Produce from the Kitchen Garden

By combing medieval Polish records for references to vegetables, it has been possible to compile a list of twenty-five species. This does not even touch upon the possibility of cultivar diversity, which we know existed but is difficult to ascertain from vague texts or from the archaeological record. In any case, such a broad representation of species is large enough to fully reject the theory strongly maintained in the literature (popular as well as scholarly) that medieval vegetable...

Tripe in Sauerkraut Flaczki w Kiszonej Kapuscie

While in Hungary in 1983, Maria Dembiriska and 1 went over a list of old foods that we wanted to learn more about, one of them being tripe. At that time, tripe was almost impossible to obtain in Poland unless one bought it directly from a farmer who had just butchered a cow. This modern scarcity was all the more peculiar given the abundance of tripe according to nedieval Polish records. It was often served at the royal court, but elaborate recipes from the period do not exist. Even passing...

Fish Aspic Galareta z Ryby

2 buck shad, 4 small trout, or other freshwater fish equal to 2 pounds (1 kg) after gutting and scaling (heads and tails are not removed) 6 cloves rocombole garlic, gently crushed 2 cinnamon sticks about 4 inches (10 cm) in length 1 cup (250 ml) lavender vinegar (see page 168) 1 cup (250 ml) spring water 1 quart (1 liter) prepared fish stock (see following recipe) 4 envelopes unfavored gelatin (optional) 1 teaspoon ground ginger 1 teaspoon salt A teaspoon ground saffron 4 tablespoons (60 ml)...

Ham Stewed with Cucumbers Szynka Duszona z Ogorkami

Although this dish first appeared on a fourteenth-century menu from Weissenfels, the stew presents a strange familiarity because it is a predecessor of dishes later characterized in French cookery as salpicons. The finely diced ingredients are probably the connecting factor, yet the antecedent to this concept traces to the Eastern Mediterranean so it is part of an ongoing culinary continuum. The meat may be prepared in a number of ways without changing the rest of the recipe. I decided that the...

Courtiers Pottage Strawa Dworzanina

This one-pot dinner for rich peasants or petty nobles is made with millet kasha, which must have the consistency of coarse cornmeal so that it cooks down thick. The most historically appropriate dry peas would be those that are small and red-brown or violet-brown in color. The tiny medieval field pea known in Sweden as Jamt-lands Gra Forderart (Jamtland gray fodder pea) or the old English Carling pea are recommended. The Swedish pea would represent a true peasant's pea, while the English...

T i h 0 k a t s s P li i n

He may have had a staff of lower-ranking individuals (even children) who worked in teams. Wine steward (Subpincerna). Although referred to as cup bearer, this was customarily a person of noble birth who was in charge of the beverages at court and their distribution. The position was considered a great honor. These anonymous nobles and craftspeople take on a more individual quality in the art of this period. The painted religious panels of southern Poland show an...

N I K X

Page numbers in boldface type refer to recipes. alexanders, 121, 126, 151 almonds, 133-34 bitter almonds (as flavoring), 135 alus (Lithuanian barley beer), 78 anise seed (in rusks), 115 Anna, Duchess of Silesia, 133 Anna, Queen of Poland, 103 apricots (yellow), 134-35 archaeological evidence, 2-3, 43 archival records, xv, 2, 7, 45-46 Arum italicum (for starch), 55 ashcakes ash breads (sub cinarus), 120 asphodel (Asphodelus aestivus) for thickening, 192 aurochs, 84-86 awnata (oatmeal soup), 107...

J 1 I K l K [ s M c I l K v 1 P Ml I

Can give a bitter almond flavor to foods undoubtedly the queen was acquainted with this fact. The only wild fruits that consistently appear in the royal accounts are strawberries. We know from market regulations, however, that blueberries were also gathered and sold extensively. The inventories of the Order of Teutonic Knights at Malbork in northern Poland list many more wild fruits raspberries, sloes, cranberries, and rowans, to name a few. But these fruits were purchased for their juices to...

1

K CM) 1 A N 1.1 T) K I N K I N M K I> 1 K A J. Plil.AM) diet of monks in German and French monasteries, that have thrown some light on the Polish situation.3 After comparing the ingredients mentioned in the French and Danish cookbooks with those that appear in Polish registers, we found that the Polish lists were almost identical. The condiments were the same. Meat was often seasoned with pepper, saffron, parsley, and mustard. Mustard was the most common Polish condiment for flavoring meat...

Wroclaw Trencher Bread Worclawski Chleb Zytni

8 cups kg stone ground rye flour 7 cups 875 g stone ground spelt or whole club wheat flour 2 cups 500 ml thick beer see page 183 1 cup 250 ml active beer harm or ' ounce 14 g active dry yeast proofed in 1 cup 250 ml lukewarm water 4 cups 1 liter water at room temperature Polish trencher knife, circa 1400. This type was used to smooth the bread. Private collection. In many parts of Europe, trenchers were made from old bread, which was often sold in the marketplace specifically for this purpose....

H I M R Aim 1 V

For the large number of sources cited in Polish, a translation into English has been supplied in brackets following the title. This does not imply that the source appears in full or partial translation most of the Polish works listed below are not available in English. The publications of Maria Dembinska were selected only for their relevance to this book. Over the course of her career, Professor Dembinska published several books and nearly two hundred articles, far too numerous to include...

Cubeb Vinegar Ocet Kubebowy

Various types of pepper vinegars were used at the Polish royal court for marinades, and numerous vendors sold such vinegars in Cracow during the 1300s. Guinea pepper Piper guineense was used when a mild pepper taste was preferred Indian long pepper Piper longumj supplied a heat similar to the New World capsicums that eventually replaced it. Cubeb, however, is uniquely pungent, with overtones of allspice. It is excellent with venison. However, the vinegar was not, like venison, restricted to...