Organic Farming Manual

Miracle Farm Blueprint

Michael Sherman is the author of Miracle Farm Blueprints. It is a step-by-step guide depicting how you can create your own Miracle farm, a necessary step in surviving any tough disaster or crisis. It entails simple techniques you can use to invent a miracle system together with your family. With it, you can make the best, delicious protein-rich vitamin-packed food all day every day. This system will help you get more food than you can actually eat daily to last through the toughest of times. As a result of this, it will help alleviate your grocery bills. Imagine having a fresh non-disturbed food supply without any restrictions. Here you are going to find a life-changing technique for creating an automated supply of fresh, high-quality organic foods ever! The product is presented to you in the format of an e-book guide. It is designed for anyone who would be interested in making their effort in food production. More here...

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Sustainable Agriculture with Ozark Permaculture

Do you want to life natural life style and be healthy? Do you want to free yourself from the modern life burdens and help the environment? This book Ozark permaculture is the answer. The authors Neal and Elisha have put all their knowledge about permaculture and put all their experiments. The story of the book is to document how they made sustainable forest and build their home off grid. This book is a treasure you will learn from it all practical knowledge and techniques to grow crops in your land in a sustainable and natural way. Some of the chapters focus on how to prevent weeds by planting certain plants and how to rebel pests by natural methods and every chapter is designed in a way to decrease labor and effort as well as to prevent fertilizers and chemical all together. The final chapters focus on how to adapt to any weather no matter how extreme it is. Neal and Elisha's experience and knowledge should make anyone an expert in sustainable permaculture. This affordable book Ozark permaculture should make an impact on farmer's culture and mindset because it focus on their motto of No fertilizers, No herbicides and No pesticides.

Ozark Permaculture Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Neal Gist
Official Website: www.ozarkpermaculture.net
Price: $9.99

Concept of organic farming

The concept of organic farming is based on an holistic approach where nature is perceived to be more than just an individual element. In this farming system there is dynamic interaction between soil, humus, plant, animal, eco-system and environment. Hence organic farming differs from industrial agriculture as in the latter, biological systems are replaced by technical production systems with liberal use of chemicals (Anon. 1999). Organic farming improves the structure and fertility of the soil through balanced choice of crops and implementation of diversified crop rotation systems. Biological processes are strengthened without recoursing to chemical remedies, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. In this farming system control of pests, diseases and weeds is primarily preventative, and if required, adopting organic products, which will not adversely affect the environment. Genetically modified organisms are not normally acceptable because of the manipulations made in their...

Organic farming

Farmers, consumers and policy makers have shown a renewed interest in organic farming as the objective of today's common agricultural policy - the sustainability of both agriculture and the environment without compromising food production and conservation of finite resources and protecting the environment so that the needs of people are met today and for generations to come. Organic food is also gaining international acceptance, with nations such as Japan and Germany becoming important international organic food markets. Although in 2000 it represented only around 3 of the total European Union agricultural area, organic farming has in fact developed into one of the most dynamic agricultural sectors in the European Union. The organic farm sector grew by about 25 a year between 1993 and 1998 and, since 1998, it is estimated to have grown by around 30 a year. In some member states, however, it now seems to have reached a plateau. Some of the essential characteristics of organic farming...

Sources of further information and advice

Functional Foods Concept to Product, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge. peter k V (1998) Spices research, Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 68(8) 52732. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. pruthi j s (1999) Quality Assurance in Spices and Spice Products - Modern Methods of

Standards and certification

The most significant factors distinguishing organic farming from other methods of sustainable agriculture are the existence of production and processing standards, and certification procedures. Standards are developed by private associations, companies, certification bodies or by the State itself. Over one hundred regional, national and international standards have been developed worldwide so far. Several countries are formulating or have adopted rules and regulations on organic farming, processing and certification requirements. Though India has a set of organic farmers and a few processing units, local certification bodies accredited to international organizations are only in the formative stage. Hence in India organic products require certification bodies established in other countries, especially in Europe. Of the over 100 certification bodies existing globally, three agencies have opened offices in India. Many Indian organic farmers or their associations avail assistance of these...

New varieties and novelty potatoes

Agricultural research centers and even growers are interested and active in developing new varieties that satisfy all the links along the chain of distribution, including the consumer. We will continue to see improvement in both flavor and ease of cooking. For instance, a new variety (late 1990s) called Cal-White has not only a pleasant flavor but is particularly well-suited for cooking in the microwave oven. The more unusual specialty potatoes, also called novelty potatoes, are rarely if ever available to the average consumers. Generally small farms grow them and distributors sell them to high-end restaurants, clubs, institutions and specialty food markets. Occasionally you may find them in the well-stocked produce department of a supermarket. Of course, they sell at premium prices. Do they taste better than other potatoes Sometimes but not often. Chefs like them because of their unusual appearance, color, size, or simply as a substitute for the everyday potato that is mundane and...

Some Notes on Norwegian Modernity in the 1930s

A traditional aspect of Norwegian agriculture has been that farmers, who for the most part have been peasants, combined their farm work with other industries. Thus they had a double economy and a large degree of self-sufficiency, such as farming combined with fisheries in coastal parts of the country, and farming combined with forestry in the expansive eastern regions. During the electrification of the country, districts which had poor soil but were rich in natural resources, such as waterfalls, would develop industries. Hence it was not uncommon to see a farmer operating a small farm and working in industry. The farm ensured stability and provided the staples, while the sea, forest or factory would provide the necessary cash. In such households the man would be away for large parts of the day or year with the actual farmer in many cases being a woman. A commonly used metaphor about this arrangement is the farm as the mother of the sea, the forest or the factory. There is an archaic...

Wine Champagne and the Making of French Identity in the Belle Epoque

The War of the Two Beans would have made a wonderful folk tale explaining the origins of a particularly rich, delectable French dish. But the editors of Le Figaro had less light-hearted goals behind publishing the war coverage . The grotesque war story was a scathing critique of the mounting demands emanating from the provinces of France for legal protection of agricultural products at the beginning of the twentieth century. Led by French fine wine producers, regional agricultural interests demanded a system of appellations d'origine - state-sanctioned controls of the use of names that evoked a geographic place of origin. This protectionist system of designating and controlling geographically based names for wines, spirits, and other foodstuffs became the prototype for the appellation d'origine contr l e (AOC) laws of the 1930s and the model for late twentieth-century European Union legislation. Debates over the parameters of the legislation and its potential international...

The Greening of the Herd

Early May weather in Vermont is predictable in its unpredictability. In one of the state's most beautiful farming communities, wintery gusts of wind were blowing across the Flack Family Farm while budding trees promised spring. Occasional shafts of sunlight broke through the clouds to light the chickens, pigs, sheep and cows grazing on fields of luscious green grass.

Heritage Breeds and Exotics

The preservation of these heritage livestock breeds happens on family farms that have a use for or an interest in such critters as pigs that thrive on pasture rather than in Commercial agriculture has zillions of the one breed most suited to agribusiness' mass production Holstein for the dairy industry, Leghorns for the chicken industry, etc. But homestead-type folks keep the others going. The old-time breeds of livestock are worthwhile for their genetic uniqueness as well as their historic value. For example, someday there might be a disease in pigs equivalent to the hybrid corn blight. Rare breeds also may produce lovely colored wool, unusual cheeses, astonishing feathers, etc. And heritage breeds are typically better suited than industrial ones for the free-range, chemical-free homestead family's needs.

Snail Snake Turtle and Frog

Different Types Edible Snails

California is good snail hunting country. Here's the necessary info (thanks to the Division of Agricultural Sciences, U. of California) for preparing the edible European brown snail or brown garden snail (Helis aspersa), which is called escargot in French but is the same as the common garden snail considered a pest in the gardens and yards of California. Also known in France as the petit gris or vineyard snail, it was probably first brought to the North American continent around 1850. Another edible snail found in some parts of California is the white Spanish or milk snail (Otala lactea), which is preferred by many people of southern European stock. (Ask an Italian )

Alcohol in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe

The amount and type of alcohol consumed varied over time and place. The English were traditional drinkers of ale, in rather small amounts when increasing population put pressure on agricultural resources in the first half of the fourteenth century, as much as a gallon or more a day in the period following the Black Death (Dyer, 1983, pp. 209-10 1988, pp. 25-6). The introduction of hops into the brewing process during the fifteenth century created a new drink called beer, which gradually replaced ale as the beverage of choice for the English. In 1587 William Harrison noted in The Description of England (1968, p. 139) that ale had become an 'old and sick men's drink'. Towards the end of the seventeenth century the daily per capita consumption of beer in England was about one quart (Clark, 1983, p. 209). England imported large amounts of wine from the Continent and even produced small amounts of its own wine of dubious quality, but its vineyards suffered a well-deserved decline in the...

Chopaka Nut Orchard Pilarski

The massive, semipermanent root networks of trees forestall erosion and make possible a form of long-term agriculture that can sustain humans and their livestock without the loss of topsoil and the desertification of their agricultural land, which is the great risk of annual tillage for generations. The leaves of trees both yield oxygen and remove carbon dioxide as part of their natural chemistry. And, as if that isn't good enough, you can plant entire forests, or plantations, or farm crops of trees that also provide food. Fruit, yes, of course. But not just fruit. Tree fruits are wonderful apples, pears, peaches, and nectarines from the temperate zones, and avocado, banana, persimmon, guava, and a long list of others that grow in warmer climates. In Central Asia there are forests made up entirely of various kinds of fruiting trees, all growing wild gardens of Eden. In the United States before 1900 there were vast wild nut forests, mainly chestnuts, which made up a third or even a...

What are organic flours how do they differ from other flours and what will be the differences to the baked product

The term 'organic' refers to the manner in which the wheat has been farmed and turned into bread and flour. Organic farming uses more traditional methods of treating the land during the farming cycle and in particular does not use 'artificial' fertilisers and restricts applications of pesticides, insecticides or herbicides. Organic wheats will be segregated and milled separately from other In principle any breadmaking wheat types may be used in the production of organic wheat flour. However, since the farming process relies totally on the application of natural fertilisers there is a tendency for the protein of many wheat varieties to be lower than that which could be obtained with non-organic farming methods. Currently the UK production of organic wheats is too low to sustain the market requirements and much of the wheat is imported. Large quantities of organic wheat come from North America where the fertility of the soil and the larger growing areas have not necessitated the use of...

Appellations dOrigine

Names of French villages, provinces, or pays were frequently used in France to designate agricultural products considered local specialities. By the end of the nineteenth century, improvements in transport, new processing techniques, and reduced production costs made it possible to market these formerly local specialities to an ever broader group of consumers at home and abroad. Some of these products - such as roquefort, champagne, cognac, and brie13 - developed reputations for excellence that extended far beyond their immediate production area. Taste professionals touted these products as essential to the art of eating and drinking.14 Menus at restaurants, from the Grand Hotel of Monte Carlo to the Ritz in London and the Petit Moulin in Paris, prominently featured regional agricultural specialities.15 Previously local specialities had become a part of the culture of ingestion by the turn of the century. As these agricultural products moved into the mass, consumer culture of the...

Coping with Pests and Pestilence

Older classics in this area include Garden Pests and Diseases by Audrey Brooks and Andrew Halstead (1980), the Rodale Garden Insect, Disease & Weed Identification Guide by Miranda Smith and Anna Carr (1988), Rodale's Color Handbook of Garden Insects by Anna Carr (1979), The Bug Book by Helen and John Philbrick (1974), Pests of the Garden and Small Farm A Grower's Guide to Using Less Pesticide by Mary Louise Flint and Rodale's Chemical-Free Yard and Garden. Sources of Beneficial Insects The history of this is that in the 1970s, 2 greenhouse pests, whitefly and spider mite, developed a resistance to pesticides and threatened to wipe out greenhouse tomato and cucumber crops. Growers turned to natural biological control agents such as parasites and predators for control, and it worked Since then, the firms in the following list have learned how to mass-produce these biological control agents and how to release them at the best timing and rate.

Production and cultivation

A fertilizer dose of 40 kg P2O5, 40 kg K2O and 20 kg N with 20 Mt farmyard manure ha1 is recommended for rosemary in India (Farooqi and Sreeramulu, 2001). Further, N level can be raised to 300 kg ha-1 in different splits to maximize oil yield (Prakasa Rao et al., 1999). Studies conducted at Italy (Sardinia) on fertilizer dose and weed management revealed that applying 80 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 coupled with hand weeding of the major weeds such as Genista corsica and Cytisus Spp. increased herbage yield and oil (Milia et al., 1996).

Cultivation and production technology

Chervil can be propagated only through seeds. For this purpose, the seeds must be bedded in damp sand for a few weeks before being sown, otherwise their germination is slow. In temperate region the seeds are usually sown in March-April, whereas in tropical or subtropical parts they are sown during October by drill or scattered in well-prepared land and mixed with well-decomposed farmyard manure. The recommended seed rate is roughly 3 kg ha which is sown in rows. Seeds should be grown in the spring in shallow drills 30 cm apart. When the seedlings are about 7-8 cm high, the plants should be thinned to 8-10 cm apart. The seedlings are too fragile to be transplanted. In the South, the seeds are usually sown in the autumn, but they may not germinate until spring. In the North, the seeds may be sown in the autumn to germinate in the spring or the plant may be started indoors in later winter and transplanted to open ground later on. Chervil prefers to be grown organically with the...

A tomato for every climate

The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station has released many heat-tolerant tomato plants, starting with the popular variety 'Marglobe' in 1925. Others worth trying are standard globe varieties 'Mule Team' (p25), 'Stone,' 'Thessaloniki,' and 'Tropic' the Italian beefsteaks 'Costoluto Genovese' (p56) and 'Costoluto Fiorentino,' as well as 'Great White,' 'Homestead,' and the ribbed beefsteak 'Pink Accordion' (p55) and plum tomatoes 'Amish Paste' and 'Roma.'

Swing Time

When the trees were originally and symbolically planted in the farmyard they were appealingly close together. Now that they are monster trees they are far too close together and make an odd coupling. The bent over willow symbolizes flexibility and change, with its long, slender, supple leaves that swish softly in the wind, it stands beside the starchy, upright oak with its broad stiff leaves that rustle crisply and irritably, and symbolizes strength and stability. These are trees that speak two different leaf languages. Yet like yin and yang, they are opposites that complement and complete each other into a wholeness.

Angola

A southern African country on the Atlantic coast between Congo and Namibia, Angola was a Portuguese colony from 1575 until independence in 1975, and then it suffered a post-independence civil war (1975-2000). Due to heavy mining during the war years, much agricultural land is dangerous and unusable. Hence Angola imports much of its food. Coastal areas are hot and humid, and some tropical cash and subsistence crops such as maize, sorghum, and manioc are grown.

Quick Hamburger Stew

About the Author Chris Williamson is an associate member of the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators, and is currently working on a cookbook manuscript. Chris is married to her best friend, who happens to be in the military, so she is a nomad by marriage. She currently belongs to a small farm, where she raises chickens and tends a large garden.

Work of Odd Moments

By the late eighteenth century, despite the trends of increased food production and more efficient preservation, population growth, land shortages, and other factors were combining to erode the family farm way of life. Sons could no longer be reasonably certain that at some point in early adulthood they would be settled on farmsteads adequate to sustain traditional independence. While some were able to migrate to the West and others to obtain college educations and launch professional careers, the majority found themselves attempting to piece together secure livelihoods by combining farming with what was hoped would be temporary engagement in other occupations such as fishing, craft trades, household manufacture, or, eventually, employment in the various types of industrial manufacturing enterprises that were founded with increasing frequency and success in New England from the 1790s onward. As these trends persisted and intensified, wage labor became an ever-more commonplace presence...

Israel

Israel is a small country on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. The climate is Mediterranean, with mild winters and hot summers, and the country raises a great variety of temperate, desert, and even tropical fruits and vegetables. Agricultural products and technologies are a major export item.

Pasture

Livestock growing on grass is a beautiful example of sustainable agriculture. The grass nourishes the animals. The parts of their feed that they can't use are excreted in a form that actually nourishes the grass, which uses the livestock's manure to help make more forage and so on, year after year. Grass Magazines & Books Here's the competition to factory farming techniques Graze is a monthly publication with articles from and about graziers on pastured dairy, beef, sheep, hogs, and poultry. Subscription is 30 yr 54 American Farmland Trust provides info on grass-based farming systems plus many links at www.grassfarmer.com. The American Forage and Grassland Council offers info at 800-944-2342 www.afgc.org. Another website with extensive info on raising animals on pasture is www.Eatwild.com. Their site includes a state-by-state directory of pasture-based farms so you can buy meat, eggs, butter, or cheese from pastured animals just a pleasant country drive away ATTRAs look at Nutrient...

Cultivation

The small white flowers bloom in November and December in the plains and mid summer in the hills. The harvesting is usually done from February to May. Flower production ceases when the seeds start maturing and become greyish-brown in colour. The yield is 400-600 kg ha under a rain-fed farming system and 1200-2000 kg ha under irrigated conditions. Collar root rot and powdery mildew are the major diseases and are controlled by spraying mancozeb (0.2 ) and wettable sulphur (0.2 ), respectively. Insects do not cause much damage to the crop.

One Mans Feast

We sang encores of pub songs as I tried to catch glimpses of the countryside over thick hedgerows and stone walls. All of a sudden, I lurched forward against the dash as the car came to a screeching halt amid a hail of gravel and dust. Dave backed up a hundred feet and pulled into a farmyard.

French Colonisation

Initially, the main crop continued to be corn. Grapes were grown, but mainly for the production of raisins. In order to encourage the production of wine, Algerian wines imported into France were exempted from customs duties in 1851, despite opposition from metropolitan winegrowers, who feared competition. But this measure boosted Algerian viniculture less than the wine crisis in France in 1875, when phylloxera devastated the French vineyards. Many ruined French winegrowers emigrated to French Algeria. From then on, the wine cultivation area expanded rapidly. On the eve of the revolution, in 1953, 403,000 ha, about 10 per cent of the cultivated and planted agricultural land, had been planted with grapevines. The production of about 20 million hectolitres of wine was almost totally exported (Benamrane, 1980, p. 92). Industrial crops like tobacco and flax, and export products like citrus fruit had also taken an increasing share of the land. While the Muslim population was hungry for...

Nutrients in Foods

The data on pages 434 to 483 are from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1999. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 13. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http www.nal.usda.gov fnic foodcomp. In some instances, manufacturers' data also were used. This does not indicate an endorsement of the product. 0 value negligible level. (-) value not available. Values were rounded to nearest decimal point.

Sweet flag

Sprouted rhizomes collected from the vigorously growing mother plants are used as planting material. About 80 000 propagules are required for one hectare of land. The planting time is June-July. The rhizome bits are planted in about 6 cm deep furrows with a spacing of 30 cm between the rows and 35 cm between the plants. Application of farmyard manure or compost, 8-10 tonnes hectare supplemented with organic fertilizer is needed for good growth. For satisfactory cultivation and yield application of 100 kg ha nitrogen is recommended (Tiwari et al., 2000 Kumar et al., 2000).

Future trends

The future demand for organic spices appears to be bright. Any processed food can only be labelled organic if 95 of the ingredients originate from organic farming. The remaining 5 can be products, which are listed by government regulations, such as EU regulations. Spices are not listed in such regulations and must therefore be of organic origin. Assuming a market growth of 10 in Europe, USA and Japan for organic products, the world demand for organic spices could grow to 57,000 tonnes in the next ten years. This is based on the market size of 570,000 tonnes of conventional spices at that time as reported by the International Trade Centre in their publication, Imports of Spices into Selected Markets, 1999 (Boor 2000). Although the overall picture for the organic spice sector is promising, there are a number of potential risks to be borne in mind. There could be occasional oversupply of a given spice leading to erosion of price attraction. Further, other forms or methods of...

Production

Chilli peppers are typically produced on small farms, less than 1 ha in size, in areas where cheap labour is available for harvesting. The largest producer is India, with an estimated 894,000 ha devoted to the crop annually. India is the largest exporter of dried chilli in the world. The second-largest producer is China, which grows an estimated 216,000 ha annually and also exports sizeable quantities of dried chilli.14 Fruits are typically allowed

Galangal

The mean nutrient uptake of the crop is 22.8 kg N, 28 kg P2O5 and 36.9 kg K2O per hectare. Application of 50-75 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 50-75 kg K2O is found to be beneficial for increased rhizome and oil yields. Application of farmyard manure at 30 tonnes ha is superior to the application of nutrients through inorganic form of fertilizers and it increased the yield by 60 . A well-managed plantation yields about 4-6 tonnes of fresh rhizomes per hectare. The dry recovery varies from 23 to 28 . Leaf rot disease may occur during the rainy season and can be controlled by trenching the beds with 1 Bordeaux mixture.

Value addition

With the trend towards pre-processed foods (convenience foods), the demand for organic spices is increasing. Organic agriculture has gained importance in modern societies. This had led to the development of international trade for organic spices. Europe, the USA and Japan are by far the largest markets, though there are smaller but interesting markets in many other countries, including a few developing countries. The importance of organic agriculture can be inferred from the fact that some European countries are supporting organic agriculture by giving subsidies for conversion. As a matter of fact, organic products are more expensive than the conventional counterparts and fetch a premium in the international market. Prices may be higher by 20-50 but gaining certification from recognized international agencies is a costly affair.

Allium Group I

Instead garlic is usually propagated by garlic bulbs or heads that grow underground (roots go as deep as 2 feet). Each head is made up of a cluster of smaller ones, each called a clove. Garlic is a type of onion, a semihardy perennial that, since it's not damaged by frost or light freezing, can be left in the garden over winter in the Pacific climate or can be dug up and stored like onions. It's grown both for the kitchen garden and for commercial sale (it yields a good profit from a very small acreage). Store-bought garlic is usually too dry to plant. Buy a cluster of garlic cloves from a plant nursery or mail-order source. There's more info in Growing Great Garlic The Definitive Guide for Organic Gardeners and Small Farmers, by Ron L. Engeland (1991) 509-422-6940 filaree northcascades. net www.filareefarm.com. Ron also sells organic seed garlic. Irish Eyes-Garden City Seeds offers 40 kinds of garlic, including Red German garlic, favored for fine flavor, ease of peeling, and...

Dairy Cattle

Cash Cow Image

Dairy Cow Information Check out Joann Grohman's Keeping a Family Cow (1984) Phyllis Hobson's Raising a Calf for Beef (1976) (good up to 6 weeks old) and Dirk van Loon's The Family Cow (1975). For a periodical, if you're interested in commercial milk-production from cows, subscribe to Hoard's Dairyman, 920-563-5551 fax 920-563-7298 PO Box 801, Fort Atkinson, WI 535380801 www.hoards.com. Hoard's also offers dairy books such as Calf Care, About Cows, and Dairy-Related Careers. A word of caution There is a lot of baloney in cow calf books written for the family farm. Even certain ones I've recommended here have some really stupid misinformation mixed in with the good information. dairy Cow Age a cow can bear calves annually and be milked until she is 10, 12, 14, even older. The old-timers sometimes kept one going to age 20. But, sooner or later, you'll find it impossible to get her bred again. So a 4-year-old cow is a fine buy.

World trade

No reliable published data are available on global trade in organic agricultural products. The International Trade Centre, Geneva has, however, carried out a market survey in Europe (Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria and Italy) and in the United States and Japan in 1997. According to this survey, retail sales of organic foods in these markets were estimated at US 11 billion. The survey did not include Australia, New Zealand and other developed countries. Including these countries,

Black caraway

The propagation is both vegetative (through bulbs) or through seeds. In vegetative propagation bulbs that are three or four years old and of 3-4 cm diameter are used About 2.5 x 105-3 x 105 bulbs are needed for a hectare (Munshi et al., 1989). When seed is used, 1-1.5 kg seeds ha is sown in the first year, and in the second year re-seeding at the rate of 200 g ha is practised to maintain the required population. Sowing is in September-October in rows spaced at 15-20 cm, in raised beds. Germination takes place after the winter in April. During the growing period, growth and development of aerial shoot and underground tubers takes place, and in the ensuing winter the aerial portion dies out and the tubers remain dormant in the soil (Panwar 2000). A fertilizer dose of 20-25 kg farmyard manure (FYM), 60 kg of nitrogen, 30 kg of phosphorus and 30 kg potash per hectare is recommended for good yield (Panwar et al., 1993, Panwar, 2000). Irrigation is recommended at peak flowering and seed...