Old Fashioned Recipes

Hatching Eggs in an Incubator

Homemade Plywood Kerosene Lamp Incubator

The most productive modern chicken breeds in terms of meat and eggs are carefully selected genetic strains that won't go broody. So if you want more of them, you have to buy them again from the commercial hatchery or incubate their eggs yourself. Home incubation is actually a practical option, especially with the inexpensive, but functional, small incubators available for sale. Even the smallest size, which will hold about a dozen eggs, can keep them adequately warm, humidified, and turning....

Harvesting Storing and Using Wheat

When to Harvest Wheat is one of the slower grains to mature it takes winter wheat 40-50 days from heading to harvest. The wheat is close to harvest time when it has grown tall, has headed out with a big bushy top full of those wonderful grain seeds, and has started looking dry and turning yellow all over (some varieties turn a brownish red). How to Harvest To harvest by hand, do it at this time, when the straw is just turning yellow and the grain can be dented but not mashed (seed at 20-35...

Products and Processes

Butter To make herb butters, start with either salted or unsalted butter, as you prefer. Soften the butter and cream into it finely chopped herbs to your taste. Chives, minced garlic, or watercress are fine additions. You may want to add a little lemon juice. Use 1-2 T. (well-packed) fresh herbs or 1-2 t. dried ones per lA c. butter. Use the herb butter on bread or hot meats, or with eggs. Unsalted butter won't keep as well as salted, but it's best for people who are watching their blood...

DoItYourself Cosmetics

Here's another whole category of environmental poisons that we could do away with. In Japanese the words for pretty and healthy are the same. Once when I was bemoaning my adolescent imperfections, my mother said, To be young is to be beautiful. At the time I thought she was talking nonsense. Now I'm the age she was then and I understand the truth of it. The lily doesn't need to be gilded. My father taught that beauty was on the inside, that it consisted of glowing good health and a fine...

Milking Problems and Problem Milkers

Phyllis Vallette, missionary in Djibo, Burkina Faso, wrote me At our semi-desert latitude, the Africans manage their cattle and goats with absolutely no barns, and very limited use of pens. The Fulanis here do make a calf-pen, which they use at milking time they corral the calves, then a child is posted to let them out one at a time on call. The calf starts to nurse, then the milker-woman takes it off the udder and ties its neck to the cow's front leg (both an anchor and a distraction to keep...

The Business of Herbs

Buying Herbs and Herb Products Herb growing and use are enjoying renewed popularity both with builders of beautiful cuisines and fragrant potpourris, and with seekers after kinder, gentler, cheaper cures for what ails them. Here's a list of places to buy herbs. Later in this chapter, as I discuss specific herbs, I'll note the firms that sell them. If you don't find their addresses below, look in the introduction to Chapter 2 (for firms that also carry vegetables) or the source list in Chapter 6...

Cow Butchering

Butchering Old Cows

AGES What you'll call the meat depends on what age the cow was when butchered. Veal. A calf that is butchered at 8-10 weeks will weigh about 180 lb., dress out to about 100 lb., and be called veal. Veal is light colored and mild flavored and very tender compared to beef. Veal goes well in recipes for young chicken. In Victorian days when they really went in for a big variety of exotic meats for the tables of the rich blackbirds in a pie and the gamut to a haunch of venison veal was a delicate...

Squash Sponge Luffa

The luffas are a totally different gourd species (Luffa) than the lagenarias. The luffa (sometimes spelled loofa) originated in Asia and has as about as many names as there are seed catalogs. One of its most common names is vegetable sponge because the skeleton of this gourd is the luffa sponge you can buy from your health-food store. It's also known as towel gourd or dishcloth gourd. Asian specialty catalogs may use its Chinese names. Luffa sponges can be used as bathing sponges, boat or...

Measurements Metric Equivalents

Acres Square Miles

Until everyone agrees on one system of measurement, we'll have to keep converting. On the following pages are some tables comparing metric amounts and measurements to those we use in the United States. For an easy introduction to metric cooking, read Metric Cooking for Beginners, by Ginevera Barta. 1 liter liquid (water) weighs 1 kilogram. Milliliters to Teaspoons Tablespoons Cups are rounded off. They're fine for cooking, but I wouldn't try to do industrial chemistry with them One milliliter...

Harvesting Wild Rice

Harvesting Images India

Water Level for Harvest Wild rice can handle torrential flooding in the spring, but it needs a stable or gradually lowering water level as harvest approaches. Flooding can destroy the harvest. A sudden drop in water level can cause the plants to collapse onto the water. ripening In early August, the oat-type, loosely branched seed head is produced at the top of the stem. The kernel is first light green, then olive brown, and finally brown or black. When ripening, the formerly pale-green stalks...

Headcheese and Scrapple

Headcheese is a homemade luncheon meat. It's quick and easy compared to scrapple. It's an all-meat product. You can add in the pig's tongue, skin, heart, and other scraps, if you want to. Headcheese makes a fine cold snack when cut in slices and served with hot mustard or horseradish. Or it can be dipped in egg and crumbs and fried like scrapple for your meat dish. Or you can make a kind of sausage out of it, if you know where to get casings or how . Like all pork products it's on the bland...

The Goosefoot Greens

Amaranth is a more distant relative of this bunch, as are purslane and sea purslane. The rest beet greens, Good King Henry, lamb's-quarters, Malabar spinach, orach, spinach, Swiss chard, and water spinach are all closely related members of the family Chenopodiaceae the beet, chard, spinach, and quinoa family. Some food experts recommend that you boil the goose-foot greens before eating them. This is because they all contain more than the usual amount of oxalic acid too much oxalate can cause...

Snail Snake Turtle and Frog

Different Types Edible Snails

Here's how to prepare these critters that are neither bird, mammal, nor fish. snail There's a lot to know about collecting and eating snails. Some are not good to eat. Some need special treatment. There are land and marine snails too, and each are different. California is good snail hunting country. Here's the necessary info (thanks to the Division of Agricultural Sciences, U. of California) for preparing the edible European brown snail or brown garden snail (Helis aspersa), which is called...

Brandied Fruit

Foods preserved in alcohol are brandied. Wines and foods containing over 14 percent alcohol by volume are self-preserving. Wines and foods with a weaker concentration of alcohol can become sour and vinegary. Brandied food should be kept cool and airtight. Burying it deep in the ground works well. The trouble with preserving food by brandying is that it will give you a hangover. I'd hate to have to get drunk to eat. Incidentally, many people hold very strong opinions for or against the use of...

Chopaka Nut Orchard Pilarski

The bulk of what follows used to make up the Sweets chapter, and there was a lot more in it about how to make apple butter than about how to grow a tree. Now, as I sit down to write this new edition, I am more worried about preserving the topsoil, maintaining our atmospheric oxygen, and reducing the earth's carbon dioxide level (and risk of a disastrous greenhouse effect) than I am in making sure you can cook apple butter. Apple butter is still here, but I've added as much as I could (not as...

Old Fashioned Recipes - Wool Wash

Wool Preparation Steps

Wool Marketing Wool is sold by the pound. Some sheep keepers are into spinning and weaving, and they keep the animals mainly for their personal wool crop, which they'll card, spin, and weave themselves. Many sell to other hand spinners or to a larger wool buyer. In general, hand spinners like wool in interesting colors like black, silvery, brown, or blue, and will pay 2-10 times as much as commercial wool buyers, depending on how pretty and how scarce the color and texture of the wool is. Ask...

Vegetarianism

Vegetarian Diets When I first started writing this book I didn't know anything about the vegetarian way of eating. But readers, and life, have educated me. I've been exchanging letters for about a year now 1989 with a remarkable young lady named Ruth Miller. Age 13, she lives with her sister and parents on a small island, Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, in the Southern Caribbean, where her parents manage a religious radio station called Trans World Radio. Ruth and her parents are long-time...

Summer Squashes

When somebody tells you zucchini is Italian soul food, that's okay. But if they say zucchini came over on the boat with Columbus, inform them they've got the direction backwards. Both summer and winter squash are natives of the United States that migrated to Europe A meal of squash, beans, corn, and venison was a basic native American supper. Summer squashes are grown, cooked, and preserved quite differently than are winter squashes (see next section). Zucchini, marrow, scalloped pattypan...

Books Containers and Equipment

Food Preservation Books Stocking Up III The All-New Edition of America's Qassic Preserving Guide, by Carol Hupping, covers canning, drying, freezing, root cellaring, plus preserving meat and dairy products. A similar, good, big, conservative, encyclopedic book on food preserving is Putting Food By, by Ruth Hertzberg, Beatrice Vaughan, and Janet Greene it also covers making sausage, cheese, lard, and grits. The Busy Person's Guide to Preserving Food by Janet Bachand Chadwick (1982) and The Big...

Country Living

Copyright 1994, 2003 by Carla Emery Updated ninth edition Illustrations on pages 10,17, 26, 57, 65, 72, 73, 76, 77, 81, 90, 99, 101, 102, 103, 104, 125, 133,134, 135, 145, 151, 155, 158, 162, 181, 243, 244, 416, 417, 425, 428, 430, 447, 451, 543, 549, 554, 574, 580, 595, 609, 610, 612, 620, 621, 622, 623, 626, 633, 634, 639, 641, 643, 671, 674, 679, 681, 689, 692, 693, 722, 769, 785, 787, 791, 793, 801, 803, 806, 813, 817, 824 copyright 1994 by David Berger Illustrations on cover, title page,...

Grasses Grains

My Childhood, and Grain About Grasses, Grains, and Canes 132 Of Planting, Growing, and Harvesting Planning Spring and Winter Varieties Amount to Plant Of Seed and Where to Buy Field Grain Seed Home-Grown Seed Manure Tilling Planting the Seed Covering the Seed The Growing Of Feet and Grain Coping with Weeds Of Watering Non-Row Grain Crops Harvesting Grass Grain Maturity Stages Modern Harvesting Old-Time Hand (Non-Petroleum-Using) Harvesting Making a Sheaf Tying the Sheaf Curing the Unthreshed...

Grinding Your Grain

Quaker Cookbook

If you've never eaten food made from freshly ground grain, you've never realized how flat and insipid the flour you're used to really tastes. You can home-grind all the grains, including rye, wheat, corn, rice, barley, and oats, as well as soybeans, chestnuts, peanuts, lentils, and dried peas to make a variety of flours. In the old days you took your grain to a mill and had the miller grind it. For payment, old-time law stipulated that the miller was entitled to one-tenth part of what he ground...

Buckwheat Recipes

Buckwheat Greens Lane Morgan says, Tibetans and Nepalis use buckwheat greens as a salad. It's about the only green vegetable they can grow at high altitudes. She has a recipe for them in her Winter Harvest Cookbook Seattle Sasquatch Books, 1990 . kasha Recipes Use your buckwheat whole as kasha or ground into buckwheat flour. Kasha is made from whole, green buckwheat. Green means not toasted yet after toasting, it's called kasha. Dry-roast your buckwheat kernels under a low flame for about 15...

Eating Dent Flint Popcorn and Indian Corn

You could be in terrible shape for money and still make it if you had some dried com. Your shoes might get holes you could stuff cornhusks in the bottoms. You could shell off the com and bum the cobs for warmth. And you could eat the com with water if you don't have anything else. The exact recipe you make depends on how much water you add. If you add just a little water to your commeal, you make a kind of com bread. If you add somewhat more, you've got cornmeal gruel. For variety you could...

Planting and Growing Wheat

Wheat Varieties Choosing and finding the right wheat variety may be harder than you think. Redwood City offers 9 wheat varieties for small growers mostly unusual varieties. But in Growing Vegetables West of the Cascades, Steve Solomon warns Except in the rain shadow of the Olympics where rainfall amounts to less than 20 inches, I don't think it would be possible for maritime Northwest wheat to form enough gluten protein for decent yeast bread. Besides becoming relatively soft on my ground, the...

How to Use Recipes from ari Antique Cookbook

I wrote this section in February 1971. It was the first writing I did on this book. I read about 50 antique recipe books before I started writing this section. That's how I figured these things out. It was sleuthing, and I really enjoyed it. Antique recipe books can work for you, if you know how to use them. They can be a functional part of your kitchen library, not merely sentimental curiosities on the shelf. leavening This is invariably a problem in using old-time recipes. See Acid-Base...

Allium Group I

The vegetables in this group (elephant garlic, garlic, and shallots) reproduce by making an underground head of cloves. Garlic and elephant garlic are 2 different species, but they are much alike in their cultivation and use. The Garlic Press is a quarterly newsletter ( 15 yr) published by the Garlic Seed Foundation. It covers tours, festivals, and research. David Stern, foundation director, maintains their garlic library and bibliography and networks with growers and researchers worldwide. He...

Introduction to Greens

We eat them raw in salads and cooked in all kinds of dishes, getting strength from their vitamins as Popeye did. Basically, greens are edible-leaved plants. They're all annuals or biennials and perennials planted each year from seed as if they were annuals because the tender new leaves are the best. Climate Time of Year Climate and the time of year you want to harvest are factors in choosing what greens to plant. Some endive, kale, lettuce, mustard, and spinach do best if planted in...

The Chicories

Chicory started out as a wild plant in the Mediterranean area. It's been cultivated and improved in Europe since the Middle Ages. (Old-time recipe books may call it succory) All the chicories (endive, escarole, radicchio, and witloof) have a sharp, somewhat bittersweet taste that's quite unlike the more familiar iceberg lettuce. Chicory is to lettuce as radish is to apple. But there are many varieties of chicory, some with quite different appearances and flavors. The chicories can be a...

The Valerian

CORN Salad Valerianella locusta var. olitoria is Latin for corn salad, a.k.a. lamb's lettuce, fetticus, and mache. The only name all gardeners agree on is the Latin one. The plant originated in mid-Europe, where it grows wild, and Europeans love it the cultivated varieties are a standard market item there. Opinions of its flavor differ also some think it bland, but I think it has a fine, nutty taste. For some people the bland aspect is disagreeable. But most get used to it and can even get to...

The Cabbagy Brassicas

This group includes Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage. brussels Sprouts You are probably going to plant your seed indoors and then transplant outside. You're aim ing to produce little cabbage-type heads. They can get as large as ping-pong balls, but don't let them, because bigger ones aren't as tasty. Brussels sprouts are a funny-looking, tall (2 to 4 feet) plant with a bunch of leaves at the top like a palm tree. The sprouts grow all around the sides of the stem. Planting. You can...

Globe Artichoke

The globe artichoke was hard for me to classify. But the artichoke is unique among the food plants in that the part we eat is the base of the unopened flower bud and the top of the bud's stem (aha ). Its closest (and only) edible relative is the cardoon, an edible stalk (second aha ). And you can also eat artichoke sprouts like asparagus (third aha ). So I listed it here. The globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a semihardy thistle variety that does nicely in California but not in Idaho. Globe...

How to Prune

Cass let me borrow heavily from her book on pruning for this section. So, if it sounds like I know what I'm talking about, that's the reason. In addition to the information here, you'd find Cass's entire book helpful. Also you can get bulletins from your local extension service, get other books, and take classes. Pruning can get really complex, and pruners don't necessarily agree with each other about even basic principles. There's a lot more to it than learning how to spread open young limbs...

Recipes for Wild or Gamey Tasting Meats

For people who aren't used to wild, strong, or unusual-tasting meat and want to disguise that taste, the following recipes will be helpful. They are most likely to suit small and large wild mammals but are also tasty recipes for domestic meat. In addition to these recipes, Oregon State U. Extension will sell you a booklet, From Hunt to Home, for 2.50. Order from 541-737-2513 OSU, Ad S 422, Cor-vallis, OR 97331. steak I was raised in large part on wild meat, and our deerburger was all deer, but...

Foods Made from Milk

You'll find that in order to get enough milk in the winter for household use, you'll have to live with a surplus of milk in the summer. That's okay When your family doesn't need it all, you can raise calves, pigs, and chickens on it, feed the dog and cat, and make butter, cheese, and many other wonderful dairy foods. I separate the cream out for butter-making, refrigerate whole milk for cooking and table use, and separate out the curds from the rest for cheese,...

Paul Mannell Rabbits

Magazines Domestic Rabbits comes out 6 times a year from the American Rabbit Breeders Association, c o Glen Carr, PO Box 426, Bloomington, IL 61702 arbapost aol.com www.arba.net. The magazine, Standard of Perfection, and breed guidelines are available to members 15 yr for adults, 8 youth. Send 2 for their beginner's booklet, 5 for their rabbit cookbook, or 1 for a bumper sticker Get into the Rabbit Habit. It's a good place to find local rabbit clubs, rabbit products, and basic breeder stock....

Getting Started

In general, learn as much as you can before you get started, and then begin on a small scale. American Sheep Industry Association offers market, legislative, news, links, etc. 303-771-3500 6911 S. Yosemite St., Ste. 200, Englewood, CO 80112-1414 info sheepusa.org www.sheepusa.org. Black Sheep Newsletter is a great quarterly for small-flock and colored-sheep owners. 14 yr in U.S. 18 outside U.S. 25455 NW Dixie Mountain Rd., Scappoose, OR 97056 503-621-3063 bsnewsltr aol.com www....

Moving Water

Hauling Water I remember living in a house that didn't have running water it didn't have water at all except that carried there in a bucket. We used an outhouse for our toilet. I hauled water up a hill from the creek in a bucket and poured that water into a tank on the back porch. For hot water, we heated water on the stove until we got a stove that had a tank built right onto one side of it where the water heated more or less automatically, as long as you had a fire in the stove. We took baths...

Goat Reproduction

Goat Facts of Life Goats are in their prime generally from 3 to 6 years of age. It is best to breed young does from 15 to 18 months, or at least 10 months old. Too early breeding will stunt growth and heighten risk for dead babies and poor milk production. The usual number of kids for a mature doe is 2 or 1 or even 3 or 4. Keep records on your does. They will tend to repeat themselves. goats in Heat Young goats may vary about when they come into heat the first time breeding them for the first...

Maintaining Your Storage

Keep the Storage Space Clean Keep storage facilities for vegetables and fruits clean. Get rid of vegetables and fruits that show signs of decay. At least once a year, remove all containers from your storeroom. Then clean them and air them in the sun. Wash the walls and ceiling before you put back the containers. Harvest for Live Storage Harvest during dry weather, not too soon after a rain, and let the surface of the product dry, since wet produce is much more susceptible to disease in storage....

Vegetable Seed Catalogs

Listed below are firms offering general garden seed catalogs, including some specialized firms that offer vegetable seeds as well as their specialties. (In subsequent chapters' entries about various vegetables and other plants, these firms are simply mentioned by name you can get the address from this section.) Sometimes I mention if the catalog is black and white (b w) or color. Personally I prefer the b w folks because they're doing the environmentally wiser, less-leaded option. I wish I had...

Saving Seeds

Bananas, potatoes, and many herbs are reproduced by propagation rather than by planting seeds. Propagation means burying a piece of the progenitor plant. But most of the common garden vegetables are always planted from seed seed that you buy, save from your own plants, or swap with other seed savers. Books for Seed Savers Seed to Seed Seed Saving Techniques for the Vegetable Gardener by Suzanne Ashworth is a complete guide for saving the seeds of 160 vegetables. For each vegetable it gives the...

Undercover Gardening

The following section is often indebted to one of the basic books in this field, William Head's Gardening Under Cover A Northwest Guide to Solar Greenhouses, Cold Frames, and Cloches (Seattle Sasquatch Books, 1989). For fall and winter gardening in chilly or cold climates, and very early spring growing, cover is essential. A garden under cover is protected from rain, frost, wind, and cold. There are 4 styles of light-transparent, cold-protective covering for plants floating plastic row covers,...

Growing Grain Amaranth

Varieties Basically, the amaranths come in 3 main divisions the grain amaranths, grown for seeds the vegetable amaranths, grown for their stems and green leaves which are harvested and cooked like the related plants Swiss chard and spinach and the weedy amaranths such as pigweed. For information on vegetable amaranths, see also Leafy Greens in Chapter 4. The amaranth seedhead colors are wonderful red, orange, golden, or burgundy purple. Depending on the variety, seeds are cream-colored, golden,...

Names and Kinds of Corn

The word Zea is ancient Greek for cereal and comes from the verb to live. Similarly, the native American word for corn was maize, which meant that which sustains. To Europeans, the word corn meant and still means the hard kernels of any common grain wheat, oats, barley or maize. That's why the pioneers called maize corn and why Europeans are still confused when we say corn. If you are speaking to a European, call the plant maize, and then there will be no...

Planting and Growing Quinoa

Ordering Quinoa Seed Abundant Life offers 12 varieties of quinoa, including the low-saponin Dulce Saj. Bountiful Gardens has three Ecology Action, Hudson, Irish Eyes Garden City, Seeds of Change, Territorial, and Bountiful Gardens also offer it. I learned a lot of what I know about quinoa from Steve Solomon's books. He wrote, Quinoa from the health-food store won't sprout, because it's scarified to remove most of the saponins and eliminate the need for long soaking. Variety matters. Get the...

Planting and Growing

Varieties Rye, like wheat, comes in both spring and winter varieties. Different varieties are suited to different climatic regions. It also comes in steps of strongness in flavor called light, medium, or dark rye. If you plan to save some rye for seed, grow just one kind, for rye is windpollinated, and varieties readily cross. Winter and Spring Rye. This variety can be grown either for grain, green manure, or green fodder. Plant in the fall 2 to 3 weeks before frost. For a green manure crop,...

The Leafy Brassicas

There are lots to choose from in this group collards, cress, kale, mizuna, mustard, rape, rocket, turnip greens, tyfon, and watercress. collards I've got at least a partial credential for talking about collards because my mother was born and raised in Alabama. She left around age 20, first for a job in a bank in New York City and then to take a teaching job as an English teacher in the practically brand-new, whistle-stop town of Clyde Park, Montana. They called her Alabam there, and from her I...

Flower Seeds Alphabetical List

Flax Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the flax family (Linaceae). It's an annual that grows about 2 feet tall. Once flax was a main source of fabric for clothing. It used to be planted on most farms, back in the days when a fabric called linsey-woolsey was popular, because the stalks can be made into linen, an exceptionally durable fabric. (Mummies in ancient Egypt are wrapped in a finer grade of linen than anybody now knows how to make.) Flax seeds are wonderful in dried fruit...

Winter Squashes

You never use winter squash when it's green and small, the way you do summer squash. You let winter squash thoroughly ripen on the vine. Winter squash tastes way different too. It's a very nourishing vegetable, different from summer squash that way too, resembling sweet potato in taste, texture, and uses. varieties The winter squashes look very different on the outside, but all are grown, harvested, and prepared in a similar way, and they taste similar too. You can grow 5-lb. butternut or...

Food from Water

As public oceans and rivers more and more double as toxic dumping grounds for every city or country that can get at them, regular commercial water creatures are ever riskier to eat. The so-called FDA seafood inspection program actually inspects only 1 lb. of fish for every 160,000 lb. we eat. And the FDA seal of approval is false security anyway because the FDA has toxic limits for only a dozen or so modern poisons even though biochemists know there are hundreds that today's fish may carry. And...

Enter the Wonderful World of Nuts

If you live where nut trees grow wild, you can bring home bags of nuts for free. But there are fewer and fewer wild nut trees. So consider planting some. Nuts provide fat, protein, and, in the case of acorns, carbohydrates. Most seedling nut trees take 5-10 years, or longer, to bear, but once started they continue producing crops year after year with practically no care as well as providing a bonus of beauty and shade. World-wide there are nearly 1,000 kinds of nut trees, but in North America...

Heritage Breeds and Exotics

Heritage Livestock Breeds These are old-time livestock breeds. Some are still popular, but many are quite rare and some have vanished forever. Back in the old days they were regular farm livestock, an essential part of rural life and agriculture. Years ago there were far more breeds of the 9 basic livestock species asses, cattle, chickens, ducks, horses, geese, sheep, swine, and turkeys worldwide than there are now. Back then, every area of the earth where people...

Getting Started Information and Supplies

Poultry Periodicals Most U.S. rural-living magazines have occasional articles on poultry the most common homestead animal. And also . . . Feather Fancier Newspaper is a Canadian newspaper focused on purebred poultry, pigeons, waterfowl, pheasants, etc. 20 US yr sample 2 519-542-6859 fax 519542-4168 5739 Telfer Rd Sarnia, Ont. N7T 7H2, CANADA featherfancier ebtech.net www.feather fancier.on.ca. National Poultry News is the Country Paper Country Folks Love to Read, a homespun 32-pg quarterly,...

Chicken Breeds

White Chicken Breeds Png

Here is a description of the different kinds of chickens, sorted out in various ways to help you make sense of it. To me, the most important aspects of a chicken are ranging, mothering ability, and climate suitability. But there's a bird for everybody's needs here. Browse until you find your perfect match. But first a useful definition sex links. Sex links exist in various breeds and are always worth considering. Sex links are the offspring of the crossing (mating) of a gold (red, buff, brown ....

Laws on Home Poultry Processing

Under federal law, there is no inspection if you process fewer than 20,000 chickens (or 5,000 turkeys) per year (Poultry Products Inspection Act, Section 15), so long as the poultry is sold in your state. Local and state regulations may be more restrictive. Here follows a summary of the laws in each state, inspired by and indebted to Legal Issues for Small-scale Poultry Processors, compiled by Janie Hipp for Heifer Project International. (It's free from NCAT ATTRA 800-346-9140...

The Waterfowl Ducks and Geese

Many of the principles of waterfowl care are the same as those for chickens and are covered in that section. This section covers cases in which duck and goose care are the same for each other but different from that for chickens. Following this combined section, there are individual duck and goose sections. In general, ducks are small waterfowl, and geese are big. (The Muscovy is a bird that fits into both categories. I've seen it grouped with the geese, but it's more often categorized with the...

Oxen Cattle That Pull

Any bovine that has been trained to pull is a draft ox or bullock. If you have 2 or more of these trained cows, you have a yoke or pair of oxen. Technically, a steer calf, yearling steer, 2-year-old, or 3-year-old can be pulling, but it's not until the animal is practically mature at 4 years that it fully qualifies to be called ox. draft Breeds Any gentle breed of cow can be trained to pull. Usually people work with steers from a large dairy breed, such as Holstein, because they're easy to get...

Learning to Beekeep

Raising bees is a lot trickier than the manuals make it out to be, and I speak from sad experience. My general impression is that people usually expect more honey than they actually get. Maybe in the South it's better, but in these more northern climates it takes a couple years at least to get built up to where your bees will be keeping you in honey. Above all, you can't just install and then ignore this tiny livestock. Professional beekeepers visit their bees at least every 3 weeks to check...

Chronology of This Book

For Christmas, my mother-in-law gave my husband Mike and me a subscription to Organic Gardening, along with some back issues. Old Fashioned Recipe Book idea came to me. Wrote the table of contents. Believed I could finish the book in 2 months. Placed an ad to appear in the November and December 1970 issues of Organic Gardening. Received about 250 orders. Wrote all the people saying I'd send the book when done and promised them it would be only a couple more months. First issue mailed to the...

Animal Powered Cultivation

Like goat people, animal traction folks form strong bonds with each other, reflected in their many events and publications. Eastern States Draft Horse Sale is held in Columbus, OH, once a year. For more info, contact Chrissy Steinbrick call fax 419-734-2013 5910 E. Port Clinton Rd Marblehead, OH 43440 belgian cros.net. Topeka Draft Horse Auction is your chance to buy young harness-trained horses, experienced draft teams, and horse-drawn farm implements. There are two draft horse and three...

Pregnancy and Farrowing

Homemade Farrowing Crates

After breeding is done, circle the calendar day 114 days away (3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days). With luck she'll have babies then. Since there's no way to know if she's pregnant until she delivers, you now have to wait to find out for sure, although you can usually tell by around the 80-day-point. As she gets farther along she'll get a larger belly and milk coming in. Failure to show heat signs suggests pregnancy but doesn't prove it. Pregnancy usually goes well. Housing for Mom and Piglets Your...

Hamburg Parsley

Hamburg parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. tuberosum), also called parsnip-rooted parsley and turnip-rooted parsley, is a variety of parsley grown for its crisp, white-fleshed, carrot-shaped root. It's very hardy and can be harvested, stored in a root cellar, and used in stews like any root vegetable. planting Seeds are available from Burpee, William Dam, Farmer, Harris, Hudson, Johnny's, Jung, Nichols, Park, Stokes, etc. Hamburg grows fine in low-nitrogen soils, pH 6 to 7. In fact, excess...

Spiced Fruit

Spiced fruit doesn't have to be canned or frozen. The real old-time recipes don't spoil they just get spicier and spicier. In small amounts they are very tasty like the spiced crab apples that you can get in the store, only much more spicy. This is not a method of preserving a staple food, just a holiday goodie. If your fruit does show signs of fermentation, pour off the liquid, boil it awhile, and then pour back over the fruit. Brandied fruit has an alcohol content, but spiced fruit doesn't....

Chickens That Hatch Their Own Eggs

Setting or brooding are words that mark that dramatic turning point when a hen decides to start her family. Then she stops just laying her eggs and walking away, and instead she stays to sit on them, keep them warm, and so incubate out a family. It's desirable or undesirable depending on whether you want chicks or eggs. Or whether you want her to incubate or your machine to incubate. You can recognize a broody because her manner of speech changes from the everyday sing-song to a lower-pitched...

Of Ducks in Particular

Duck Features When the duck preens, it spreads the oil from an oil gland at the base of its tail, over its feathers. A layer of insulating down under larger contour feathers that are lubricated with this oil enables the duck to swim in near-freezing water. Even the webbed feet are made to withstand cold because there are neither nerves nor blood in them. Most domestic breeds are earthbound, but Muscovies, Calls, East Indies, and Mallards can still fly to some degree. Ducks can live up to 30...

Sausage and Hamburger

NOTE In the following recipes, there are no chemical preservatives, so as a safety measure, follow these instructions 1. Use only fresh rather than aged meats. 2. After making your sausage, immediately store in a freezer that is set at 0 F or below. 3. Or preserve by canning. (Follow the directions in the Canning section for ground or chopped meat.) 4. Cook frozen sausages thoroughly before eating. supplies and Books To shop for casings, ask the custom butcher in your area. Larger cities may...

Soap Making

Soap is nothing more than a mixture of fats or oils with lye and water. Although soap has been a part of human life for at least the last 2,000 years, its commercial history is very short. Before people learned the connection between bacteria and disease and figured out that soap killed bacteria, cleanliness was not a popular concept. But by the mid-19th century, innumerable fat-lye soaps were on the market, some made with animal fats and others with palm kernel oil, which lathers more easily...

The Non Bramble Berries

W> BARBERRY JUICE Use cranberry juice recipe. blueberries These need an acidic soil. If they have that, you have a wonderful berry that may bear fruit the first year and for the next 50, but if they don't have that soil they will die and that's all there is to it. St. Lawrence Nurseries offers numerous varieties of half-high blueberries. You can prune blueberries only very lightly. Blueberries don't really have canes, just twigs. In all but the far north, do what judicious cutting you must in...

Using Dried Food

You can eat dried foods straight or rehydrate (refresh) them by soaking or cooking in water, broth, or fruit juice. The warmer the water, the quicker the food will soak it up. Don't add sugar or salt to the rehydrating fluid they both hold back water absorption. Eat dried fruits out of hand for snacks at home, on the trail, or in lunch boxes. Or use pieces of dried fruit in cookies, cakes, puddings, breads, etc. Reconstituted dried fruit makes nice stewed fruit or sauce served plain. Or add it...

Steamed and Boiled Breads

Dumplings A biscuit-sized chunk of bread cooked as it floats on top of boiling soup or stew is a dumpling. A dumpling bread shouldn't have very much shortening in it, or it will come apart in the water. You want to make a dough that's firm enough to hold together on the water but not floury, which could cause your stew to burn on the bottom. Wait to drop in dumplings until your stew is boiling hard. The pot should be about two-thirds full. If you sprinkle a little flour on the dumplings before...

Bee Rabbit Sheep Pig Contents

Learning to Make Sure You Ask and Learn Clubs Bee Books Magazines Beekeeping Supplies About Bee Of Bees and Bees Bee Breeds African Bees Getting Siting the Hives Bee Equipment Inspection Moving a Hive Getting Bees Protective Homemade Beekeeper's Costume Store-Bought Beekeeper's Costume Basic Beekeeping Equipment Bee-Go-Away Items Working with Your When You Look at a Frame Going into the Hive Water and Water Bee Food Dealing with Swarming Bee Diseases, Parasites, and Pests Basic Bee Hygiene...

Making A Scalding

Using Ropes Lay the pig on the platform by the scalding vat. You now need two 30-foot (more or less) ropes. Half-inch rope is fine. You can make do with 1, but 2 are much better. Smaller rope is harder to get hold of and to work with. Rope the pig up before you put it into the vat. With 1 rope this is a 2-man job. (With 2 ropes you use 4 people to roll the pig.) 1. Make each rope have a U shape. 2. Lay the pig on ropes across the U shape. 3. Bring the 2 free ends of the U over the pig and...

Cutting Up the

Before freezers, the pig's fat was rendered into lard, with cracklings used as a people snack or animal feed as much as possible was eaten fresh, and the rest was heavily salted for preservation. When saltpeter came along, what had been salted meat was shifted to cured (corned if it was beef) and the amount of salt and spices could be lessened. Now that we know more about saltpeter (all bad) and have freezing and canning options, the healthiest choice for your family is obviously to freeze all...

Places to Buy or Order Poultry

Feed-Store Chicks At Kendrick, the feed store doesn't sell chicks, but apparently in many other places it does. Lane Morgan said, You don't say much about buying chicks from the feed store, but that's what I do. Find out what day their birds will arrive, and make your purchase several days later. That way someone else, probably with better equipment, has fed and sheltered the babies through those first touchy days. I've gotten 2-week-old birds for the same price as newborns, which saves a lot...

Home Butchering

Qualifications and Preparations Unless you've had a college course in comparative anatomy or dissected a cat or two in a zoology course, you may not be able to distinguish one muscle bundle from another. When I was a little girl, my mother believed that every situation could be made to have educational value. As the teachers of subjects like Hellenistic Marketing and Music of Ancient China say, it's bound to be useful sooner or later you might be surprised just when. So whenever Mother cleaned...

Herbs Flavorings Contents

Your Herb Garden Public Herb Gardens Info and Networking Other Herb Periodicals Medicinal Plant Info The Business of Buying Herbs and Herb Products Herb Products Herb Plant Sources Selling Herbs Harvesting Preserving Products and Butter Candying Leaves and Flowers Candy, Herb-Flavored Crystallizing Dye Extract Flowers Ground Herb or Spice Hand Lotion Jelly Oil Oil, Herb-Flavored for Cooking Ointment Pastilles Physick Pillows, Herb Pomander Potpourri Poultice Powder Sachets and Herb Pillows...

Harmless Cleaning Agents and Other Eco Safe Formulas

Feb. 1991 issue of Backwoods Home Magazine, Rodney Merrill, Ph.D. and M.PH. (master's in public health), wrote, Americans use more chemical cleaners and disinfectants per person than any other people on Earth. Some analysts say we have a neurotic obsession with odors, germs, and cleanliness. The advertising industry has helped push our obsession to the limits by bombarding us daily with hundreds of radio and TV commercials that sell us chemical solutions that will wash away our...

Milk Handling

Steel Items Use For Kitchen Clipart

You need a stainless steel or food-grade plastic container to milk into, and quart, half-gallon, or gallon jars to store milk in Bag Balm for treating teat and udder chapping and nicks and cheesecloth or another system to strain the milk. There are other possible items but they're optional. Stainless steel is expensive but it lasts a lifetime. Cleaning Home-Use Milk Utensils Quick-cooling the milk and using clean utensils can vastly improve milk flavor. 1. Prerinse with lukewarm water as soon...

Using Leftover Breads

Toast Accidentally undercooked bread can happen to anybody (it has to me plenty of times), and the answer is to turn it into zwieback or melba toast zwieback if it is coarse-grained, melba if fine. You can toast rye, French, or almost any other nonsweet bread. Toast it buttered or plain, under your broiler or on a grill, on a cookie sheet, or in a cake pan. The firmer the grain or the staler the bread, the more butter you need for good results. Put the slices about 9 inches away from the...

Growing Wild Rice

Growing Conditions Under natural conditions, Northern wild rice is found growing along river shores in the shallow water and in lakes. The plant thrives best in rivers that have rushing floodwaters in the spring and water depths of about a foot, although it can grow in water as deep as 3 feet. In deeper water, the plants get spindly, late-flowering, and poor-producing because too much of their energy has to go into stalk. It produces best per acre in water 6-12 inches deep in midsummer....

Of Wood Cookstoves

Alte Bands Gen

I remember the wood stove we had when I was a little girl. It was our only heat and a much-appreciated presence on winter days. Mother raised bread behind the stovepipe. The spring chickens first lived in a box on the floor back of the stove before they graduated to the bathtub. Hot water came from a tank attached to the right-hand side of it with a circulating pipe rigged up to pass near the firebox. I started out cold mornings sitting on top of the stove. As it got warmer I scooched away from...

Wild Food Foraging

Last summer a forest ranger near here sat down to eat his packed lunch out in the woodsy open. He spotted an interesting-looking plant nearby, broke off a leaf, added it to the inside of his sandwich as an experiment, and ate his lunch. He was dead within 2 hours. A little boy 25 miles down the road from us at Lapwai, Idaho, spotted a big reedy plant that looked just right for whistle making. He carved himself a very fine whistle out of it, blew on it to see if it worked . . . and...

Yeast Bread Ingredients

Basic Procedure for Bread Making Start with a yeast solution and add that to a liquid. A sweetening for the yeasties to feed on is helpful, plus some shortening, salt if you want, other things in the fruit and vegetable kingdoms, and finally your flours, the kneading process, and the rising, punching down, second rising, and baking. yeast Use sourdough (homemade) or store-bought. There are different kinds of commercial yeast. Brewer's yeast won't raise bread. Neither will the dry yeast sold as...

Garden Vegetables Contents

Allium All the Allium Allium Group I Elephant Garlic Garlic Shallots Allium Group Allium Group Allium Group Bunching Onion Chives Garlic Chives Globe Onion Leek Pearl Onion The Leaves We Eat Introduction to Climate Time of Year Classification of Greens Harvesting, Cooking, and Preserving Greens Salad Making The Non-Brassica Greens 249 The The Names Planting Harvesting and Blanching About Loose-Headed Chicories Endive Escarole Radicchio Witloof The Dandelion Lettuce Dandelion Lettuces The...

General Canning Instructions

Tuah Sakato Logo Adat

This section explains the canning process. First you prepare and pack the food then you process it using either a water-bath method or a pressure-canning method and then you cool the jars and store them. (And finally, if all goes well, you eat your good canned food ) 1. Run your finger around the rim of each jar to check for nicks. A nicked rim can't be depended on to seal properly. 2. Wash jars in hot soapy water till clean. If you can't get a jar clear-clean, don't use it to can. Get a head...

Bobwhite Quail Recipes

Johnny Box For Quail

These, and pigeons, are the smallest of the domesticated birds. Quail require the least space of any food-producing domesticated animal and can be raised in an apartment. A 2 x 2 x 8-foot pen could hold 50 quail. Coturnix and Bob-whites are the most commonly raised quails. Bob white quail are raised to eat as dressed birds and for shooting preserves. Coturnix are raised for their eggs says my friend Lee, Quail eggs are a son of a gun to peel , as well as for meat. Blue Scale and Gambel quails...

Laying Out the Garden

Bigfoot The Northeastern States

You have 5 big, complicated questions to answer before your garden is fully planned. 2. How will you arrange the plants in the site 5. Will you use indoor starting transplanting, cloches, cold frames, and or a greenhouse to extend your season Where Will It Be If you really want to have a garden, you can. I've heard from people who live in sunless rooms and have them filled with fragrant green stuff growing under special lights. I've read letters from and visited garden lovers in Nevada and New...

Poultry Contents

Information and Poultry Periodicals Poultry Clubs, Museums, and Tours Poultry Books Chicken Good Egg Layers Egg Color Size Breeds for Ranging Setters and Non-Setters Breeds for Fly-Tying and Feather-Jewelry Rare Breeds Starting by Buying Adult Health Bringing New Birds Home Introducing Newcomers to an Established Flock Taming Birds Starting by Buying Mail-Order Chicks How Many Chicks for Laying Hens Chicks for Meat Hatchery Sexing Of Debeaking and Dubbing Arrival and Inspection Places to Buy or...

Shell Dry Beans

Shell beans are the many varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris that are dried on the vine, shelled, stored dry, and then served in chilis, soups, casseroles, etc. Basically you grow shell beans (beans for drying) just as you grow bush beans (almost all of them are bush rather than pole types), but you harvest them differently. varieties All the beans described in the following paragraphs are Phaseolus vulgaris varieties. Soybeans, lentils, dried peas, garbanzos, and black-eyes are good shell beans...

Hunting Wild Mushrooms

I don't have anything in this book about identifying and collecting wild mushrooms except this Don't do it from a book. Join a mushroom club. To gather wild edible mushrooms, start by going out with experienced people. You'll learn more safely and surely about wild mushroom identification that way than you ever could from a book. NOTE Please think twice before gathering scarce mushrooms. Many varieties in many places are now near extinction because of overharvesting, although the problem is not...

Brooding Chicks

Brooder Equipments Drawing Pictures

If you wait to order your young birds until local temperatures are quite stably warm and if you have a draft-free place for the chicks you can make do with a minimal source of heat their first week or so at night and that's it. This is the closest thing you could have to a non-brooding option. If you're going to raise chicks, you've got to learn at least a little about brooding them. Introduction to Brooder Structures Newborn chicks are tiny, fragile, and fluffy The basic characteristics of an...

Fruit Leathers

Another way to dry fruit, as well as certain vegetables, is to leather them. Leathers are lightweight, high in nutrition, and easy to store and pack for hikes and camping. They are a good way to make use of overripe fruits, a good healthful candy for the kids, and a good liner for a cobbler. Apricots and peaches make the nicest leathers, but you can make good ones from pears, plums, rhubarb, unseeded berries, and many other foods or combinations of foods. Overripe Fruit Leather All the rule...

Which Herbs Spices for Which Foods

Lillian Reed, Kirkland, WA, typed the 685,000 words from the eighth edition of this book, plus addenda, onto computer disks for me so I'd have an easier time revising and expanding it for this ninth edition. As she neared the end of half a year of hard work, I invited her to add something she had created herself to the book something that would help people. She brought me this APPLESAUCE anise, cloves (ground) ARTICHOKES chervil, coriander seeds, fennel seeds, BEAN SPROUTS ginger (fresh or...

Buying Tree Vine Bush or Bramble

If you can, avoid buying fruit trees mail-order. Or buy mailorder from nurseries that are near where you live or located in the climate zone where you live. The catalog salesmanship is great, but in the long run I think you'll be happier with what you buy in person from a local nursery. The mail-order trees are cheaper. They are also smaller and in worse condition and get off to a much poorer start. Your local plant nursery knows expertly what trees are already acclimated, and if your tree...

Food Preservation Methods

This section describes general methods of food preservation. For detailed canning, freezing, drying, or root cellar storage procedures, look in the chapter that covers that food for grains, Chapter 3 for herbs, Chapter 5 for fruits, Chapter 6 meats, Chapter 8. For vegetables, look in Chapter 4 pickles are mostly discussed under Cucumbers and sauerkraut making under Cabbage in that chapter. In-Ground Storage Some people say you should leave most of the root vegetables in the garden during the...

Winged Bean

Psophocarpus tetragonologus purpurea is also called the winged pea, asparagus bean, asparagus pea, dambala, goa bean, and Manila bean. Its name refers to the 4 lengthwise ribs wings that develop on its seed pods. It's a remarkable tropical legume, a food plant from southern Asia that's widely grown in Asia and Europe but is little known in the United States. This is a pretty climbing plant (10 to 12 feet) that endures heat well but can't endure frost. It flowers only when the days are short. So...

The Game Birds

Pheasants, partridge, quail, grouse, and peafowl the game birds vary a lot, but in general they all are fragile, they typically do not reproduce efficiently or at all in confinement, their eggs must be incubated, they are raised in total confinement (either in runs or cages), and they are chronically nervous. The main argument for keeping them is the extraordinary beauty of some varieties (the pheasants in particular), the small size of some (particularly the quail) that make garage ranching...

Using Honey

Botulism spores can be in it. These don't harm adults when directly eaten, but in the intestines of infants under 1 year of age especially under 6 months of age they can grow. This was discovered in 1976 and is now thought to account for at least some cases of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Keep these small babies out of soil (where botulism spores are) in general. Honey at the Table Get 2 small syrup pitchers. Fill one with honey and one with molasses or...

About Botulism

Of Canning, Bargains, and Safety Canning is a bargain compared to buying store food. Being a frugal-minded person, in previous editions of this book I used to look for ways to make canning even cheaper. No more. I understand better now the risk of botulism. Over 700 people have died of botulism since folks started canning in this country. (In 1992 in the United States, 10,000 persons were killed by handguns, which puts that in some perspective.) Last year 1976 in the United States, there were...