Extracts are flavorful oils and other substances dissolved in alcohol.These include vanilla, lemon, and bitter almond.
Emulsions are flavorful oils mixed with water with the aid of emulsifiers such as vegetable gums. Lemon and orange are the most frequently used emulsions.
The flavorings of extracts and emulsions may be natural or artificial. Natural flavorings give the best results, but they are often expensive. Artificial flavorings must be used in moderation to avoid creating strong or undesirable flavors in baked items.
■ TERMS FOR REVIEW
gluten strong flour weak flour shortening staling bread flour cake flour pastry flour whole wheat flour pumpernickel rye blend regular shortening emulsified shortening sucrose confectioners' sugar leavening fermentation fresh yeast active dry yeast instant dry yeast chemical leavener single- and double-acting baking powders creaming foaming extract emulsion
■ QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
Below are ingredients for a white cake.The weight of the flour is given, and the proportions of other ingredients are indicated by percentages. Calculate the weights required for each.
Egg whites Vanilla
Discuss four factors that affect the development of gluten in doughs and batters.
3. Why do some cakes fall if they are removed from the oven too soon?
4. Which kind of cake would you expect to have better keeping qualities—a sponge cake,which is low in fat, or a highratio cake?
5. Why is white wheat flour used in rye breads? in whole wheat breads? Some bakeries in Europe produce a kind of pumpernickel bread with 100 percent rye flour. What would you expect its texture to be like?
6. Describe how to distinguish among bread, pastry, and cake flours by touch and sight.
7. What is the difference between regular and emulsified shortenings?
8. Shortbread is a type of cookie made with flour, butter, and sugar, but no liquid.What would you expect its texture to be like? Why?
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