Food Spices Mail

List of contributors 1 Introduction

K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University, India and K. Nirmal Babu, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India

1.1

Introduction to herbs and spices

1.2

Uses of herbs and spices

1.3

Active plant constituents

1.4

The structure of this book

1.5

References

Part I

General issues

2 The functional role of herbal spices

M. R. Shylaja and K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University, India

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Classification

2.3 Production, consumption and processing

2.4 Functional properties

2.5 Sources of further information

3 Herbs and spices and antimicrobials

C. C. Tassou, National Agricultural Research Foundation, Greece, and G.-J. E. Nychas and P. N. Skandamis, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Barriers to the use of herb and spice essential oils as antimicrobials in foods

3.3 Measuring antimicrobial activity

3.4 Studies in vitro

3.5 Applications in food systems

3.6 Mode of action and development of resistance

3.7 Legislation

3.8 Future prospects and multifactorial preservation

3.9 References

4 Screening for health effects of herbs

R. Rodenburg, TNO Pharma, The Netherlands

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Types of assays

4.3 Throughput vs content assays

4.4 Assay quality

4.5 Screening bio-active compounds

4.6 Screening experiments for anti-inflammatory properties

4.7 Future trends

4.8 Sources of further information

4.9 References

5 Under-utilized herbs and spices

P. N. Ravindran and Geetha S. Pillai, Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, India and K. Nirmal Babu, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Sweet flag

5.3 Greater galangal

5.4 Angelica

5.5 Horseradish

5.6 Black caraway

5.7 Capers

5.8 Asafoetida

5.9 Hyssop

5.10 Galangal

5.11 Betel vine

5.12 Pomegranate

5.13 Summer savory

5.14 Winter savory

5.15 Other

5.16 References

Part II Particular herbs and spices

6 Ajowan

S. K. Malhotra and O. P. Vijay, National Research Centre on Seed Spices,

India

6.1

Introduction and description

6.2

Production

6.3

Cultivation

6.4

Chemical structure

6.5

Main uses in food processing

6.6

Functional properties and toxicity

6.7

Quality issues

6.8

References

7 Allspice

B. Krishnamoorthy and J. Rema, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India

7.1 Introduction and description

7.2 Production and trade

7.3 Chemical composition

7.4 Cultivation

7.5 Uses

7.6 Functional properties

7.7 Quality issues and adulteration

7.8 References

8 Chervil

A. A. Farooqi and K. N. Srinivasappa, University of Agricultural Sciences, India

8.1 Introduction and description

8.2 Cultivation and production technology

8.3 Uses

8.4 Sources of further information

9 Coriander

M. M. Sharma and R.K. Sharma, Rajasthan Agricultural University, India

9.1 Introduction and description

9.2 Origin and distribution

9.3 Chemical composition

9.4 Cultivation and post-harvest practices

9.5 Uses

9.6 Diseases, pests and the use of pesticides

9.7 Quality issues

9.8 Value addition

9.9 Future research trends

9.10 References Appendix I Appendix II

10 Geranium

M. T. Lis-Balchin, South Bank University, UK

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Chemical composition

10.3 Production and cultivation

10.4 Main uses in food processing and perfumery

10.5 Functional properties

10.6 Quality issues and adulteration

10.7 References

11 Lavender

M. T. Lis-Balchin, South Bank University, UK

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Chemical composition

11.3 Production

11.4 Uses in food processing, perfumery and paramedical spheres

11.5 Functional properties and toxicity

11.6 Quality issues and adulteration

11.7 References

12 Mustard

J. Thomas, K. M. Kuruvilla and T. K. Hrideek, ICRI Spices Board, India

12.1 Introduction and description

12.2 Chemical composition

12.3 Production and cultivation

12.4 Uses

12.5 Properties

12.6 Quality specifications

12.7 References

13 Nigella

S. K. Malhotra, National Research Centre on Seed Spices, India

13.1 Introduction and description

13.2 Chemical structure

13.3 Cultivation

13.4 Main uses in food processing

13.5 Functional properties and toxicity

13.6 Quality specifications and adulteration

13.7 References

14 Oregano

S. E. Kintzios, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece

14.1 Introduction and description

14.2 Chemical structure

14.3 Production and cultivation

14.4 Main uses in food processing and medicine

14.5 Functional properties

14.6 Quality specifications and commercial issues

14.7 References

15 Parsley

D. J. Charles, Frontier Natural Products, USA

15.1 Introduction and description

15.2 Chemical composition

15.3 Production and cultivation

15.4 Organic farming

15.5 General uses

15.6 Essential oils and their physicochemical properties

15.7 References

16 Rosemary

B. Sasikumar, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India

16.1 Introduction and description

16.2 Chemical composition

16.3 Production and cultivation

16.4 Post-harvest technology

16.5 Uses

16.6 Toxicology and disease

16.7 Conclusion

16.8 References

17 Sesame

D. M. Hegde, Directorate of Oilseeds Research, India

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Chemical composition

17.3 Production

17.4 Processing

17.5 Uses

17.6 Future research needs

17.7 References

18 Star anise

C. K. George, Peermade Development Society, India

18.1 Introduction, morphology and related species

18.2 Histology

18.3 Production and cultivation

18.4 Main uses

18.5 References

19 Thyme

E. Stahl-Biskup, University of Hamburg, Germany and R. P. Venskutonis, Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania

19.1

Introduction

19.2

Chemical structure

19.3

Production

19.4

Main uses in food processing

19.5

Functional properties and toxicity

19.6

Quality specifications and issues

19.7

References

20 Vanilla

C. C. de Guzman, University of the Philippines Los BaƱos, Philippines

20.1 Introduction and description

20.2 Production and trade

20.3 Cultivation

20.4 Harvesting, yield and post-production activities

20.5 Uses

20.6 Vanilla products

20.7 Functional properties

20.8 Quality issues and adulteration

20.9 Improving production of natural vanillin

20.10 Future outlook

20.11 References

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