Sausage and Hamburger

NOTE: In the following recipes, there are no chemical preservatives, so as a safety measure, follow these instructions:

1. Use only fresh rather than aged meats.

2. After making your sausage, immediately store in a freezer that is set at 0°F or below.

3. Or preserve by canning. (Follow the directions in the "Canning" section for ground or chopped meat.)

4. Cook frozen sausages thoroughly before eating. supplies and Books: To shop for casings, ask the custom butcher in your area. Larger cities may have stores that specialize in sausage, or your local market might order them for you from their wholesaler. If that doesn't work, check the Yellow Pages under "Meats, Custom Cutting" and "Meats, Wholesale." The Sausage Maker sells everything you need for making sausage and curing meats, including spices, tools, casings, equipment, and an instructional video/book combo deal for $39.95. That book, Great Sausage Recipes and Meat Curing, by Rytek Kutas, contains 175+ sausage recipes: 888-490-8525; 716-824-6510; 1500 Clinton St., Bldg. 123, Buffalo, NY 14205; [email protected]; Luhr Jensen offers a "Home Sausage Kit" with a booklet of instructions and recipes, as well as sausage-making supplies: 800-535-1711; 541-386-3811; PO Box 297 (400 Portway Ave.), Hood River, OR 97031. Order Home Sausage Making: Healthy Low-Salt, Low-Fat Recipes (including poultry and fish recipes), by Charles Reavis, from Storey Books, address in Chapter 1. You can buy sausage mix that does not contain MSG from the KOCH company: 800-456-5624. Meat grinders and sausage makers are also available from 719962-3228;

Grinding and Mixing the Meat: Sausage making is an important country art in this part of Idaho, maybe everywhere in the country. The arrival of late fall and butchering time on the farm means sausage time. Often it is made twice a year: in late fall and again in early spring, when some more butchering is done. In most of the small towns around here, it is a public operation as well as a private one. The communities have an annual sausage-making bee followed by a big sausage feed. Hamburger Making. "Hamburger" is ground meat with whatever percentage of fat added or left out that you prefer. The precise point at which ground meat stops being "hamburger" and becomes "sausage" is vague. If pork is added, the result is generally called "sausage." Hamburger and sausage are basic meat foods, a way to make use of all your meat scraps. When you butcher wild animals and small animals like goat, you get so many odds and ends of meat pieces (especially if you are boning out the meat), that ground-meat recipes are the answer. Grinding also solves the problem of using tough, old animals. And ground meat is easy to heavily and thoroughly season, so it also can solve the problem of what to do with strong-tasting meats. Hamburger and sausage can be heavily or lightly seasoned—

whatever you prefer. Besides the seasoning, you can add water and fat. Ground meat that is all lean can often benefit from a little added water, about 1 T. water per 1 lb. lean meat. NOTE: The following sections usually refer to "sausage," but some of it applies equally to hamburger. Adding Fat. To any hamburger or sausage, you have the option of adding fat. If you choose to do so, choose a soft, low-cholesterol fat such as pork fat. Don't use a strong-tasting (high-cholesterol) fat like venison or goat. Don't use mutton fat. You don't have to add fat. You can make all-lean hamburgers, and they will be delicious and cook fine. But in the past it has been popular to add pork to nonpork meats because the pork seems to bind the meat together while cooking and improve its flavor. If you add fat, make sure the fat and meat are well mixed before you package the hamburger or sausage. You can knead the mixture with your hands until the fat and lean are distributed equally. Grinding. To make sausage, one thing you must have, or have access to, is a meat grinder. The best grinder for sausage is one with a choice of coarse (Vi-inch holes) and fine O/s-inch holes) plates. Don't plan on using one of those small home-style meat grinders to make your sausage. I made that mistake. They just can't handle the job. Even if you keep the screw as tight as it will go, which helps, you end up getting some steel flavor in your meat. You have to keep tightening the screw because it keeps slipping. And sooner or later the grinder starts getting stringy ligaments wound around the outlet, and finally it gums up completely and is immobilized. It helps some to trim out as many of the ligaments as possible, but there's no way to get them all.

Better than trying to grind sausage in a little home grinder is to take a dishpan or two of it to your local butcher. But check first to see if the butcher feels able to do it for you. There are so many new laws now that discriminate against home-butchered meats that he or she may not want to take the chance.

It helps to use a larger model of meat grinder (Food Grinder Pro, $100, or Stainless Steel Meat Grinder, $150, from Back to Basics, 801-571-7349). Or mail-order a sausage grinder and stuffer from Lehman's (888-438-5346;; they sell other sausage-making equipment, too. A typical bargain grinder has the 2 disks for fine or coarse grinding and a 7/8-inch stuffer attachment. It's crank-operated. Power grinders are the nicest of all, if you have the kind of handyman who can hook up a washing-machine motor to anything.

Before you grind the meat, trim it from the bones and cut away all gristle and blood clots. Cut it into strips, whether it is fat or lean. Put your fat in one pile and your lean in another to help you have a notion of proportions. You're supposed to use one-third fat and two-thirds lean, and you can kind of judge that with your eye. I don't see much use in the fat part, however, so I generally just use whatever fat comes along of its own accord, and the fat that I can easily cut out goes into the rendering pail. Seasoning. Some people grind their meat coarse and then add the seasoning and grind again. But it's too much struggle to grind more than once, and it's easier to mix the seasoning with the meat before grinding than after. So do it like this. Cut the meat in strips. Lay it out on a mixing surface, such as a sheet of freezer paper with the wax side up. Sprinkle the seasoning over and mix with your hands. Sprinkle again and mix again until you have it well mixed. You can season about 20 lb. at a time this way. It's much easier than working with it ground.

Now grind. If you have a very good grinder, you can form your ground sausage into fist-sized balls and put them through the grinder again. It really helps to have a wooden "follower," which is a basic cylindrical meat pusher, so you don't grind your fingers but do hold the sausage in the grinder.

If you aren't sure of your seasoning amounts, make a little sausage cake up on the spot, fry it, and eat it. Then you can adjust the seasoning of the rest accordingly. Don't taste raw pork because it's been known to carry trichinae, a parasite that causes a horrific disease. A woman at my college got it after eating several hot dogs in Chicago. She got really sick and had to quit school. I can't imagine our home-grown pork having any such thing because pigs get it from eating infected meat, and I know where everything that our pigs eat comes from. Nevertheless, it's a good idea not to taste raw pork.

If you decide to add more seasoning to your already ground meat, mix it in a big kettle. Get ready by washing both hands clear up to your elbows, and then plunge in. Knead as for bread dough, picking up from the bottom, pulling up over the side to the top, and punching into the center. In a moment give the kettle a quarter turn and continue. Some people grind the meat coarse, add the seasoning, and then grind it fine. That's okay if you have a good power grinder.

The seasoning can be as simple as salt and pepper. Or it can be a very, very complex mixture. Morton Brothers (the salt people) makes a sausage seasoning that's sold in our local grocery stores. Some people add a little Tenderquick to their seasoning; some make it all from scratch. The commercial seasonings contain a lot of spices blended with salt as well as monosodium glutamate and preservatives. Use 8 oz. seasoning per 24 lb. meat for strongly seasoned sausage. For a milder sausage, use 8 oz. for 35 lb. meat. I've tried just grinding and freezing the sausage plain and then seasoning it right before I cook it, but it doesn't have the best flavor that way. The seasoning needs a chance to work in.

about Casings: You travel one of 2 basic routes, the easy one or the hard one, in shaping the ground seasoned meat into sausage. The easy way is to make patties. Sausage that is seasoned and frozen in breakfast-sized packages, which you can simply thaw, shape into patties, and fry (or sausage-fry and then can), is just as much sausage as the kind that's stuffed into casings, and it's a lot easier to make. The harder option is to stuff the mixture into casings. Stuffing casings is extra work and expense (or time if you clean your own casings). At home I usually just wrap my sausage in freezer paper, enough per package for a meal, and that's it. But at the big hog-butchering and sausage-making bees, I've enjoyed the adventure of doing the real thing. At these bees, while the men butcher the hogs, the women clean the small intestines, and those become the sausage casings. They make sausage and stuff the casings and then smoke them in a little smokehouse right there.

Homemade Muslin Casing

You can use plastic, muslin, or gut casings. Casings are sold by the "hank," which is a lV^-lb. package that is supposed to stuff about 100 lb. of sausage. You don't eat the plastic casings, of course, or the muslin ones. But when you make sausage with casing made from the natural gut, you eat the casing too. Plastic casings used to be readily available but are hard to get now. They were sold in 1-inch, 2-inch, and 4-inch sizes. Two-inch was generally the most satisfactory.

Making Muslin Casings. Don't dry sausage in these. You have to strip the muslin off first. Sew 8 x 18-inch strips of muslin. This allows for a xh-inch seam. Fold and sew up 1 end and turn inside out. Firmly pack the sausage in there. Be sure there are no air pockets, because air pockets may cause mold to grow on the inside of the casings. Tie the top with a heavy cord and give it a loop to hang up the sausage. Be sure to dip your muslin casings in water and wring them out before starting to stuff them. If you don't have a sausage stuffer, you can spoon sausage into big casings like these. Making Natural Casings: There are 3 kinds of natural casings, and a really good sausage stuffer has 3 nozzle sizes. Little-pig size (what they call link sausage) is about 2 inches long and lh inch wide and is a sheep casing. Beef casings are used to hold salami-type sausages. Pork casings make traditional "sausage" sausages. A hank of pork casings is supposed to stuff 100 lb. of pig—but about 85 lb. is more likely. Sheep casing will take 50 lb. Beef casing will take a lot. You can buy natural casings in quantity and keep them in your freezer. I have a friend who kept hers there for 3 years before they were all used up, and they kept fine. Soak them in warm water before stuffing.

Making natural casings is cold, tedious, hard work, and it's not for the squeamish. You need a fairly low faucet or hose that runs water on the ground, a knife to cut the gut when it shows a hole or tears, and a set of knitting needles. If you are going to clean casings, it's doubly important that the animal not be fed for 24 hours before butchering. The casing is made from the small intestine of the animal (sheep, cow, or pig). If there is food in there, it makes a lot of extra work to get it out.

If you are planning to save casings, it's a good idea to keep your pigs especially well wormed. (Worm medicine is a liquid that you mix with a gallon of water and have them drink.) Not only is it disagreeable being in the same vicinity as a bunch of 6-inch-long, husky, writhing, white roundworms, but they also make holes in the intestine. A really infested pig will have a gut like a sieve.

1. Cut the small intestine off where it starts below the stomach, and cut it on the other end where it is about to connect up with the large intestine. You'll have to rescue it from the general pile of innards. Put it in a big dishpan.

2. Carry it over to your faucet or hose. Strip it between your fingers or between knitting needles to remove as much of the contents as possible—food, worms, or whatevers. Just let them spill out on the ground. Then rinse them off under running water. This is where the agony starts, because sausage and butchering weather is cold weather, but you have to do all this work with your bare hands because the gut is delicate and so is the job. Your cold, wet hands will be in a state of near-paralysis after the first 10 minutes. It's not so bad if you're doing just 1 gut, but if you're doing more than one, it's nice to have somebody working with you so you can take turns freezing your hands working with the casings or thawing them out over the nearest fire.

3. You have the gut contents stripped out as best you can and the outside rinsed off under your faucet. Now you're going to turn the entire gut inside out. There's a neat trick to this turning. Practice beforehand in the house with something like a sock, when your hands are warm and dry, till you feel you'll be able to do it even with wet, frozen hands and a slippery gut:

a. Take a sock.

b. Hold it upside down.

c. Start turning it inside out.

d. Keep in mind that if it was a gut rather than a sock, it would be about 25 feet long and slippery. The way to get it turned inside out is by water pressure. The hard part is getting it started. Returning to the sock, if you turn socks inside out like I do, you have your thumbs in a sort of pocket you've made all the way around. Now you're going to run your water into that pocket. Since the gut is waterproof, the water pressure going into the pocket will push on it and draw more and more of the gut inside out until you're clear to the end. If you run into a wormhole or the gut starts to tear, you lose your water pressure as the water starts to leak out the hole. In that case, cut the gut at the point of the leakage and start over again with the part that hasn't been turned yet.

4. Put your turned, cleaned casings in a pan. Now get 2 knitting needles. Put 1 end of the cleaned gut between the knitting needles. Have somebody hold the needles tightly together while another pulls the casing through between them.

Turn gut inside out using water pressure

Pull gut firmly through knitting needles

5. Rinse them some more.

6. Store in cold water if you're going to use them soon. Otherwise freeze them. Soak in warm water before using.

CHITTERLINGS This is a Southern name for casings used as a meat dish. Having gotten them this far, you soak them in vinegar to remove the smell and then cook. Stuffing the Casings: The stuffer is basically a nozzle with a container on top, fixed so you can put pressure on the contents. The pressure forces the sausage out through the nozzle and into the casing. The simplest sort is just a funnel. You hold the casing under the funnel and push it through with your hand. The usual sausage grinder has a stuffer attachment. Using the attachment, you turn the crank to force the sausage out of the nozzle into the casing until it is full. Pack the casing as tightly as possible. At the sausage-making bees they have a special big crank-operated sausage stuffer, but that's not practical for one individual or family.

If you're going to have only one stuffer size, it's better to have it too small than too large. Really nice stuffers have 3 nozzles for the basic casing sizes, but ordinary ones have just one size, Va inch in diameter. It has to be small enough that the smallest casing can easily slip over the end of the nozzle.

Step-by-Step Guide to Stuffing Casings

1. Separate out a length of casing.

2. Put the entire casing over the nozzle of the stuffer.

3. Pinch the free end shut with your left hand.

4. Have a helper run the stuffer. The casing will unfold itself as the sausage is forced into it. To make a round sausage, fill about an 18-inch to 2-foot length. To stop the stuffer, crank it quickly backward a half turn of the crank.

5. Pull off a little empty length of casing. Cut the casing.

6. Put the 2 loose ends of the sausage casing together, forming a ring. Tie the ends together with twine or a stout soft white string. If you plan to hang the sausage to smoke it, tie another knot between the 2 free ends of your twine so you have a little ring of string for hanging it up. Your sausage should be long enough to make a comfortable circle and touch end to end. Round sausages smoke best because they can't stick together, twist, or flip.

If a casing breaks with sausage in it, set it aside for the time being and restuff it later.

To make short links rather than rings, start as before. Let fill about 5 inches, or as long as you prefer. Stop filling. Twist casing several times around to make a thorough obstruction. Commence filling again, and so on. Cut off when you have enough to tie in a circle. (Takes about three.) Tie as before. If you don't tie them in a circle, you'll have to tie between each link. Three inches long is nicest, but you have to be pretty good at it to make them that short.

A butcher doesn't even need to stop the machine but can just keep the links flowing across the table.

Another way to do it is to make very long links and freeze them. Then you can just break off what you need. Stuffing Using a Funnel. Use a funnel with a 3A-inch opening. Put the wet casing over the funnel end. Push meat down the funnel into the casing, regulating the thickness as it goes in. Make 5 inches long. Twist funnel around to form link. Continue pushing meat in until used up. Puncture with a skewer to let air out.

Sausage Recipes

NOTE: Sausage made from these recipes should be preserved by freezing or canning.

<i> HEALTHY HOMEMADE SAUSAGE For the healthiest sausage, omit salt and reduce fat Using a mortar and pestle or your blender, make a powder from your spices and add that spice mixture to the ground meat

<P> CLASSIC SAUSAGE Simply grind your meat scraps and add one-fourth to one-third pork fat and seasonings (salt pepper, sage, optional red pepper) or one-third preseasoned pork sausage. Classic all-pork sausage is made of pork trimmings—one-third fat to two-thirds lean.

CARLA'S DIGESTIBLE SAUSAGE I'm always in a rush, so we just grind the sausage, season it bag up in the usual meal-sized lot and put it in the freezer, just grind up the pork trimmings, using only one-fourth fat Add hefty amounts of salt garlic salt onion salt dried parsley, sage, and thyme. Leave out the pepper, red pepper, cinnamon, allspice, and so on. This tastes absolutely sausagey and has no bad aftereffects for even the most sensitive eater. I never seem to be able to keep sausage on hand. It gets used up faster than any other part of the pig.

<i> PLAIN PORK SAUSAGE Take 10 lb. fresh pork, 5 T. salt

2 T. sage, and 2 I black pepper. Grind together. Mix thoroughly some more afterwards to make sure the spices are evenly distributed.

<i> OLD-TIME GARLIC SAUSAGE Combine 20 lb. beef 40 lb. pork, I ground onion, 4 T. garlic juice, 2 c. salt Ai c. brown sugar, and Ai c. pepper. Mix thoroughly. Set out overnight so part of the liquid can evaporate. Stuff in casings. Smoke with apple wood 12 hours or until casings are somewhat dry.

BREAKFAST HERBIE LEAN SAUSAGE For every pound of lean ground meat add As t pepper, Ai t marjoram, Ai t thyme, t sage, and IA21 savory or Ai t coriander seed. Mix all together thoroughly. Let rest in refrigerator overnight to help seasonings get well absorbed. Shape into patties, fry, and enjoy.

& SPICY SAUSAGE Sample recipe: combine 4 lb. pork (one-third fat two-thirds lean), 5 t salt 4 t sage, 2 t pepper, Vi t red pepper, Ai t cloves or I t nutmeg and I t sugar. Full-scale recipe: combine 100 lb. pork, I ¥4 lb. salt 3 oz. sage, 3 oz. pepper, Ai oz. red pepper, and Ai oz. cloves or I oz. nutmeg.

MARJORAM-MACE BULK SAUSAGE Take 85 lb. lean pork, 15 lb. beef IA lb. salt 4 oz. pepper, I oz. red pepper, I oz. marjoram, and I oz. mace. Cut all meat into small pieces, sprinkle seasoning over, and grind with small plate. Store for 24 hours. Add enough water so you can knead the mixture well. Make into patties; stuff casings and freeze; or smoke and then freeze.

SEASONED SAUSAGE First mix your seasonings; then mix seasonings into meat For each 2Ai lb. ground meat combine 2At sage, A21 thyme, A21 cayenne, ¥41 pepper, Ai t garlic powder, Ai bay leaf crushed, and a dash of celery seed.

PIZZA SAUSAGE Combine 10 lb. pork, almost all lean if you can manage it Ai c. salt I t pepper, I t crushed chili pepper, and 3 t fennel seeds. Mix in seasonings. Grind. It will keep in refrigerator about 2 weeks. To cook, cut into patties and fry slowly or bake at 350°F for 45 minutes. Good with tomato sauce and spaghetti. Crumble as it fries to put on pizza.

BOLOGNA This traditional sausage is made of a mixture of ground beef and ground pork. You could make it if you were butchering both a beef and a pig. That's a pretty natural thing to do come weather cold enough for slaughtering. By then we're low on all kinds of meat You can substitute mutton or lamb for beef in this type of recipe. The proportion of pork lean and fat to beef can vary, according to taste and convenience, from as little as 5 lb. pork to 20 lb. beef to as much as 15 lb. pork to 20 lb. beef. So to a certain extent it can just be a matter of how many pounds of beef and pork scraps you have. You might want to save a lot of your beef hamburger, though, to be plain old hamburger, and the same with pork. The nicest mixture is probably 2 lb. lean beef to 2 lb. lean pork with some fat pork (not more than I lb.) thrown in.

Season with sausage seasonings and grind. Use I t seasoning per I lb. meat If you want to put together your own seasoning try salt pepper, garlic, onion, coriander, and mace. Water is added in the proportion of 3 or 4 pt per 25 lb. meat Bologna is traditionally stuffed into beef casings, smoked, and then cooked. Remember to soak the casings before stuffing them. Smoke the bologna for 2 to 3 hours. Then simmer the bologna just below the boiling point until it floats—15 to 30 minutes. Chill in cold water and hang to drip in a cool place. Then you can freeze it

UVER SAUSAGE Along with seasoned pork sausage and blood sausage, this is one of the most popular country sausage recipes around here. Boil 5 lb. pork liver for I hour. Strain and discard broth. Cover 5 lb. lean pork and 5 lb. pork skin with water. Add 3 bay leaves, 6 whole cloves, and I onion. Boil for 2 hours. Skim the fat from the broth. Remove the meat and cool the broth. Grind the liver and the meat Add salt pepper, and garlic salt to taste. Add enough of the broth to moisten the mixture well. Stuff into casings and boil I hour. Then keep in refrigerator or freezer. This recipe makes enough to stuff only about 6 casings. Don't smoke liver sausage.

The above recipe is pretty heavy on the liver side. Most liver sausage contains only 10-20 percent liver. You can add your pork head, tongue, and the like to it In that case, go ahead and cook all the meat except the liver just the way you would for scrapple—until it can be easily separated from the bones. Then cut the livers deeply with a knife and add them for the last 10 minutes. Don't overcook the variety meats. It all gets cooked again in the casings anyway. For 100 lb. meat use 2 lb. salt 2 oz. pepper, I oz. sage, Ai oz. red pepper, and I oz. allspice. Mix in the seasonings and grind the meat until it's ready to stuff into the soaked casings. Stuff tie, and simmer in water until it floats (10-30 minutes). Cool, chill, and hang up to drain. Freeze.

SALAMI This is made from meat that might be tough and need grinding or that tastes like a wild meat you aren't used to. The spiciness covers the taste. Don't use any fat from wild meat except bear, since the wild flavor is generally concentrated in the fat Wild sausage that's part pork or pork sausage makes a fine breakfast sausage. Wild meat is generally extremely lean, so you can combine it with really fatty pieces of pork and it will benefit You can use one-fourth to one-third pork. Season and grind up. Then I just bag it up, tie with the wires, and freeze. Each bag holds enough for a breakfast When we have plenty of wild meat and pork, I make salami by the kettleful. Season with commercial seasoning, I t per pound, or use your own formula. You can add black whole peppers after your grinding to make it authentic. Sage, allspice, garlic, ground cardamom seed, and onion salt are all good in it After the meat is seasoned, you can stuff it into casings if you like. Smoke about 48 hours (smoking is no substitute for cooking, however). Freeze it and cook it when you are ready for a sausage meal.

<i> POTATO SAUSAGE This recipe was sent to me by the Johnsons ofWheaton, IL Use 4 lb. ground beef and 2 lb. ground pork. Peel and grate potatoes until you get about I qt grated potato. Use some of the liquid that drains off the grated potatoes so that the mixture is like a soft meat loaf Grind 3 large onions and add. Add salt pepper, and ground allspice to taste—A2 to I t The flavor should be subtle. Put this mixture in sausage casings. Don't pack too tightly. Tie the ends. Simmer in salted boiling water for Ai to I hour. Freeze. To cook, put in a shallow pan in the oven and brown at 375°F for about 10 minutes.

<§> BLOOD SAUSAGE This recipe makes about 30 lb. sausage. Take 7 lb. fresh pork (cook the day before and save broth), I bundle casings (well washed and soaked in water), 3 lb. rice (cooked almost done), 2 lb. barley (also precooked the day of use), Ai c. cinnamon, I t cloves, I Ai t. allspice,

Vi c. marjoram, 3 T. pepper, Vi c. salt and 2 qt fresh beef or pork blood.

It is probably better to use beef or lamb casings, and the sausage will taste better if you use beef blood. The meat used should be mostly pork; a little beef can be added. Fresh pork hocks, shanks, shoulder, or meat from the hog's head works great Fat must be left with it since it is a necessary ingredient All ingredients should be ready ahead of time.

Blood should be caught in a manner that keeps it clean. Add a little salt to keep it from setting, or stir it The best way to get a cow or pig's blood is to shoot the animal and then quickly hoist it. Cut the jugular vein in the neck—or, if you're a real expert go straight to the aorta coming out of the heart Press the neck of a jar to the animal's neck to catch the blood as it pours out To get blood from an unhoisted beef or pig just hold the pan so as to catch blood after cutting it open. One hog will give about I'A to 2 gal. blood. Don't get blood from nose or mouth. Keep pan under animal, and keep stirring for at least 5 minutes; otherwise the blood will congeal into a lump, and you want to keep it liquid. If you have snow, pack the jar with snow to cool it.

Grind meat and fat Warm broth. Mix meat broth, warm rice, barley, and blood. If blood has set grind it and then mix in. Add spices. Mix thoroughly. Mixture must be quite warm to put in casings. Don't pack casings too full. Have a kettle of water boiling. Tie casings, leaving room for expansion. Drop a few at a time into the water. Cook about 10 minutes. Test by pricking it with a needle. If juice is clear, take out and cool. Wrap for freezer.

My family enjoys this fried crisp or put on a cookie sheet or shallow pan in a hot oven until crisp. We use it for either breakfast or dinner. It is very expensive to buy, and what we do buy never seems very good.

GERMAN FRANKS Take 5 lb. veal without bones, 5 lb. pork (no fat), 8 lb. lard, 13 grams ('A oz.) salt per pound of meat 3 grams (Ao oz.) pepper per pound of meat and Ai nutmeg per pound of meat Grind meat very fine together with salt pepper, and seasoning. Mix well after the grinding. Put into clean intestines and make 6-inch pieces. Prick with fork Franks will keep a while in refrigerator.

KIELBASA (POUSH SAUSAGE) Combine IA lb. pork loin or Boston butt, Ai lb. veal, salt and pepper, I clove garlic (crushed), and I t crushed marjoram, if wanted. Run meat through coarse grinder. Add 3 or 4 T. water, garlic, salt and pepper to taste, and marjoram. Mix thoroughly and stuff casing. It is now ready to smoke. Or just place in baking dish and cover with water. Bake at 325 to 350°F until water is absorbed.

DRY ITALIAN SAUSAGE Take 5 lb. freshly butchered ground pork butt, 2 t black pepper, I clove garlic (chopped), I wine glass of red table wine, I T. salt I T. fennel seed, and I t ground hot pepper. Blend well and store in refrigerator overnight The next day, stuff in casings. Then freeze, or hang up to dry in cool, ventilated room for I week and then freeze. Some people add ground onions to sausage.

& ROSEMARY SAUSAGE Take I lb. pork, I lb. beef I lb. veal, I lb. suet I T. salt I t. black pepper, 2 t rosemary (ground or chopped), Ai t thyme, A t marjoram, Ai t freshly grated nutmeg, and casings. Finely grind first 4 ingredients. Add remaining ingredients and mix well. Put into casing and tie every 4 inches, or form into patties and refrigerate.

DUTCH "POUTDEN" Use a Dutch oven or a large pan with a cover. Cut or chop up the following ingredients, working from the bottom of the pan to the top. On the bottom make a layer of potatoes, then carrots, then onions, then apples, then cabbage (cut in chunks), and then mettwurst or any good smoked sausage (cut in small pieces). Add I to 2 c. water, salt and pepper. Boil until mushy. Can be served as it comes or mashed together.

<i> SWEET AND SPICY SAUSAGE To 4 lb. pork trimmings, add 5 t salt 4 t sage, 2 t black pepper, A21 ground cloves, and I t sugar.

Canning Sausage. See the Ground or Chopped Meat recipe in the "Canning" section.

Preparing Hamburger or Sausage to Be Frozen. Mix together your desired meat, fat, and seasoning ingredients. Then decide if you want to freeze it in clumps, patties, or rolls. For clumps, divide into the sizes you want, wrap, label, and freeze. For patties, divide meat into V2-lb. balls and press into flat patties (or use a hamburger press). Package for freezer the desired number of patties per package. Separate the patties by a double thickness of wax paper. Wrap, label, and freeze. When thawed, these patties can be broiled, pan-fried, or baked in gravy. For rolls, shape meat into cylinders of a diameter and length that will feed all of your family for 1 meal. Wrap, label, and freeze; when you defrost a roll, cut into slices. Rolls slice better if they have some fat content or if all-lean meat is mixed with a little water.

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