Panning Baking And Cooling

Lining the sheets with parchment or silicone paper is fast, and it eliminates the necessity of greasing the pans. 3. A heavily greased pan increases the spread of the cookie. A greased and floured pan decreases spread. 4. Some high-fat cookies can be baked on ungreased pans. 1. Most cookies are baked at a relatively high temperature for a short time. 2. Too low a temperature increases spreading and may produce hard, dry, pale cookies. 3. Too high a temperature decreases spreading and may burn...

History Of Modern Food Service

The value of history is that it helps us understand the present and the future. In food service, knowledge of our professional heritage helps us see why we do things as we do, how our cooking techniques have been developed and refined, and how we can continue to develop and innovate in the years ahead. An important lesson of history is that the way we cook now is the result of the work done by countless chefs over hundreds of years. Cooking is as much science as it is art. Cooking techniques...

Guidelines for Making Gelatin Salads

It is important to use the right amount of gelatin for the volume of liquid in the recipe. Too much gelatin makes a stiff, rubbery product. Too little makes a soft product that will not hold its shape. Basic proportions for unflavored gelatin are 2Y2 ounces dry gelatin per gallon (19 g per liter) of liquid, butyou will almost always need more than this because of acids and other ingredients in the recipe. Basic proportions for sweetened, flavored gelatin are 24 ounces per gallon (180 g per...

Guidelines for Using Herbs and Spices

Be familiar with each spice's aroma, flavor, and effect on food. Looking at a spice chart, including the one in this book, is no substitute for familiarity with the actual product. 2. Store dried herbs and spices in a cool place, tightly covered, in opaque containers. Heat, light, and moisture cause herbs and spices to deteriorate rapidly. 3. Don't use stale spices and herbs, and don't buy more than you can use in about six months. Whole spices keep longer than ground, but both lose much flavor...

Guidelines for Making Fruit Salads

Fruit salads are often arranged rather than mixed or tossed because most fruits are delicate and easily broken. An exception is the Waldorf salad, made of firm apples mixed with nuts, celery, and a mayonnaise-based dressing. 2. Broken or less attractive pieces of fruit should be placed on the bottom of the salad, with the more attractive pieces arranged on top. 3. Some fruits discolor when cut and should be dipped into an acid such as tart fruit juice. See pages 680-684 for pre-preparation...

Gluten Development In Quick Breads

Only slight gluten development is desired in most quick breads.Tenderness is the desired quality, in contrast to the chewy quality of yeast breads. In addition, chemical leavening agents do not create the same kind of textures that yeast does and are not strong enough to create a light, tender product if the gluten is too strong. 1. Muffin, loaf bread, and pancake batters are mixed as little as possible,just until the dry ingredients are moistened.This,plus the presence of fat and sugar,keeps...