Professional Cooking

Cookie Characteristics And Their Causes

Cookies come in an infinite variety of shapes, sizes, flavors, and textures. Characteristics that are desirable in some are not desirable in others. For example, we want some cookies to be crisp and others to be soft.We want some to hold their shape and others to spread during baking. In order to produce the characteristics we want and to correct faults, it is useful to know what causes these characteristics. Cookies are crisp if they are very low in moisture.The following factors contribute to...

The Baking Process

The changes undergone by a dough or batter as it bakes are basically the same for all baked products, from breads to cookies and cakes. You should know what these changes are so you can learn how to control them. The stages in the baking process take place as follows. 1. Formation and expansion of gases. Some gases are already present in the dough, as in proofed bread dough and in sponge cake batters. As they are heated, the gases expand and leaven the product. Some gases are not formed until...

Guidelines for Making Fruit Salads

Fruit salads are often arranged rather than mixed or tossed because most fruits are delicate and easily broken. An exception is the Waldorf salad, made of firm apples mixed with nuts, celery, and a mayonnaise-based dressing. 2. Broken or less attractive pieces of fruit should be placed on the bottom of the salad, with the more attractive pieces arranged on top. 3. Some fruits discolor when cut and should be dipped into an acid such as tart fruit juice. See pages 680-684 for pre-preparation...

Broilers And Salamanders

Salamander Above Range

Broilers are sometimes called overhead broilers to avoid confusing them with grills. Overhead broilers generate heat from above, and food items are placed on a grate beneath the heat source. Broiling is a favorite way of preparing steaks, chops, chicken, and many other items. Heavy-duty broilers produce very high heat and consume vast quantities of energy. Some broilers are said to go as high as 2,000'F (1,100'C) at the burner. Foods must be watched closely to avoid burning. Cooking temperature...

Cutting Techniques

Vegetable Cutting Techniques

Different parts of the blade are appropriate for different purposes, as shown in Figure 7.7. (Note Prying off bottle caps is not a function of any part of the knife.) Using different parts of the knife blade. Using different parts of the knife blade. (a) The tip of the knife, where the blade is thinnest and narrowest, is used for delicate work and small items. (b) The center of the blade is used for most general work. (c) The heel of the knife is used for heavy or coarse work, especially when...

Chicken Paillard with Grilled Vegetables

Portions 12 Portion size 1 chicken breast, about 6 oz (175 g) Portions 12 Portion size 1 chicken breast, about 6 oz (175 g) Calories, 250 Protein, 34 g Fat, 11 g (41 cal.) Cholesterol, 95 mg Carbohydrates, 1 g Fiber, 0 g Sodium, 370 mg. Calories, 250 Protein, 34 g Fat, 11 g (41 cal.) Cholesterol, 95 mg Carbohydrates, 1 g Fiber, 0 g Sodium, 370 mg. 1. Place each chicken breast between sheets of plastic film. With a meat mallet, carefully pound to a uniform thickness of about 54 in. (6 mm). 2....

History Of Modern Food Service

The value of history is that it helps us understand the present and the future. In food service, knowledge of our professional heritage helps us see why we do things as we do, how our cooking techniques have been developed and refined, and how we can continue to develop and innovate in the years ahead. An important lesson of history is that the way we cook now is the result of the work done by countless chefs over hundreds of years. Cooking is as much science as it is art. Cooking techniques...

Common Seasoning And Flavoring Ingredients

Any food product can be used as a flavoring ingredient, even meat (as when crumbled bacon is added to sauteed potatoes or diced ham is included in a mirepoix). Sauces, which are complex preparations containing many flavoring ingredients, are themselves used as flavorings for meat, fish, vegetables, and desserts. We obviously cannot treat all possible flavoring ingredients here, but we discuss some of the most important as follows. A survey of herbs and spices is provided in Table 4.1 on pages...

Types And Makeup Methods

We can classify cookie types by makeup method as well as by mixing method. Grouping by the makeup method is perhaps more useful from the point of view of production because mixing methods are relatively simple, whereas makeup procedures vary considerably. In this section,we present basic procedures for producing seven cookie types No matter what makeup method you use, follow one important rule Make all cookies of uniform size and thickness .This is essential for even baking. Because baking...

Panning Baking And Cooling

Lining the sheets with parchment or silicone paper is fast, and it eliminates the necessity of greasing the pans. 3. A heavily greased pan increases the spread of the cookie. A greased and floured pan decreases spread. 4. Some high-fat cookies can be baked on ungreased pans. 1. Most cookies are baked at a relatively high temperature for a short time. 2. Too low a temperature increases spreading and may produce hard, dry, pale cookies. 3. Too high a temperature decreases spreading and may burn...

Arrangement And Presentation

A plated salad may have as many as four parts base, body, dressing,and garnish. All salads have body, and most have dressing, but base and garnish are parts of only some salads, as you will see in the following discussion. Of course this discussion refers only to individual plated salads.When we use the term salad to refer to a bulk mixture, as in two pounds of potato salad, references to the four parts of a salad do not apply. A scoop of potato salad looks bare when served by itself on a salad...

Sauteing And Panfrying

As in meat cookery, the exact distinction between saut ing and pan-frying fish is impossible to draw. For many purposes, the two terms are used interchangeably. A classic method for saut ing fish is called la meuni re (mun yair). In this preparation, the product is dredged in flour and saut ed in clarified butter or oil. It is then plated and sprinkled with lemon juice and chopped parsley, and freshly prepared hot brown butter (beurre noisette) is poured over it.When the hot butter hits the...

The Organization Of Modern Kitchens

The purpose of kitchen organization is to assign or allocate tasks so they can be done efficiently and properly and so all workers know what their responsibilities are. The way a kitchen is organized depends on several factors. The kinds of dishes to be produced obviously determine the jobs that need to be done.The menu is, in fact, the basis of the entire operation. Because of its impor- tance,we devote a whole chapter to a study of the menu (Chapter 5). The major types of food service...

Temporary Emulsions

A simple oil and vinegar dressing is called a temporary emulsion because the two liquids always separate after being shaken. The harder the mixture is beaten or shaken, the longer it takes for it to separate. This is because the oil and water are broken into smaller droplets, so the droplets take longer to recombine with each other so the oil and water can separate.When a mixture of oil and vinegar is mixed in a blender, the resulting mixture stays in emulsion considerably longer. Some...

Specialty And National Soups

This is a catch-all category that includes soups that don't fit well into the main categories and soups that are native to particular countries or regions. Specialty soups are distinguished by unusual ingredients or methods, such as turtle soup,gumbo, peanut soup, and cold fruit soup. Cold soups are sometimes considered specialty soups, and, in fact, some of them are. But many other popular cold soups, such as jellied consomm , cold cream of cucumber soup, and vichyssoise (vee shee swahz) are...

White Wheat Flour

White wheat flour is milled from wheat kernels after the outer covering, called bran, and the germ are removed.Wheat flour contains about 63 to 73 percent starch and 7 to 15 percent protein.The rest is moisture, fat, sugar, and minerals. Wheat flour is the source of the protein called gluten,which you remember is one of the essential elements in baking. Bakers select flour on the basis of its gluten content. Flours high in protein are called strong, and those low in protein are called weak....

Food Hazards

Preventing food-borne illness is one of the most important challenges facing every food service worker. In order to prevent illness, a food worker must understand the sources of food-borne disease. Most food-borne illness is the result of eating food that has been contaminated. To say that a food is contaminated means it contains harmful substances that were not present originally in the food. In other words, contaminated food is food that is not pure. In this section we first discuss the...

Guidelines for Handling Convenience Foods

Handle with the same care you give fresh, raw ingredients. Most loss of quality in convenience foods comes from assuming they are damage-proof and can be treated haphazardly. 2. Examine as soon as received. Particularly, check frozen foods with a thermometer to make sure they have not thawed in transit. Put away at once. Frozen foods must be held at 0 F (-18 C) or lower. Check your freezer with a thermometer regularly. Refrigerated foods must stay chilled, below 41 F (5 C), to slow spoilage....

Other Dressings

Cooked salad dressing is similar in appearance to mayonnaise, but it has a more tart flavor, while mayonnaise is richer and milder. Cooked dressing is made with little or no oil and with a starch thickener. It may be made in the kitchen or purchased already prepared. Formerly, it was little used in commercial kitchens because of its strong flavor and tartness, but now it is preferred to mayonnaise in some regions. You will find in many cookbooks a great variety of dressings based on neither...

Metric Recipes

Many recipe writers in the United States print exact metric equivalents in their recipes. As a result, you will see recipes calling for 454 grams of potatoes, 28.35 grams of butter, or a baking temperature of 191 C.No wonder many Americans are afraid of the metric system Kitchens in countries that use the metric system do not work with such impractical numbers, any more than cooks in the United States normally use figures like 1 lb 114 oz potatoes, 2.19 oz butter, or a baking temperature of 348...

Bibliography

The Baker's Manual for Quantity Baking and Pastry Making, 5th ed. Hoboken, New Jersey John Wiley & Sons, 2002. Anderson,Jean. The Food of Portugal. New York Morrow, 1986. Anderson,Jean, and Hedy Wurz. The New German Cookbook.New York HarperCollins, 1993. Andoh, Elizabeth. At Home with Japanese Cooking. New York Knopf, 1980. Bayless, Rick. Authentic Mexican. New York Morrow, 1987. Bertolli, Paul, and Alice Waters. Chez Panisse Cooking. New York Random House, 1988....

Metals And Conductivity

A good cooking utensil distributes heat evenly and uniformly. A poor cooking utensil develops hot spots that are likely to burn or scorch the food being cooked.Two factors affect a pan's ability to cook evenly 1. Thickness of the metal. A heavy-gauge pot cooks more evenly than one made of thin metal.Thickness is most important on the bottom. 2. Kind of metal. Different metals have different conductivity,which means the speed at which they transfer or disperse heat.The following materials are...

Recipes And Techniques

Taqueria Tsunami Recipes

Thorough mise en place is extremely important in salad-making. Little cooking is in-volved,but a great deal of time-consuming handwork is. Salads can be made quickly and efficiently only if the station is set up properly. Procedure for Quantity Salad Production_ When salads are made in quantity, an assembly-line production system is most efficient. Figure 21.1 illustrates this technique. Remember the rules of safe food handling. Most salad ingredients are eaten without further cooking, so it is...

Ollingin Procedure for Danish and Croissant Dough

The rolling-in procedure has two parts. Enclosing the fat in the dough. In the method illustrated in Figure 30.3, the fat is spotted on two-thirds of the dough and the dough is folded in thirds like a business letter. This results in five layers three layers of dough and two layers of fat. Rolling out and folding the dough to increase the number of layers. In these doughs, we use a simple fold, or three-fold, which means that we fold the dough in thirds. Each complete rolling and folding step...

Tuna Carpaccio with Sheeps Milk Cheese

Portions 12 Portion size 5 oz (150 g) tuna 21 z oz (70 g) garnish P ifloz (45 mL) sauce U.S. Metric Ingredients 7 floz 3 oz 12 floz to taste to taste 412 lb 200 mL 80 g 375 mL to taste to taste 2 kg Lime juice Shallots, chopped Olive oil Salt 1. Combine the lime juice, shallots, and olive oil to make a marinade, seasoning it with salt and pepper. 2. Slice the tuna into paper-thin slices, using a slicing machine. Marinate, refrigerated, for 2 hours. Calories, 620 Protein, 50 g Fat, 44 g (64...

Instructional Recipes

The recipes in this book are not standardized recipes. Remember that a standardized recipe is custom-made for a particular operation.The recipes in this book are obviously not. The purpose of a standardized recipe is to direct and control the production of a particular food item. Directions must be as complete and exact as possible. The purpose of the instructional recipes in this book is to teach basic cooking tech-niques.They provide an opportunity for you to practice, with specific...

Guidelines for Making Gelatin Salads

It is important to use the right amount of gelatin for the volume of liquid in the recipe. Too much gelatin makes a stiff, rubbery product. Too little makes a soft product that will not hold its shape. Basic proportions for unflavored gelatin are 2Y2 ounces dry gelatin per gallon (19 g per liter) of liquid, butyou will almost always need more than this because of acids and other ingredients in the recipe. Basic proportions for sweetened, flavored gelatin are 24 ounces per gallon (180 g per...

Types Of Salads

Today, the variety of salads on offer seems to be greater than ever in memory. Restaurants that once listed no more than two or three salads on their menu now devote an entire page to the category. New kinds of salads fill bin after bin in the prepared-food sections of supermarkets and delicatessens. At the same time, more traditional salads have not lost their importance. In schools, hospitals, nursing homes, neighborhood diners, and mom-and-pop restaurants, cooks who may never have heard of...

How Does The Baker Control Gluten

Flour is mostly starch, but its protein or gluten content, not its starch, concerns the baker most.Without gluten proteins to give structure, baked goods would not hold together. The baker must be able to control the gluten, however. For example, we want French bread to be firm and chewy, which requires much gluten. On the other hand, we want cakes to be tender, which means we want very little gluten development. Ingredient proportions and mixing methods are determined, in part, by how they...

Bavarians Chiffons Mousses And Souffls

All the preparations in this section have one thing in common They all have a light, fluffy, or puffed texture created by the addition of whipped cream, beaten egg whites, or both. Although these particular products may be new to you, you should have little trouble learning to prepare them if you have already studied the previous chapter and the first part of this chapter. Once you have learned to prepare cr me anglaise, pastry cream, starch-thickened fruit fillings,meringues, and whipped cream...

Assembling And Icing Cakes

The flavor, texture, and color of the icing must be compatible with the cake. 1. In general, use heavy frostings with heavy cakes and light frostings with light cakes. For example, ice angel food cakes with a simple flat icing, fondant, or a light, fluffy boiled icing. High-ratio cakes go well with buttercreams and fudge-type icings. Shortened sponge layer cakes (genoise) are often combined with fruits or fruit fillings, light French or meringue-type buttercream, whipped cream, or flavored...

Pan Gravies And Other Integral Sauces

An integral sauce is a sauce based on the juices released during the cooking of a meat, poultry, fish, or vegetable item. Most of the sauces we have discussed so far are not integral sauces.That is, they are made separately from and independently of the items they are served with. An integral sauce,on the other hand, can't be made separately, because it incorporates cooking juices from the item it is served with. Basic Procedure for Making Pan Gravy Method 2 has fewer steps, but Method 1 is...

Hy Chicken Stir Fry with Walnuts

Portions 12 Portion size 6 oz (175 g) 4 fl oz 125 mL 4 oz 125 g Calories, 270 Protein, 22 g Fat, 16 g (53 cal.) Cholesterol, 60 mg Carbohydrates, 10 g Fiber, 2 g Sodium, 610 mg. 1. Remove all fat from the chicken. Cut into 12-in. (1-cm) dice. 2. Cut the peppers in half and remove the core and seeds. Cut into strips 54 in. (5-2 cm) wide. 3. Cut off the roots and withered parts of the green tops of the scallions. Split the scallions in half lengthwise and cut into 1-in. (212-cm) pieces. Combine...

Shark Mako Loin Mail

* V Sweet Corn and Chile Pur e 189 V White Bean Pur e 189 Chipotle Cream Sauce 190 Tomato Broth for Chiles Rellenos 190 * Nuoc Cham (Vietnamese Dipping Sauce) 193 Thai Red Curry Sauce 194 White Wine Cream Sauce for Fish 197 Yogurt Sour Cream Sauce 197 V Sauce Vierge 197 Port Wine Sauce 198 Ginger Oil, Horseradish Oil, or Garlic Oil 200 Lemon or Orange Oil 200 Rosemary Oil, Sage Oil, Thyme Oil, or Oregano Oil 200 Cinnamon Oil, Cumin Oil, Curry Oil, Ginger Oil, or Paprika Oil 200 Basil Oil,...

Puddings Frozen Desserts o and Sauces

quick glance at this last chapter may give you the impression that you will be overwhelmed with a great many recipes and techniques within a few pages. Among the subjects covered are custard sauces, pastry cream, puddings, custards, mousses, bavarians, souffl s, ice cream, and dessert sauces. It's all much simpler than it seems. Once you have learned three basic preparations vanilla custard sauce, pastry cream, and baked custard you will have learned most of the rest. Vanilla custard sauce,...

Basic Custards And Creams

The three preparations presented in this section are among the most basic and useful preparations in the bakeshop.All three can be classified as custards because they consist of a liquid thickened by the coagulation of eggs. Cr me anglaise, or vanilla custard sauce, is a stirred custard. It consists of milk, sugar, and egg yolks (and vanilla) stirred over very low heat until lightly thickened. Pastry cream contains starch thickeners as well as eggs, resulting in a much thicker and more stable...

Dessert Sauces

Most dessert sauces fall into one of three categories. Vanilla custard sauce, or cr me anglaise, is presented early in this chapter. It is among the most basic preparations in dessert cookery. Chocolate or other flavors may be added to create varieties. See recipe on page 1008. These are simply pur es of fresh or cooked fruits, sweetened with sugar. Other flavorings and spices are sometimes added. Some fruit sauces are thickened with cornstarch or other starch. Raspberry sauce and strawberry...

Salad Bars And Buffet Service

Salad bars are frequent fixtures in restaurants and are popular with both customer and restaurateur.The customer enjoys being able to custom make a salad with selections from a large bowl of greens, smaller containers of assorted condiments, and a variety of dressings.The restaurateur likes them because they take some of the pressure off the dining room staff during service. Many restaurants have designed unique salad bars that have become almost a trademark. Others may not have salad bars as...

Sauteed Veal Sweetbreads with Shiitake Mushrooms and Port Wine Sauce

Portions 10 Portion size 4 oz (125 g) sweetbreads, plus sauce and garnish to taste to taste as needed as needed to taste to taste as needed as needed Sweetbreads, blanched, trimmed, and pressed according to the procedure on page 279 Salt Pepper Flour as needed as needed Clarified butter 154 lb 625 g Shiitake mushrooms, caps only, cut into strips to taste to taste Salt 1 pt 500 mL Port Wine Sauce (p. 175) Calories, 330 Protein, 23 g Fat, 16 g (43 cal.) Cholesterol, 340 mg Carbohydrates, 17 g...

French English Cooking Vocabulary

Abaisser ah bay say To roll a dough to the desired thickness with the aid of a rolling pin. Abats ah bah Offal internal organs of butchered animals sold mainly by stores called triperies that specialize in this.White offal are sweet-breads,feet,brains. Red offal are heart,lungs,liver. Abattis ah bah tee The feet, neck, head, wingtips, liver, gizzard, and heart of poultry. Accommoder ah koh mo day To prepare and season a dish for cooking. Acidifier ah si di fee ay To add lemon juice or vinegar...

Frozen Desserts

The popularity of ice cream needs no explanation.Whether a plain scoop of vanilla ice cream in a dish or an elaborate assemblage of fruits, syrups, toppings, and numerous flavors of ice cream and sherbet, frozen desserts appeal to just about everyone. Ice cream is a smooth,frozen mixture of milk, cream, sugar, flavorings, and, some-times,eggs. Philadelphia-style ice cream contains no eggs,while French-style ice cream contains egg yolks.The eggs add richness and help make a smoother product...

Bread And Roll Formulas

The basic yeast dough mixing and baking methods discussed earlier in this chapter apply to the following formulas.Therefore, the methods are not repeated in detail for each formula.The basic procedures are indicated, and you should refer to the first part of this chapter if you need to refresh your memory for details. Makeup techniques for loaves, rolls, and other items are described and illustrated after this recipe section. Calories, 90 Protein, 3 g Fat, 1 g (10 cal.) Cholesterol, 0 mg...

Guidelines for Making Bound Salads

Cooked ingredients must be thoroughly cooled before being mixed with mayonnaise, and the completed salad mixture must be kept chilled at all times. Mayonnaise-type salads are ideal breeding grounds for bacteria that cause food poisoning. 2. Bound salads are good ways to use leftovers such as chicken, meat, or fish, but the ingredient must have been handled according to the rules of good sanitation and food handling. The product will not be cooked again to destroy any bacteria that might grow in...

Low Fat Buttermilk Yogurt Dressing

Metric unflavored Buttermilk Prepared mustard, French or Dijon style Wine vinegar Lemon juice Worcestershire sauce Chopped parsley Finely chopped garlic Shallots, chopped fine Celery seed Sugar Salt Pepper Calories, 15 Protein, 1 g Fat, 0 g (0 cal.) Cholesterol, 0 mg Carbohydrates, 3 g Fiber, 0 g Sodium, 45 mg. 1. Mix all ingredients together until uniformly blended. appetizer salad accompaniment salad main-course salad separate-course salad dessert salad four...

Standards Of Professionalism

What does it take to be a good food service worker The emphasis of a food service education is on learning a set of skills. But in many ways, attitudes are more important than skills because a good attitude will help you not only learn skills but also persevere and overcome the many difficulties you will face. The successful food service worker follows an unwritten code of behavior and set of attitudes we call professionalism. Let's look at some of the qualities a professional must have. In...

Professional Cooking Glossary

Note Phonetic guides are included for difficult French words, giving the approximate pronunciation using English sounds. Exact rendering is impossible in many cases because French has a number of sounds that don't exist in English. Aboyeur (ah bwah yer) Kitchen worker who accepts and transmits orders from waiters, calls for orders to be finished,inspects finished dishes, and passes them to the dining room staff. Adductor Muscle The muscle with which a mollusk closes its shell. In the case of...

Variations

Figure Working With Fresh Egg Pasta

Working from the center outward, gradually mix the flour into the eggs to make a dough. When it is firm enough to knead, begin kneading the dough, incorporating more flour. If the dough is still sticky when all the flour has been incorporated, add more flour, a little at a time. Knead well for at least 15 minutes. Cover the dough and let it rest for at least 30 minutes. Cut the dough into 3 to 5 pieces. Set the rollers of a pasta machine at the widest opening. Pass the pieces of dough through...

Kinds of Marinades

Used when long keeping quality is important. Modern refrigeration has made cooked marinades less widely used.An advantage of cooked marinades is that spices release more flavor into the marinade when it is cooked. Most widely used for long marination under refrigeration. For example, see the recipe for Sauerbraten (p. 345). Figure 7.22 shows meat in a raw marinade. Beef chuck in a raw marinade of red wine, wine vinegar, spices, and aromatic vegetables. Beef chuck in a raw marinade of red wine,...

Understanding Meats and Game

It is the flesh of domestic animals (cattle, hogs, and lambs) and of wild game animals (such as deer). As a cook, chef, or food service operator, you will spend more of your time and money on meats than on any other food. It is important, then, to understand meats thoroughly in order to cook them well and profitably. Why are some meats tender and some tough How can you tell one cut from another when there are so many How do you determine the best way to cook each cut In...

Completed Cooked Yield Test Form

Item roast, fr.esh .h.am AP price per lb .3 49 Cooking temperature 3.2.5.0 Net raw weight (1) I.2. lb Net cost per lb (2) .3 9.3 Total net cost (3) M7 16 Weight as served (4) 8 .lb . 4. Cooked cost per lb (3 divided by 4) (5) Shrinkage (1 minus 4) (6) Percentage of shrinkage (6 divided by 1) (7) Total percentage of cost increase (5 divided by AP price per lb) (8) 1.6.4. In some cases, on the other hand, your portions may be based on cooked weight. This is most often true of roasts. For...

2625ml Divide By 250ml

Kitchen Math Exercises Metric Versions This appendix includes metric sample calculations corresponding to the calculations in the text that use U.S. measures. Refer to the appropriate pages in the text for explanations. Beef Tenderloin Tips and Mushrooms la Cr me To determine quantities for 18 portions, divide new yield by old yield to find conversion factor To determine quantities for 40 portions at 175 grams each, first find the total yield of the old recipe. Multiply the portions by the...

Terrines Based On Mousselines

The body of most fish terrines, as well as some vegetable terrines and other specialty items, consists of a mousseline forcemeat.They are made like traditional terrines, except that a mousseline forcemeat takes the place of the straight forcemeat. A mousseline forcemeat consists of raw, pureed fish, poultry, or meat combined with heavy cream and,usually but not always, eggs or egg whites. Because they contain no starch or binder, and because of the large quantity of cream they contain,...

Menu And Serving Sequence

Practical reasons as well as visual appeal determine the order in which foods are arranged on the buffet. As far as possible, it is good to have items in the proper menu order (for example, appetizers first, main course afterward, desserts last) if only to avoid confusing the customers, who might otherwise wonder what the food is and how much they should take. But there are many reasons for changing the order. The following should be taken into account when arranging a buffet. 1. Hot foods are...

Basic Principles Of Platter Presentation

The three elements of a buffet platter Centerpiece or grosse pi ce (gross pyess).This may be an uncut portion of the main food item, such as a p t or a cold roast, decorated and displayed whole. It may be a separate but related item, such as a molded salmon mousse on a platter of poached slices of salmon in aspic. It may be something as simple as a bowl or ravier (rahv yay an oval relish dish) of sauce or condiment. Or it may be strictly for decoration, such as a butter sculpture or a squash...

Basic Ingredients

The mixture of ingredients we use to clarify a stock is called the clearmeat or the clarification. Lean ground meat is one of the major sources of protein that enables the clear-meat to do its job. It also contributes flavor to the consomm .The meat must be lean because fat is undesirable in a consomm . Beef shank,also called shin beef,is the most desirable meat because it is high in albumin proteins as well as in flavor and gelatin, and it is very lean. Beef and or chicken meat are used to...

Chilled Melon and Mint Soup

Scrape the seeds from the galia, Charentais, and honeydew melons. Remove as many seeds as possible from the watermelon. Cut the flesh of each type of melon into balls with a ball cutter and place in a bowl. Cover and refrigerate. 2. Scoop the remaining flesh from the melons. Place in a food processor and pur e. (Do not use a blender unless you remove all the watermelon seeds first, as it will chop the seeds into fine bits.) Strain to remove watermelon seeds. 3. Taste and, if...

Standardized Recipes

A standardized recipe is a set of instructions describing the way a particular establishment prepares a particular dish. In other words, it is a customized recipe developed by an operation for the use of its own cooks, using its own equipment, to be served to its own patrons. 2. The structure of a standardized recipe. Recipe formats differ from operation to operation, but nearly all of them try to include as much precise information as possible.The following details may be listed Yield,...

Procedure for Preparing Poultry Livers for Forcemeats

Rinse the livers in cold water, drain, then soak for 24 hours in enough milk to cover. 2. Drain and rinse thoroughly in cold water. Drain again. 3. Remove all fat and connective tissue. At this point, the livers are ready to be used whole as garnish for p t s and terrines. If they are to be added to forcemeats, continue with steps 4 and 5. 4. Blend in a blender until liquid. 5. Strain through a fine china cap or strainer to remove all traces of connective tissue. The following recipe can be...

Modern Sauces

As suggested in the introduction to this chapter, sauce-making has changed a great deal since Escoffier's day. Although our basic methods for making many of the sauces in the modern kitchen are derived from classical cuisine, details have changed. Perhaps the most important change is that chefs rely less on roux for thickening a sauce, while reduction has become more important to give sauces body (see p. 166).When starches are used, they are often purer starches such as arrowroot. Chefs have...

Cabbage Green Red and Savoy

Identification Cabbages are large leaf clusters in dense,round heads (heads may also be flat or elongated, depending on the variety). Cabbage and mustard are in the same family, a relationship that can be detected in the faintly peppery taste. Evaluation For both green and red cabbage, look for a firm head, heavy for size. Good color. Crisp leaves, finely ribbed. Savoy cabbage is not as heavy, with darker green, ruffled leaves. Preparation Remove coarse or discolored outer leaves. Remove core...

Preparing White Stocks

A good white stock has rich, full flavor, good body, clarity, and little or no color. Chicken stocks may have a light yellow color. Procedure for Preparing White Stocks_ 1. Cut the bones into pieces, 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) long. This exposes more surface area and helps extraction. A meat saw is used to cut heavy veal and beef bones. Fish and chicken bones don't need to be cut, but whole carcasses should be chopped for more convenient handling. 2. Rinse the bones in cold water. (If desired,...

Thai Green Curry of Pork with Vegetables

Portions 12 Portion size 7 oz (200g) Portions 12 Portion size 7 oz (200g) Boneless pork loin, cut into thin slices Bok choy, cut into 1-in. (2.5-cm) pieces Thai Green Curry Sauce (p. 194), hot Thai Green Curry of Pork with Vegetables Thai Green Curry of Pork with Vegetables Heat half the oil in a large saut pan or wok. Over high heat, stir-fry the pork just until it loses its pink color. Cook it in several batches if necessary. Remove from pan. Add the rest of the oil to the pan. With the pan...

Lombatine di Maiale alla Napoletana

Portions 16 Portion size 1 chop, 3-4 oz (90-125 g) vegetables U.S. Metric Ingredients 1. Char the peppers over a gas flame until the skin is black. Rub off the blackened skin under cold running water. Remove and discard the seeds and core and cut the peppers into batonnet (see note). 3. Peel, seed, and chop the tomatoes. Calories, 430 Protein, 45 g Fat, 23 g (49 cal.) Cholesterol, 125 mg Carbohydrates, 9 g Fiber, 2 g Sodium, 100 mg. Calories, 430 Protein, 45 g Fat, 23 g (49 cal.) Cholesterol,...

Cooking With Judgment

When you make a recipe for the first time,you should apply your knowledge and thinking about the recipe in relation to the skills you have. In particular, you should determine the following points 1. What are the basic cooking methods When you read the recipe for Sauerbraten (p. 345),you will quickly figure out that the cooking method used is braising (even if the word braise is never used in the recipe).Then you should review in your mind everything you know about basic braising procedures. 2....

Raw Yield Test

Suppose you work in a restaurant that serves veal scaloppine. The restaurant buys whole legs of veal. It is your job to bone out the veal, trim off all fat and connective tissue, separate the muscles at the seams, and cut the large pieces into scaloppine. A typical whole leg of veal might weigh 30 pounds and cost 5.00 a pound for a total cost of 150.00.After finishing your trimming and cutting, you find you have 18 pounds of veal scallopine. How do you figure the cost per pound of this meat The...

Cooking Healthful Meals

Restaurateurs and chefs are becoming more and more attentive to people's health and diet concerns. Many of them are reexamining their menus, modifying their cooking practices, and adding new, healthful items to their menus. Some have developed new menus that are specially planned to follow as closely as possible the eight recommendations listed above. An increased health consciousness has affected the way we think about food and the way we cook. Professional cooks are making their foods more...

The Uses And Limitations Of Recipes

Many people believe that learning to cook means simply learning recipes. Knowledgeable cooks, on the other hand, are able to prepare food without written recipes,if they have to, because they have a good understanding of basic principles and techniques.A recipe is a way of applying basic techniques to specific ingredients. If you have read Chapter 4, or have even casually leafed through this book, you know it is not just a book of recipes. Although there are hundreds of recipes in this book,...

Menu Planning

A well-planned menu takes care to utilize ingredients efficiently and in a way that avoids waste.When writing a menu, consider the following guidelines for total utilization of foods. Unless you use only portion-controlled meats,poultry,and fish and only frozen and canned vegetables,you will have edible trim.You can either throw it away and call it a loss, or you can use it and make money on it. Plan recipes that utilize these trimmings and put them on the menu. For example Use small meat...

Hollandaise And Barnaise

Hollandaise is considered an egg-thickened sauce, but the egg doesn't thicken by coagulation as it does in a liaison or in a custard sauce. Instead,it works by emulsification. An emulsion is a uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids. In the case of hollandaise, the two liquids are melted butter and water (including the water in the lemon juice or the vinegar reduction).The two stay mixed and thick because the butter is beaten into tiny droplets and the egg yolks hold the droplets apart.You...

Cream Soups

Learning to cook professionally, as you have already heard, is not learning recipes but learning basic techniques that you can apply to specific needs. The basic techniques of sauce-making were discussed in Chapter 8. If we tell you that cream soups are simply diluted velout or b chamel sauces, flavored with the ingredient for which they are named, you should almost be able to make a cream of celery soup without further instructions. It's not quite that simple.There are some complications, but...

Light Meat And Dark Meat

Poultry is not divided into as many small cuts as are meats. Chicken and turkey,however, are usually thought of as consisting of two kinds of parts, depending on the color of the meat.These color differences reflect other differences Light meat breast and wings Less fat Dark meat legs (drumsticks and thighs) More fat More connective tissue Takes longer to cook Duck,goose,and squab have all dark meat,but the same differences in connective tissue hold true. The dark color of dark meat is due to a...

Potato Croquettes with Peppers

Halve the red and green peppers and place under a hot grill until the skin is black and blistered. Cool. Remove the skin and seeds, and cut peppers into i4-in. Boil the potatoes and prepare a basic potato pur e as Mix the peppers gently with the mashed potato, butter, and With flour-dusted hands, shape the potato mixture into 36 balls. Set up Standard Breading Procedure (p. 143) and Just before service, deep-fry the croquettes at 350 F (175 C). Calories, 270 Protein, 6 g Fat, 12 g (40 cal.)...

About The Sausage Recipes

Before proceeding to the sausage recipes that follow, please take note of the following points. 1. Refer to the general procedures for making sausages on pages 836-837. Some of these points are not repeated in each recipe. 2. Ratios of fat to lean are not specified in most of the recipes. Refer to the explanation of fat-lean ratios on page 832 and adjust the amount of fat in the recipes as desired.

Using Aspic Jelly And Chaudfroid Sauce

As discussed earlier, aspic and chaud-froid are used to enhance both the appearance and the flavor of cold foods. For best results, the aspic and chaud-froid, as well as the foods to be coated, should be prepared and handled in specific ways.The following sections offer general procedures for handling these products. Specific applications, such as recipes for aspic-based terrine molds, are included later in the chapter. Aspic jelly must be cooled to just above congealing temperature before it...

Producing And Handling Basic Types

Icings or frostings (the two terms mean the same thing) are sweet coatings for cakes and other baked goods. Icings have three main functions 1. They improve the keeping qualities of the cake by forming a protective coating around it. 2. They contribute flavor and richness. There are six basic kinds of icings Foam-type icing Royal or decorator's icing In addition,we consider two other preparations for cakes Use top-quality flavorings for icings so they enhance the cake rather than detract from...

Gluten Development In Quick Breads

Only slight gluten development is desired in most quick breads.Tenderness is the desired quality, in contrast to the chewy quality of yeast breads. In addition, chemical leavening agents do not create the same kind of textures that yeast does and are not strong enough to create a light, tender product if the gluten is too strong. 1. Muffin, loaf bread, and pancake batters are mixed as little as possible,just until the dry ingredients are moistened.This,plus the presence of fat and sugar,keeps...

Procedure for Coating Foods with Aspic Jelly

For best results, the surface of the item should be as smooth and as free of fat as possible. 2. Place the item on a wire rack over a tray or sheet pan. Excess aspic that falls onto the tray can be remelted and reused. 3. Cool the aspic jelly according to the procedure above. 4. Use the aspic as soon as it is ready. Various methods can be used to coat foods with aspic, depending on the size and shape of the item. For smooth, regularly shaped items, use a large ladle...

Terrine of Vegetables and Chicken in Aspic

Yield approximately 2 lb 8 oz (1.1 kg) Cooked chicken breast, boneless and skinless Mayonnaise Chaud-Froid (p. 851) 1. If the chicken pieces are large, cut them in half lengthwise. They should be no more than about 2-2V2 in. (5-6 cm) wide. Arrange them on a rack with the best side up. Coat them with a thin layer of chaud-froid. Chill until set. 2 2 Artichokes, medium 1 1 Lemon 4 oz 115 g Tomatoes, whole, fresh 3 oz 90 g Green beans 6 oz 175 g Asparagus 2. Trim and peel the carrots. Cut into...

Handling Dried Vegetables

There are two basic kinds of dried vegetables. Dried beans and peas have been used as food for thousands of years, and they continue to be important foods even today. In fact, with today's increased interest in healthful eating and in vegetables of all sorts,many more interesting varieties of beans are widely available now than only a few years ago. Although legumes are dried forms of seed vegetables, they are hard and starchy and handled much like grains (which are also dried seeds). Grains...

The Submersion Method Poaching And Simmering In Court Bouillon

Court bouillon may be defined as water containing seasonings, herbs, and usually an acid,used for cooking fish.The name means short broth'in French, so called because it is made quickly, unlike stocks. In quantity food service, this method is perhaps used most often for cooking large whole fish that are to be decorated and served cold on a buffet. Slightly higher simmering temperatures are used for cooking crustaceans, such as lobster, crab, and shrimp. The famous preparation called truit au...

Pesce con Salsa Verde

Portions 16 Portion size 1 piece offish, plus P i oz (45 mL) sauce Court bouillon Onion, sliced Celery, chopped Parsley stems Bay leaf Fennel seeds Salt 1. Combine the court bouillon ingredients in a pot. Simmer for 15 minutes. crusts removed Wine vinegar Parsley, leaves only Garlic Soak the bread in the vinegar for 15 minutes, then squeeze it out. Combine the parsley, garlic, capers, and anchovies on a cutting board and chop them very well. Mash the egg yolks and the bread pulp together in a...

Mushrooms A Special Topic

Because of the great interest today in exotic mushrooms, and because eating some poisonous species of wild mushrooms can be fatal, it is important for the cook to be familiar with at least the most popular varieties of exotic mushrooms, both cultivated and wild. Although hundreds of mushroom varieties are edible, until recently only the common cultivated button mushroom was used with any frequency in most commercial kitchens. Now, however, many varieties are available. Some of these mushrooms,...

Rolledin Doughs Danish Pastry And Croissants

Rolled-in doughs contain many layers of fat sandwiched between layers of dough.These layers create the flakiness you are familiar with in Danish pastry. Two basic kinds of rolled-in yeast doughs are made in the bakeshop Rolled-in doughs are mixed only slightly because the rolling-in procedure continues to develop the gluten. Butter is the preferred fat for flavor and the melt-in-the-mouth quality of rolled-in doughs. Specially formulated shortenings are available when lower cost and greater...

Guidelines for Braising Meats

The basic principle of braising is a combination of searing or browning and then simmering. This process accomplishes two things it cooks the meat, and it produces a sauce. (You will use some of your sauce-making techniques when you braise meats.) Before giving basic procedures that apply to most popular braised meats, we discuss factors that affect the quality of the finished product. The meat may be seasoned before browning, or it may receive its seasonings from the cooking liquid while...

Poached Fingers of Salmon and Turbot with Saffron and Julienne of Vegetables

Portions 10 Portion size 5 oz (150 g) fish Portions 10 Portion size 5 oz (150 g) fish Cut the leeks, carrots, and celery or celery root into julienne and keep the trimmings. Place the trimmings into a deep pan with the onion and cover with the water. Bring slowly to a boil and skim to remove any impurities. Simmer for 30 minutes, then strain into a shallow poaching pan and keep barely simmering to reduce to 1V2 qt (1.5 L). Season. Calories, 280 Protein, 36 g Fat, 11 g (37 cal.) Cholesterol, 110...

Egg Yolk And Cream Liaison

In classical cooking, a liaison is a mixture of egg yolks and cream, used to enrich and lightly thicken a sauce or other liquid. Egg yolks have the power to thicken a sauce slightly due to the coagulation of egg proteins when heated. Caution must be used when thickening with egg yolks because of the danger of curdling.This happens when the proteins coagulate too much and separate from the liquid. Pure egg yolks coagulate at about 140 F to 158 F (60 C to 70 C). For this reason, they are beaten...

Beurre Blanc

Dry white wine White wine vinegar Shallots, chopped 1. Combine the wine, vinegar, and shallots in a saucepan. Reduce until about 1 oz (30 mL) liquid remains. Calories, 210 Protein, 0 g Fat, 23 g (94 cal.) Cholesterol, 60 mg Carbohydrates, 1 g Fiber, 0 g Sodium, 240 mg. 2. Cut the butter into small pieces. 3. Add the butter to the hot reduction. Set the pan over moderately high heat and whip vigorously. When the butter is nearly all melted and incorporated, remove from the heat and continue to...

Hollandaise Sauce I

Calories, 280 Protein, 1 g Fat, 31 g (99 cal.) Cholesterol, 155 mg Carbohydrates, 0 g Fiber, 0 g Sodium, 310 mg. Review the guidelines for preparing hollandaise and b arnaise (p. 181). Clarify the butter (see p. 178). You should have about 2 lb (900g) clarified butter. Keep the butter warm but not hot. Calories, 280 Protein, 1 g Fat, 31 g (99 cal.) Cholesterol, 155 mg Carbohydrates, 0 g Fiber, 0 g Sodium, 310 mg. Combine the peppercorns, salt, and vinegar in a saucepan and reduce until nearly...

Salsa Cruda

Calories, 10 Protein, 0 g Fat, 0 g (0 cal.) Cholesterol, 0 mg 1. Chop the tomatoes fine. (You may peel them, but it is not necessary.) 2. Remove the stem end of the chiles. Chop the chiles fine. 4. Mix together the tomato, chiles, onion, cilantro, and lime juice or vinegar. Dilute with water or tomato juice to make a thick, chunky sauce. This sauce is used as a table condiment with many dishes, including eggs, broiled meats, tacos, tortillas, and beans. It is best if used within a few hours. 1....

Vegetable Caper Relish

Zucchini (outside part only, without the seeds), cut brunoise Red pepper, roasted and peeled (p. 529), cut brunoise Cucumber, peeled, seeded cut brunoise Calories, 25 Protein, 0 g Fat, 2 g (69 cal.) Cholesterol, 0 mg Carbohydrates, 2 g Fiber, 0 g Sodium, 55 mg. Heat the olive oil in a saute pan over low heat. Add the carrots, zucchini, fennel, and shallots. Sweat just until the In a bowl, combine the sweated vegetables with the red pepper, cucumber, capers, and vinegar. Mix well. Season to...

Viennese Style Vegetable Broth

Yield 6qt (6L) Portions 24 Portion size 8floz (250 mL) Yield 6qt (6L) Portions 24 Portion size 8floz (250 mL) Heat the butter in a saucepot over medium heat. Add the onion, turnip, and carrot brunoise to the pot and sweat without Add the stock to the pot and quickly bring to a boil. Add the beans, leeks, and zucchini. Simmer for 5 minutes. Add the herbs to the soup. Season to taste. At service time, mix together the cream and egg yolks to make a liaison. Slowly stir a little hot soup into the...

Pho Bo Vietnamese Beef and Rice Noodle Soup

Yield 3 qt (3 L) Portions 12 Portion size 8 floz broth, plus garnish U.S. Metric Ingredients (Vietnamese fish sauce) or nam pla (Thai fish sauce) Salt 1. Combine the broth, ginger, lemon grass, shallots, and cinnamon stick in a stockpot. Simmer 30 minutes. 4. Taste and add salt if necessary tender beef steak Rice sticks (see p. 638) 5. Partially freeze the beef to make it easier to slice. 6. Slice the beef into paper-thin slices. 7. Just before service, drop the rice sticks into boiling water....

Broiled Poussin or Cornish Hens with Mustard Crust

Calories, 920 Protein, 81 g Fat, 60 g (59 cal.) Cholesterol, 300 mg Carbohydrates, 12 g Fiber, 2 g Sodium, 1630 mg. 1. Lift the neck skin of each chicken and remove the wishbone by scraping the meat from the bone with a small sharp knife. Remove the backbone and split open, as shown in Figure 12.4. Tuck each wing tip behind the breast as shown. Push a skewer through a middle wing joint, through the breast, and through the second middle wing joint. Push another skewer through from one thigh to...

Shiitake Mushrooms and Roasted Shallots

Turkey Scaloppine With Mushrooms

Portions 10 Portion size 4 oz (125 g) plus garnish 21 2 lb 1.25 kg Boneless, skinless 15 oz 450 g Shiitake mushrooms, to taste to taste White pepper for dredging for dredging Flour (prepared using the recipe for Roasted Winter Vegetables, p. 567) Calories, 280 Protein, 31 g Fat, 11 g (36 cal.) Cholesterol, 85 mg Carbohydrates, 13 g Fiber,1 g Sodium, 140 mg. 1. Cut the turkey breast across the grain into 20 scaloppine, about 2 oz (60 g) each, using the procedure for cutting veal (Figure 11.9)....

Garlic Mashed Potatoes and Parsley Sauce

Portions 12 Portion size 5 oz (150 g) plus garnish Portions 12 Portion size 5 oz (150 g) plus garnish Prepare the sauce Combine the oil, lemon juice, chopped parsley, and salt in a blender. Process until the parsley is pureed. Prepare the sauce Combine the oil, lemon juice, chopped parsley, and salt in a blender. Process until the parsley is pureed. Calories, 480 Protein, 28 g Fat, 33 g (62 cal.) Cholesterol, 95 mg Carbohydrates, 17 g Fiber, 2 g Sodium, 420 mg. Calories, 480 Protein, 28 g Fat,...

Mackerel en Papillote

Calories, 290 Protein, 20 g Fat, 23 g (71 cal.) Cholesterol, 85 mg Carbohydrates, 1 g Fiber, 0 g Sodium, 150 mg. Calories, 290 Protein, 20 g Fat, 23 g (71 cal.) Cholesterol, 85 mg Carbohydrates, 1 g Fiber, 0 g Sodium, 150 mg. Note Pompano or bluefish may be used. Instead of the parsley, shallots, and lemon slices, top fillets with a thin layer of Duxelles (p. 558). 1. Cut out a piece of parchment in a heart shape, as shown in Figure 15.3. (Foil may be used instead of parchment.) The piece must...

Steamed Sea Bass with Garlic and Ginger

Portions 10 Portion size 5-6 oz (150-180g) U.S. Metric Ingredients Sea bass fillets, skin on, 5-6 oz (150-180 g) each Scallions, trimmed, halved lengthwise Ginger root, peeled Garlic cloves 1. With the point of a sharp knife, lightly score the skin of the sea bass, making 3 or 4 diagonal cuts across the fillets. 2. Arrange the scallions on the rack of a steamer. 3. Place the fillets, skin side up, on top of the scallions. 4. Cut the ginger slices into thin shreds. 5. Cut the garlic cloves into...

Vegetables For Deepfrying

Most vegetables large enough to coat with breading or batter may be fried.Tender, quick-cooking vegetables can be fried raw. Others may be precooked by simmering or steaming briefly to reduce the cooking time they need in the frying fat. Raw vegetables for frying in breading or batter Eggplant Onion rings Tomatoes Blanched or precooked vegetables for frying in breading or batter Artichoke hearts Carrots Fennel Beans, green and yellow Celery Parsnips Broccoli Celery root Turnips Portions 20...

Boiled and Steamed Rice

Portions 10 Portion size 4V2-5 oz (140 g) Calories 200 Protein, 4 g Fat, 2.5 g (12 cal.) Cholesterol, 5 mg Carbohydrates, 39 g Fiber 1 g Sodium, 260 mg. Calories 200 Protein, 4 g Fat, 2.5 g (12 cal.) Cholesterol, 5 mg Carbohydrates, 39 g Fiber 1 g Sodium, 260 mg. Wash rice in cold water until water is Wash rice in cold water until water is Wash rice in cold water until water is clear (optional step see pp. 620-621 clear (optional step see pp. 620-621 clear (optional step see pp. 620-621 Combine...

Understanding Vegetarian Diets

Preparing food for anyone who follows a restricted diet requires understanding the nature and limitations of that diet.Vegetarian diets present challenges because there are several types of vegetarianism. A vegetarian diet is one consisting entirely or mostly of foods derived from plants. Most committed vegetarians fall into one of the categories listed below. The vegan diet is the most restrictive form of vegetarianism.Vegans eat plant products only. All animal products,including dairy...