Air is incorporated into a batter primarily by two methods, creaming and foaming.This air expands during baking and leavens the product.

1. Creaming is the process of beating fat and sugar together to incorporate air. It is an important technique in cake and cookie making. Some pound cakes and cookies are leavened almost entirely by this method.

2. Foaming is the process of beating eggs, with or without sugar, to incorporate air. Foams made with whole eggs are used to leaven sponge cakes, while angel food cakes, meringues, and souffl├ęs are leavened with egg white foams.

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