or porcini mushroom.

Champignon (shamp pin yon) Mushroom.

Champvallon (shamp val lawn) Preparation of lamb chops cooked in the oven with potatoes and onions.

Chantilly (shawn tee yee) Whipped cream to which sugar and vanilla have been added.

Chapelure (shap a lure) Dried bread crumbs made from both the crust and center of dried bread. Used for breading.

Charlotte (shar lott) (1) A dessert made in a special mold. (2) A savory preparation made in this mold.

Chaud-Froid (show fwah) A dish prepared hot but served cold and covered with a specific sauce (sauce chaud-froid, made from velouté, gelatin,and cream).

Chemiser (shem ee zay) To line the interior of a mold before filling.

Chiffonade (shi foe nod) Leafy herbs and greens that are finely shredded.

Chinois (shee nwah) China cap sieve; a fine conical strainer.

Chiqueter (sheek ah tay) To lightly score the cut edges of puff pastry to help ensure that it rises straight and evenly.

Cidre (seedr) Hard cider.

Ciseler (see ze lay) (1) To score;to make incisions in certain fish in order to facilitate cooking. (2) To finely mince; a manner of finely cutting onions, shallots, and garlic.

Citronner (see trone nay) (1) To rub foods with lemon to prevent them from discoloring. (2) To add lemon juice.

Clarifier (clare re fee ay) (1) To clarify; to clear a cloudy liquid by straining, heating, and gently simmering with egg whites. (2) Process of separating milk solids from butter.

Clouter (cloo tay) To stud; to pierce cured tongue with strips of truffle; to pierce an onion with a whole clove.

Coller (cole lay) To thicken or set using gelatin, as in making jelly or fruit mousse.

Concasser (cone cas say) To break up coarsely with a knife or mortar.

Concassé (de tomates) (cone cas say duh to maht) Peeled, seeded, and diced tomatoes.

Confit (cone fee) A food that is saturated with one of the following: vinegar (for vegetables); sugar (for fruits);alcohol (for fruits);fat (for poultry).

Consommé (cone so may) Clear bouillon made from meat, fish, or vegetables; served hot or cold.

Contiser (cone tee zay) To loosen the skin of fowl, game,and some fish in order to insert a thin slice of truffle.

Coquille (coe key) Shell.

Cordée (core day) Referring to a dough or potato purée that becomes elastic from overworking.

Coriandre (core ree andr) Cilantro (fresh), coriander.

Corne (corn) Plastic tool used for scraping the contents out of containers.

Corser (core say) To give strength or body to the flavor of a preparation.

Coucher (koo shay) (1) To lay; to place a rolled piece of dough on a baking sheet. (2) To spread; to spread a layer of cream or other garnish. (3) To pipe; to cover with a layer, using a piping bag.

Coulis (koo lee) A smooth purée of fruits or vegetables; used as a sauce.

Coupe (koop) Cup.

Couper (koo pay) To cut.

Court Bouillon (core bwee yone) A cooking liquid, composed of water, aromatic vegetables, and, sometimes, white wine vinegar, in which fish and certain meats are cooked.

Crècy (kreh see) Refers to dishes containing carrots.The name of an area known for its carrot production.

Crème Anglaise (krem on glez) A sweet sauce made from eggs, sugar, and milk that is cooked to 85°C (185°F).

Crème Fouettée (krem foo eh tay) Whipped cream; cream that has been whisked in order to incorporate air.

Crème Fraîche (krem fresh) A type of heavy cream.

Crème Pâtissière (krem pa tis see air) Pastry cream; milk thickened with flour or flan powder, used for pastry making.

Crémer (krem may) (1) To cream together sugar and butter. (2) To add cream.

Crème Renversée (krem ron vare say) Caramel flan; a mixture of sugar,milk,and eggs poured into a mold,usually lined with caramel, then gently cooked in the oven in a hot-water bath.

Crème de Riz (krem de ree) Cream of rice; a powder made from finely ground rice,used in pastry or to thicken sauces.

Crêpe (krep) Very thin pancake.

Crépine (kreh peen) Pork caul.

Crever (kreh vay) To blanch rice by placing it in cold water, then bringing to a boil for a few minutes. It is usually the first step in making rice desserts.

Croquette (kroh kett) A breaded, fried item consisting of a mixture of fruit, fish, or vegetables. Can be savory or sweet and in any shape.

Croustade (krew stod) (1) A crisp crust that is fried. (2) An empty pastry case.

Croûte (kroot) Crust; the brown outer covering of bread.A meat or fish en croûte is one that is wrapped in a crust.

Croûton (kroo tohn) A slice or piece of toasted bread.

Crudité (kroo dee tay) Raw vegetable, sliced or cut, served with a vinaigrette or mayonnaise as a first course.

Cuisson (kwees sohn) The cooking; the action and manner of cooking a food.

Dariole (dahr ree ole) A small thimble-shaped mold.

Darne (darn) Thick slice, containing the central bone, cut from round fish.

Daube (dobe) Stew of meat braised in red wine.

Décanter (day kahn tay) (1) To allow the impurities in a liquid to sink to the bottom so the liquid can be gently poured off, leaving the residue. (2) To separate meat from its cooking liquid in order to finish the sauce.

Décortiquer (day kor tee kay) To shell; to remove the outer covering from shellfish and crustaceans.

Découper (day koo pay) To cut; to cut using scissors, a knife, or pastry cutter.

Déglacer (day gla say) To deglaze; to dissolve with liquid the substance attached to the bottom of a pan.

Dégorger (day gor zhay) To degorge; to soak an ingredient in cold water in order to remove blood, salt, or impurities; to lightly salt vegetables in order to extract the maximum amount of water.

Dégraisser (day gray say) To degrease; to remove excess fat from the surface of a food or sauce.

Délayer (day lay yay) (1) To thin with water. (2) To dissolve in liquid.

Demi-glace (de mee glass) Meat, fish, or chicken stock, reduced to a concentrated form.

Démouler (day moo lay) To unmold; to carefully remove a preparation from the container in which it was placed to give it a specific form.

Dénerver (day nair vay) To remove the tendons from meat and fowl.

Dénoyauter (day noy oh tay) To pit; to remove the seed or pit of stone fruits and olives with a knife or pitter.

Dépouiller (day pwee yay) (1) To remove the skin that forms on the top of a sauce or soup. (2) To skin; to remove the skin of a small animal, fish, etc.

Dés (day) Cubes; small regular squares.

Désosser (day zohs say) To debone; to remove the bones from meat and fowl.

Dessècher (day se shay) To dry out; to remove moisture through heat.

Détailler (day tie yay) To cut up; to cut into pieces.

Détendre (day ton dr) To loosen (in consistency); to add a liquid to a preparation, such as a sauce.

Détrempe (day trompe) Dough made of flour and water, used for puff pastry.

Détremper (day trompe pay) To moisten with a liquid.

Dorer (doe ray) To brush with beaten egg or egg yolk in order to give a deep color and shine.

Dorure (doe ruhr) Egg wash; beaten egg or egg yolk,with water and/or salt added, used to color doughs just before cooking.

Douille (doo yeey) Pastry tip;a conical piece made of metal or plastic, used in decorating with a pastry bag.

Dresser (dres say) To dress; to arrange the prepared food on a plate or platter before serving.

Duchesse (dew shess) Mashed potatoes with the addition of egg yolks.

Dugléré (dew glay ray) A classic preparation for fish incorporating white wine and tomato; named for a nineteenth-century chef.

Duroc (dew rock) Classic preparation of small pieces of meat served with pan-fried potatoes, tomato sauce, and chasseur sauce. Named after the nineteenth-century chef Marshall Duroc.

Duxelles (duke sell) Finely chopped mushrooms cooked in butter with minced shallots;used as a garnish or filling.

Ébarber (eh bar bay) To debeard; to remove the fins and bones of fish; to remove the filaments from poached eggs.

Ébouillanter (eh boo yawn tay) To dip in boiling water; to scald.

Ébullition (eh boo lee see own) Boiling point; the appearance of bubbles in a hot liquid (98° to 100°C/208° to 212°F).

Écailler (eh kie yay) To scale; to remove the scales from fish.

Écaler (eh kah lay) To shell (eggs); to remove the shell from soft- and hard-boiled eggs.

Écumer (eh kue may) To skim; to remove the foam from the surface of a boiling liquid.

Effiler (eh fee lay) To slice very thinly (e.g.,almonds).

Égoutter (eh goo tay) To strain; to remove the cooking liquid by pouring into a strainer.

Émietter (eh myet tay) To crumble; to break into small pieces.

Émincer (eh man say) To cut into thin slices.

Émonder (eh moan day) To skin; to remove the skin from fruits and vegetables by heating.

En Croûte (on kroot) Wrapped in pastry.

En Robe (on robe) Coated or covered.

Enrober (on robe bay) To coat; to completely cover with various ingredients, such as chocolate or dough.

Entremet (on tre may) Literally,"between courses";originally a course served between the roast and the dessert.Today it is a mousse-based cake.

Éplucher (eh ploo shay) To peel; to remove the skin or inedible part of fruits and vegetables.

Éponger (eh pone jay) To sponge; to remove excess liquid or fat by absorbing with a kitchen or paper towel.

Escaloper (eh scal oh pay) To cut scallops; to cut meat or fish on a bias.

Essence (ess sahns) Essence; concentrated extract, used as a flavoring (e.g.,coffee essence).

Étuver (eh too vay) To stew, to cook slowly; to cook gently while covered with fat and a little water without changing the color of the ingredients.

Évider (eh vee day) To hollow, to gut; to hollow the center of an ingredient (poultry, fruit, vegetables).

Farce (farce) Forcemeat stuffing; a mixture of various ground ingredients (meat, herbs, vegetables), used to fill poultry, fish, vegetables, etc.

Farcir (far seer) To stuff; to fill poultry, fish, or meat with a forcemeat stuffing.

Fariner (far ee nay) To flour, to dredge; to sprinkle flour on fish or meat or to sprinkle a mold with flour and tap out the excess.

Fermière (fair mee yare) Farm-made or farm-raised.

Ficeler (fee se lay) To tie with string.

Filet (fee lay) Fillet.

Fines Herbes (feen zairb) Mix of edible aromatic plants used as seasoning (parsley, tarragon, chives).

Flamber (flom bay) Flambé. (1) To use a flame in order to remove the down from poultry. (2) To light alcohol in a preparation (e.g., crêpes suzette).

Flan (flahn) (1) Open pastry case or shell. (2) A custard tart.

Fleuron (flur rohn) Piece of puff pastry cut into crescent shapes, served as decoration with fish dishes.

Foie Gras (fwah grah) Fattened duck or goose liver.

Foncer (fone say) To line the bottom and sides of a mold or pan with dough.

Fond (fohn) Stock.

Fondant (fawn daunt) (1) A sugar icing used for glazing pastries. (2) Referring to something that melts in the mouth (literally,"melting").

Fondre (fone dr') (1) To melt; to turn a solid into liquid by heating (e.g., butter). (2) To cook, covered, certain vegetables in water and butter (e.g.,mushrooms) until the liquid has completely evaporated, without changing the color of the ingredients.

Fondu (fone dew) Melted.

Fontaine (fone ten) A well; a deep impression made in flour in order to add other ingredients for making a dough.

Fraiser (fray zay) To mix a dough evenly by smearing it with the fleshy part of the palm of the hand.

Frémir (fray meer) To simmer; to bring a liquid just to the boiling point, the bubbles being barely perceptible.

Fricassée (free kah say) (1) A way of cutting a chicken into eight pieces. (2) A preparation in which meat or poultry is cut into pieces before being braised.

Frire (freer) To deep-fry.

Friture (free tur) (1) Deep fryer. (2) Deep-fried foods.

Fumet (few may) (1) Cooking aroma. (2) Sauce made from cooking juices. (3) Basic stock made from fish and used to make sauces.

Fusil (few zee) Sharpening steel; long, rounded metal tool, used to keep the cutting edge of a knife sharp.

Galantine (ga lawn teen) Cold poached meat that has been stuffed and larded, served with gelatin made from the poaching liquid.

Garniture (gar nee tur) Garnish; served as an accompaniment to a dish (usually vegetables).

Gastrique (ga streek) A caramel delazed with vinegar used as a base for a sweet and sour sauce (as with duck à l'orange).

Gaufrette (go frett) Waffle.

Gelée (jel lay) Gelatin,aspic;meat or fish stock that has been clarified, then set with gelatin. Used in various preparations en gelée to give shine to foods as well as to protect them from drying out.

Genoise (zhen wahz) Genoese sponge cake.

Glaçage (glah sahj) Glaze; mixture of ingredients with a syrupy consistency, sweet or savory, used to coat pastries, candies, and certain savory foods.

Glace (glahss) (1) Ice cream. (2) Glaze; stock reduced until thick and syrupy.

Glacé (glah say) (1) Glazed (usually refers to vegetables). (2) Frozen. (3) Served with ice cream (e.g.,meringue glacé).

Glacer (glah say) To glaze; to cover or coat pastries with a glaze.

Goujonnettes (goo zhone nett) Strips of fish, breaded and deep-fried.

Graisser (gray say) To grease; to coat or cover with fat before baking or roasting in the oven.

Grandmère (grahn mare) A classic garniture made from bacon, sautéed button mushrooms, and glazed pearl onions.

Gratiner (gra tee nay) (1) To brown under the grill or salamander. (2) To glaze.

(à la) Grecque (ah la grek) Refers to a preparation of vegetables cooked in white wine.

Griller (gree yay) To grill; to cook on a grill.

Habiller (ah bee yay) To dress; to prepare an item, such as fish or meat, for cooking.

Hacher (ah shay) To chop; to reduce to small pieces with a knife.

Hareng (a rehng) Herring.

Haricot (are ree co) Bean.

Haricot Blanc (are ree co blahn) White bean.

Haricot Vert (are ree co vare) Green bean.

Historié (ee stow ree ay) Decorated.

Hollandaise (awl lawn daze) Hot emulsion sauce made from egg yolks and clarified butter and flavored with lemon juice.

Homard (oh mahr) Lobster.

Huile (weel) Oil.

Huile d'Olive (weel doe leave) Olive oil.

Huile d'Arachide (weel da rah sheed) Peanut oil.

Huile de Noix (weel de nwah) Walnut oil.

Imbiber (am bee bay) To imbibe; to wet or soak an element with stock or syrup.

Inciser (an see zay) To incise; to make small, shallow cuts in order to speed cooking.

Incorporer (an core po ray) To incorporate; to gradually mix ingredients together by gently mixing.

Infuser (an few zay) To place an element into simmering water and let sit so that the element flavors the water (e.g.,tea).

Jambon (zhom bohn) Ham.

Jambonnette (zhom bo nett) Stuffed chicken leg made to resemble a small ham.

Jardinière (zhar dee nyair) Literally,"pertaining to a garden";a mixture of carrots, turnips cut into sticks, green beans, and green peas. Cooked separately, then served together as an accompaniment.

Jarret (zhah ray) Knuckle or shank of meat.

Jet (zhett) A dash of liquid, a squirt.

Julienne (zhoo lee yen) Cut into very fine strips.

Jus (zhoo) Juice; liquid made from pressing a fruit or vegetable or from the cooking of a meat.

Langoustine (lawn goo steen) Dublin Bay prawn.

Lard (lahr) Solid fat from pork. Lard gras contains fat only, while lard maigre (bacon) contains meat as well.

Larder (lahr day) To lard; to insert strips of pork fat into lean meats, using a larding needle, in order to prevent the meat from drying out during cooking.

Lardon (lahr doan) A small piece or strip of slab bacon.

Légume (leh gyoom) Vegetable.

Lentille (lawn teey) Lentil.

Levain (le vanh) Starter dough; a dough made from live yeast and flour, used to make breads.

Lever (le vay) To rise; to leave a dough to rise (as with brioche, bread, croissants).

Lever les Filets (le vay lay fee lay) To fillet; to remove the fillets of a fish using a knife.

Levure (le vure) Yeast.

Levure Chimique (le vure she meek) Baking powder; odorless and flavorless rising agent made from bicarbonate of soda and cream of tartar.

Liaison (lee ay zonh) Thickener; element or mixture used to thicken a liquid or sauce.

Lier (lee ay) To thicken; to change the consistency of a liquid by adding a roux, starch, egg, flour, or beurre manié.

Lotte (lot) Monkfish.

Macédoine (mass e dwan) A mixture of vegetables or fruit, cut into small cubes.

Macérer (mass e ray) To macerate; to soak an element in alcohol in order to flavor it (usually done for pastry).

Magret (mah gray) The breast meat of a fattened duck.

Manchonner (mahn show nay) To remove the meat that covers the end of a bone, such as a chicken leg or a rack of meat, in order to achieve a clean presentation.

Mandoline (man do leen) A slicer with several blades, allowing various cuts and thicknesses of fruits and vegetables.

Mange Tout (manj too) Chinese pea pods or snow peas.

Manier (man yay) To knead.

Mariner (mar ee nay) To marinate; to soak a piece of meat or fish in a liquid and aromatics in order to tenderize, flavor, and preserve. Can also be used to tame the flavor of strong-flavored game.

Médaillon (may die yohn) Medallion; round slice of meat, fowl, fish, or crustacean, served hot or cold.

Meringue (me rang) Mixture of beaten egg whites and sugar.

Meringue Glacée (me rang gla say) Vacherin.

Mie de Pain (mee de pan) Fresh bread crumbs.

Mijoter (mee joo tay) To simmer; to cook over gentle heat.

Mirepoix (meer pwah) (1) Vegetables cut into cubes, the size depending on the length of cooking. (2) A certain blend of aromatic vegetables (onions, carrots, and celery).

Monder (moan day) To skin; to remove the skin of certain fruits or vegetables (e.g.,peaches,tomatoes) by plunging into boiling water.

Monter (moan tay) (1) To mount; to whisk (egg whites, cream) in order to incorporate air and increase the volume. (2) To add butter to a sauce in small pieces.

Morille (mow reey) Morel mushroom.

Mouiller (moo yay) To wet; to add a liquid to a preparation before cooking.

Mouler (moo lay) To mold; to fill a mold before or after cooking.

Moulu (moo loo) Milled; ground.

Napper (nap pay) To coat; to cover a food, savory, or sweet with a light layer of sauce, aspic, or jelly.

Navarin (na va rahn) Brown lamb stew containing tomato.

Nem (nem) Vietnamese-style spring roll.

Noircir (nwahr seer) To blacken; to darken when exposed to air (said of certain fruits and vegetables).

Noisette (nwah set) A hazelnut. See also Beurre Noisette.

Graisse d'Oie (gress dwah) Goose fat.

Ouvrir (oov rear) To open.

Paner (pan ay) To coat a food with fresh or dry bread crumbs after dipping in an anglaise (see Anglaise) and then cook.

Panier (pan yay) Basket. (1) A frying basket,used with a deep fryer in order to easily plunge foods into and remove them from the hot oil. (2) A steam basket,used for placing foods to be steamed. (3) Nestling baskets; a frying tool in the form of two ladle-shaped baskets, one slightly smaller than the other, used to form nests of shredded potatoes with which to decorate certain platters.

Papillote (pa pee yote) (1) Buttered or oiled paper, used to wrap fruits, meats, fish, etc. for cooking. (2) Paper frill used to decorate the ends of bones of certain poultry and meats.

Parer (pah ray) To trim; to remove the nerves or excess fat from meat or fish, or to remove the damaged or inedible portions of fruit and vegetables before cooking or serving.

Parfait (par fay) A frozen dessert made of a sweet egg-yolk foam and whipped cream.

Parfumer (par few may) To flavor.

Passer (pas say) To strain,generally using a strainer or china cap sieve.

Pâté (pat tay) Chopped meat,poultry,fish, etc., cooked in a dough.To-day considered almost synonymous with terrine.

Pâtissier (pat tee see ay) Pastry chef.

Pâton (pat tohn) Large square piece of dough (puff pastry, bread) before cooking.

Paupiette (po pee yet) Thin piece of meat or fish that is stuffed, rolled, tied, and cooked.

Pavé (pa vay) Thick cross-section slices of fish fillets.

Paysanne (pay yee zahn) Vegetables cut into small, thin triangles or squares.

Persillade (pear see yahd) A mixture of parsley and chopped garlic.

Piler (pee lay) To grind (e.g.,with a mortar and pestle); to make a powder by crushing with a mortar and pestle.

Pilon (pee lohn) (1) A pestle; a tool used for crushing and grinding. (2) The drumstick of a chicken leg.

Piment (pee mon) Chile pepper.

Pincée (pan say) A pinch; small quantity of a dry ingredient measured by pinching with the thumb and index finger.

Pincer (pan say) To pinch; to use a pastry crimper to crimp the edges of dough before cooking.

Pintade (pan todd) Guinea fowl.

Piquer (pee kay) (1) To pick;to lard a piece of meat,using a larding needle, in order to keep the meat from drying out during cooking. (2) To make small holes in dough, using a fork, to prevent it from rising too much.

Pluche (ploosh) Sprig; small leaves picked off the stems (e.g., sprig of chervil).

Pocher (po shay) To poach; to cook in barely simmering water.

Poêler (po e lay) To pan-fry; to cook an element in a frying pan over high heat with minimal oil.

Pointe (pwahnt) Point (of a knife). (1) A small quantity measured using the point of a knife (e.g.,point of ground vanilla). (2) The tip of something (e.g.,tip of asparagus).

Poivron (pwahv rohn) Sweet bell pepper.

Poulet (poo lay) Chicken.

Pousser (poos say) To rise (literally,"to push"). (1) To leave a yeast dough to increase in volume. (2) To feed meat into a meat grinder.

Poussin (poos san) Cornish game hen.

Praline (prah leen) Caramelized sugar with almonds or hazelnuts, ground to a smooth paste, used to flavor and decorate pastries.

Primeur (pree mer) Early vegetable or fruit.

Profiterole (pro feet er role) Choux ball filled with sweet or savory fill-ing.The best known is a dessert filled with vanilla ice cream and served with chocolate sauce.

Provençale (pro von sal) Provence style; refers to dishes containing one or all of the following: olive oil, tomatoes, garlic, bell peppers, and olives.

Quadriller (ca dree yay) (1) To mark squares or diamonds on meat,us-ing a grill. (2) To mark squares using a knife.

Quatre Épices (catr eh peace) Four spices; a mixture of ground pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves. Often used to flavor meat stuffings.

Quenelle (kuh nel) (1) Dumpling made of meat,poultry,or fish purée, mixed with egg white and cream. Usually molded with two spoons into an egg shape. (2) Oval three-sided shape made using two large spoons.

Quiche (keesh) Savory tart with a creamy egg base (e.g., quiche Lorraine: bacon and cheese custard tart).

Rafraîchir (rah fray sheer) To refresh, to cool, to chill; to quickly cool in cold water a food that has been blanched.

Raidir (ray deer) To seize or sear (esp.in boiling fat); to precook without coloring.

Râper (ra pay) To grate; to reduce to thin slices or powder using a grating tool (e.g.,with cheese).

Rassis (ras see) Stale,not fresh.

Ratatouille (ra tah too yee) Dish made from red bell peppers, onions, tomatoes, zucchini, eggplant, and, often, olives.

Rectifier (reck tee fee yay) To rectify; to correct the seasoning of a dish.

Réduire (ray dweer) To reduce; to heat a liquid or to reduce it in volume by boiling.

Relever (re le vay) To reinforce flavor through the use of spices.

Remonter (re moan tay) To remount; to repair a sauce or a cream that has separated in order to return it to its proper appearance and texture.

Revenir (faire) (re ve near fehr) To quickly color a food in hot fat or oil.

Rissoler (rees so lay) To cook a food in hot fat or oil until well colored.

Rondelle (ron dell) Small,round slice.

Roux (roo) A cooked mixture of equal amounts of flour and fat (usually butter).The three types of roux—white,blond,and brown—vary in color depending on how long they cook.

Sabayon (sa ba yohn) A thick,frothy sauce,either sweet or savory,that is made from whisking egg yolks and liquid over low heat. Similar to the Italian zabaglione.

Saisir (say zeer) To seize; to quickly color over very high heat at the start of cooking.

Salamandre (sal ah mandr) A salamander or broiler; the upper heating element in an oven or a professional appliance, used to brown foods.

Saupoudrer (so poo dray) To sprinkle; to evenly distribute a powder over the surface of a dish or dessert.

Sauter (so tay) To sauté (literally,"to jump"); to cook over high heat, stirring constantly to prevent sticking.

Singer (san jay) To sprinkle with flour at the start of cooking in order to eventually give a certain consistency to the sauce.

Siroper (seer oh pay) To add syrup to a pastry. See Imbiber.

Sorbet (soar bay) Flavored water ice; frozen confection made from fruit juice or pulp and sugar syrup.

Sous Chef (soo shef) Second to the chef.

Suer (soo ay) To sweat; to gently cook vegetables in a little fat, without coloring them, in order to bring out their flavor.

Suprême (soo prem) (1) The breast part of the fowl. (2) A fillet of fish.

Suprême Sauce (soo prem sauce) Classic sauce made from a velouté enriched with cream.

Tailler (tie yay) To cut in a precise fashion.

Tamis (ta mee) Drum sieve.

Tamiser (ta mee zay) To sift; to press through a fine drum sieve.

Tapenade (ta peh nahd) Purée of black olives, anchovies, and olive oil.

Terrine (tare reen) (1) A deep rectangular mold traditionally made of white porcelain, used to cook seasoned ground meats, fish, or poultry. (2) The food cooked in such a mold.

Timbale (tam ball) (1) A mold in the shape of a large thimble. (2) Type of dough shaped as a container, baked, and filled with various foods.

Tourer (tour ray) To turn;to roll and fold butter into a dough (e.g.,for puff pastry, croissants).

Tourner (tour nay) To turn. (1) To give certain vegetables a regular long shape,using a knife. (2) To mix ingredients together by mixing in a circular motion.

Travailler (tra vie yay) To work; to knead, mix, soften.

Truffer (troo fay) To add chopped truffles to a dish, stuffing, or foie gras.To slide a thin slice of truffle under the skin of poultry.

Turban (toor bahn) (1) A type of ring mold. (2) Food prepared in such a mold.

Vallée d'Auge (val lay dozh) In the style of a region of Normandy; indicates a dish prepared with cider, apples, and cream.

Vanner (van nay) To mix a cream or sauce as it cools in order to prevent lumps or the formation of a skin on the surface.

Vapeur (va purr) Steam.

Velouté (ve loo tay) A thickened sauce made from a white stock and a roux.

Vinaigre (vee negre) Vinegar.

Vinaigrette (vee ne gret) A sauce made of vinegar, oil, and seasonings.

Volaille (voe lye) Poultry.

Blanc de Volaille (blahn duh voe lye) Chicken breast. Cuisse de Volaille (kweese duh voe lye) Chicken leg.

Zester (zes tay) To zest; to remove the colored part of the skin of a citrus fruit (e.g., orange,lemon).

Continue reading here: Subject Index

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