Baking And Cooling

BAKING

Cake structure is fragile,so proper baking conditions are essential for high-quality prod-ucts.The following guidelines will help you avoid cake failures.

1. Preheat the ovens. (But to conserve expensive energy, don't preheat longer than necessary.)

2. Make sure ovens and shelves are level.

Table 32.1

Average Cake Scaling Weights, Baking Temperatures, and Times

Table 32.1

Average Cake Scaling Weights, Baking Temperatures, and Times

Scaling Weight

Baking Temperature

Approximate

Baking Time

Pan Type and Size

U.S.

Metric

U.S.

Metric

in Minutes

High-fat cakes

Round layers

6 in. (15 cm)

8-10 oz

230-285 g

375°F

190°C

18

8 in. (20 cm)

14-18 oz

400-510 g

375°F

190°C

25

10 in. (25 cm)

24-28 oz

680-800 g

360°F

180°C

35

12 in. (30 cm)

32-40 oz

900-1100 g

360°F

180°C

35

Sheets and square pans

18 x 26 in.(46 x 66 cm)

7-8 lb

3.2-3.6 kg

360°F

180°C

35

18 x 13 in.(46 x 33 cm)

312-4 lb

1.6-1.8 kg

360°F

180°C

35

9 x 9 in. (23 x 23 cm)

24 oz

680 g

360°F

180°C

30-35

Loaf (pound cake)

214 x 312 x 8 in.(6 x 9 x 20 cm)

16-18 oz

450-500 g

350°F

175°C

50-60

23/4 x 412 x 812 in.(7 x 11 x 22 cm)

24-27 oz

680-765 g

350°F

175°C

55-65

Cupcakes

per dozen

18 oz

510 g

385°F

195°C

18-20

Foam-type cakes

Round layers

6 in. (15 cm)

5-6 oz

140-170 g

375°F

190°C

20

8 in. (20 cm)

10 oz

280 g

375°F

190°C

20

10 in. (25 cm)

16 oz

450 g

360°F

180°C

25-30

12 in. (30 cm)

24 oz

700 g

360°F

180°C

25-30

Sheets (for jelly roll or sponge roll)

18 x 26 in., 12 in. thick

212 lb

12 kg

375°F

190°C

15-20

(46 x 66 cm, 12 mm thick)

18 x 26 in., x/4 in. thick

28 oz

800 g

400°F

200°C

7-10

(46 x 66 cm, 6 cm thick)

Tube (angel food and chiffon)

8 in. (20 cm)

12-14 oz

340-400 g

360°F

180°C

30

10 in. (25 cm)

24-32 oz

700-900 g

350°F

175°C

50

Cupcakes

per dozen

10 oz

280 g

375°F

190°C

18-20

Note: The weights given are averages.Weights may be increased by 25 percent if thicker layers are desired. Baking times may then need to be increased slightly.

Note: The weights given are averages.Weights may be increased by 25 percent if thicker layers are desired. Baking times may then need to be increased slightly.

3. Do not let pans touch each other in oven. If pans touch, air circulation is inhibited and the cakes rise unevenly.

4. Bake at the correct temperature.

Too hot an oven causes the cake to set unevenly or to set before it has fully risen. Crusts will be too dark.

Too slow an oven causes poor volume and texture because the cake doesn't set fast enough and may fall.

5. Do not open the ovens or disturb the cakes until they have finished rising and are partially browned. Disturbing the cakes before they are set may cause them to fall.

6. If steam in the oven is available, use it for creamed and two-stage batters.These cakes bake with a flatter top if baked with steam because the steam delays the formation of the top crust.

7. Tests for doneness:

• Shortened cakes shrink away from sides of pan slightly.

Table 32.2

Common Cake Faults and Their Causes

Fault

Causes

Volume and shape

Poor volume

Too little flour Too much liquid Too little leavening Oven too hot

Uneven shape

Improper mixing Batter spread unevenly Uneven oven heat Oven racks not level Cake pans warped

Crust

Too dark

Too much sugar Oven too hot

Too light

Too little sugar Oven not hot enough

Burst or cracked

Too much flour or flour too strong Too little liquid Improper mixing Oven too hot

Soggy

Underbaked Cooling in pans or with not enough ventilation Wrapping before cool

Texture

Dense or heavy

Too little leavening Too much liquid Too much sugar Too much shortening Oven not hot enough

Coarse or irregular

Too much leavening Too little egg Improper mixing

Crumbly

Too much leavening Too much shortening Too much sugar Wrong kind of flour Improper mixing

Tough

Flour too strong Too much flour Too little sugar or shortening Overmixing

Poorflavor

Poor-quality ingredients Poor storage or sanitation Unbalanced formula

• Cakes are springy. The center of the top springs back when pressed slightly.

• A cake tester or pick inserted in the center of the cake comes out clean.

COOLING AND REMOVING FROM PANS

1. Cool layer cakes and sheet cakes 15 minutes in pans and turn out while slightly warm.They are too fragile to turn out when hot, and they may break.

2. Turn out layer cakes onto racks to finish cooling.

3. To turn out sheet cakes:

• Sprinkle top lightly with granulated sugar.

• Set an empty sheet pan on top, bottom side down.

• Peel parchment off cake.

4. Cool angel food cakes upside down in pans. Support the edges of the pan so the top of the cake is off the bench.When cool, loosen the cake from the sides of the pan with a knife or spatula and pull out carefully.

COMMON CAKE FAULTS AND THEIR CAUSES

Errors in mixing, scaling, baking, and cooling cakes cause many kinds of defects and failures. For easy reference, these defects and their possible causes are summarized in the troubleshooting guide in Table 32.2.

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