Cutting Techniques

Different parts of the blade are appropriate for different purposes, as shown in Figure 7.7. (Note: Prying off bottle caps is not a function of any part of the knife.)

Figure 7.7

Using different parts of the knife blade.

Figure 7.7

Using different parts of the knife blade.

(a) The tip of the knife, where the blade is thinnest and narrowest, is used for delicate work and small items.

(b) The center of the blade is used for most general work.

(c) The heel of the knife is used for heavy or coarse work, especially when greater force is required.

1. Slicing.

Two basic slicing techniques are illustrated in Figures 7.8 and 7.9.When carrots and similar items are cut into round slices as shown, the cut is called rondelle.

Figure 7.8

Slicing technique 1.

Figure 7.8

Slicing technique 1.

(a) Start the knife at a sharp angle, with the tip (b) Move the knife forward and down to slice of the knife on the cutting board. through the carrot.

(c) Finish the cut with the knife against the board. For the second slice, raise the heel of the knife and pull it backward, but be sure the tip always stays on the board.

Figure 7.9

Slicing technique 2.

Figure 7.9

Slicing technique 2.

a) Start the blade at a 45-degree angle, with the (b, c) Slice downward and forward through the item. tip on the cucumber against the fingers of the guiding hand.

2. Cutting dice, brunoise, batonnet, allumette, and julienne.

Figure 7.10 shows the steps in dicing a product,using a potato to illustrate. Note in Figure 7.10c that the process of cutting dice first requires that you cut stick shapes, such as batonnet.Thus, this illustration demonstrates the method used to cut not Figure 7.10 only dice and brunoise (fine dice) but also batonnet, allumette, and julienne.

Dicing a potato.

(a) Square off the peeled, eyed potato by cutting a slice from all sides. Use the trimmings for mashed potatoes or soup.

(b) Cut the potato into even slices of the desired thickness. Here we are making a V4-in. dice, so the slices are Y4 in. thick (metric equivalent: 6 mm).

(c) Stack the slices and again slice across the stack in even 1/4-in. slices. You now have batonnet potatoes, slightly smaller than regular French fries. Slices Vs in. thick would give you allumette potatoes.

(d) Looking from this angle shows how the slices have been stacked up.

(e) Pile the batonnets together and cut across in slices V4 in. apart. You now have perfect V4-in. dice.

3. Cutting paysanne.

Paysanne are thin square, or roughly square,cuts.The procedure begins the same as for cutting medium dice. However, in the last step, cut the inch (12 mm) -thick sticks into thin slices rather than into dice. Figure 7.11 illustrates.

4. Cutting lozenges.

This is a diamond-shape cut, as illustrated in Figure 7.12.

Figure 7.11

Cut the vegetable into sticks V2 inch (12 mm) square. To cut the sticks into paysanne, cut them crosswise into thin slices.

Figure 7.11

Cut the vegetable into sticks V2 inch (12 mm) square. To cut the sticks into paysanne, cut them crosswise into thin slices.

Lozenge Cut Vegetables

Figure 7.12

To cut lozenges, first cut the vegetable into thin slices, then cut these slices lengthwise into strips about Vs inch (1 cm) wide. Cut the strips at an angle to form diamond shapes.

Figure 7.12

To cut lozenges, first cut the vegetable into thin slices, then cut these slices lengthwise into strips about Vs inch (1 cm) wide. Cut the strips at an angle to form diamond shapes.

5. Dicing an onion.

Dicing an onion presents a special problem for cutting because its form is in lay-ers,not a solid piece.This technique is illustrated in Figure 7.13.

Figure 7.13 Dicing an onion.

Figure 7.13 Dicing an onion.

(a) Cut the peeled onion in half lengthwise, through the root end. Place one half on the cutting board, cut side down.

(b) With the root end away from you, make a series of vertical lengthwise cuts. Do not cut through the root end. The closer together you make the cuts, the smaller the dice will be.

(c) Holding the onion carefully at the top, make a few horizontal cuts toward but not through the root end, which is holding the onion together.

(d) Finally, slice across the onion to separate it into dice. Again, the closer together the cuts, the smaller the dice.

(e) Continue making slices almost to the root end. The root end may be rough cut for mirepoix, to be used for stocks, sauces, and roasts.

6. Chopping mirepoix.

Mirepoix is a mixture of coarsely chopped vegetables, primarily onions, carrots, and celery, used to flavor stocks, gravies, sauces, and other items, as explained in Chapter 8. Because mirepoix is not served but is almost always strained out of the product before finishing, neatness of cut is not important.The products are cut roughly into pieces of approximately uniform size—small pieces if cooking time is to be short, larger pieces for longer cooking times. Figure 7.14 illustrates mire-poix ingredients being cut.

7. Chopping herbs.

This chopping technique is used to cut a product when no specific shape is needed. Figure 7.15 illustrates chopping parsley.

In the case of chives and scallions, a more regular cut is used, similar to the slicing cut used for larger items like carrots. Figure 7.16 illustrates this procedure.

Figure 7.14

To chop mirepoix, cut onions, celery, and carrots roughly into pieces of approximately equal size. The exact size depends on what the mirepoix is to be used for.

Figure 7.14

To chop mirepoix, cut onions, celery, and carrots roughly into pieces of approximately equal size. The exact size depends on what the mirepoix is to be used for.

Figure 7.15

Chopping with a French knife. Holding the tip of the knife against the cutting board, rock the knife rapidly up and down. At the same time, gradually move the knife sideways across the product on the board so the cuts pass through all parts of the pile of food. After several cuts, redistribute the pile and begin again. Continue until the product is chopped as fine as you want.

Figure 7.15

Chopping with a French knife. Holding the tip of the knife against the cutting board, rock the knife rapidly up and down. At the same time, gradually move the knife sideways across the product on the board so the cuts pass through all parts of the pile of food. After several cuts, redistribute the pile and begin again. Continue until the product is chopped as fine as you want.

Figure 7.16

Stack chives and cut crosswise into very thin slices.

Figure 7.17

Cutting parisienne potatoes.

8. Cutting parisienne.

Cuts made with a ball cutter are perhaps most often used for potatoes. Potatoes cut into large balls (about IV3 inch or 3 cm) are called parisienne.When cut into smaller balls (about 36 inch or 2.5 cm), they are called noisette. Of course, other solid vegetables, such as turnips, as well as many fruits, can be cut the same way. The procedure is illustrated in Figure 7.17.

Figure 7.17

Cutting parisienne potatoes.

(a) Place the ball cutter against the potato as shown.

(b) With the thumb, press the cutter firmly into the potato as far as it will go.

Parisienne Vegetable Cut

(c) Lift the handle of the cutter outward, twist the cutter around, and remove the ball.

9. Cutting tournéed vegetables.

To tourné a vegetable is to cut it into a neat seven-sided oval shape,as illustrated in Figure 7.18. Many root vegetables, such as carrots and turnips, are cut this way.When potatoes are tournéed, they are named according to their size. Cocotte potatoes are about 1/2 inches (4 cm) long. Château potatoes are about 2 inches (5 cm) long.

Figure 7.18

Tournéing potatoes and other root vegetables.

Figure 7.18

Tournéing potatoes and other root vegetables.

Chateau Tourne Potato

(a) Cut the potatoes roughly into pieces slightly larger than the final size desired. Cut off the top and bottom of each piece so they are flat and parallel.

Paring Root Crops

(b) Hold the potato between the thumb and forefinger and place the paring knife against the top edge as shown and the thumb of the cutting hand firmly against the potato. Your hand should be far enough up on the blade to maintain steady control.

(d) Turn the potato slightly (one-seventh of a full turn, to be exact) and repeat the motion.

(c) Cut downward toward your thumb with a curving movement of the blade.

(e) The finished product. If perfectly done, the potato has seven sides (but customers rarely count them).

10. Peeling grapefruit.

This technique,as shown in Figure 7.19, can also be used for peeling yellow turnips or other round vegetables and fruits with heavy peels.

Figure 7.19 Peeling a grapefruit.

Figure 7.19 Peeling a grapefruit.

(a) Cut off the ends of the grapefruit and turn it on a flat (b) Make sure the cut is deep enough to remove the peel end so it is stable. Slice off a section of the peel, following but not so deep as to waste the product. the contour of the grapefruit.

(c) Continue making slices around the grapefruit until all (d) Slice or section the fruit. (Squeeze the remaining pulp the peel is removed. for juice.)

11. Chiffonade.

This term refers to cutting leaves into fine shreds. It is applied most often to lettuce and sorrel.To cut chiffonade,remove the heavy leaf ribs, roll the leaves into a tight cylinder, and then slice the cylinder crosswise into thin shreds, as shown in Figure 7.20.

Figure 7.20

Cutting a chiffonade of sorrel.

Figure 7.20

Cutting a chiffonade of sorrel.

Vegetable Cutting Techniques

(a) Roll the leaves into a cylinder.

(b) Cut crosswise into thin strips or shreds.

(a) Roll the leaves into a cylinder.

(b) Cut crosswise into thin strips or shreds.

12. Cutting citrus zest.

With a paring knife, cut strips from the citrus peel, removing only the colored part, not the white part below it.Then, with a chef's knife, cut the zest into thin strips or julienne,as shown in Figure 7.21b.An alternative method is to use a citrus zester, as shown in Figure 7.21c.

Figure 7.21 Cutting citrus zest.

Figure 7.21 Cutting citrus zest.

(a) Use a paring knife to cut thin strips from the (b) Cut the strips of peel into julienne. (c) Alternatively, draw a zesting tool over the peel, being careful to cut only the outer colored fruit to cut thin strips of zest.

part, not the inner white pith.

Continue reading here: Blanching And Parcooking

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    How to cut cutting method parisienne?
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