Herbs and Spices

Conventional Classification Of Spice

Peter, Kerala Agricultural University (formerly at Indian Institute of Spices Research) The Geneva-based International Standards Organisation (ISO) defines spices and condiments as Vegetable products or mixtures thereof, free from extraneous matter, used for flavouring, seasoning and imparting aroma in foods. Any of various aromatic vegetable productions as pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, allspice, ginger, cloves, etc., used in cookery to season and to flavour sauces, pickles, etc. a...

Food Spices Mail

Peter, Kerala Agricultural University, India and K. Nirmal Babu, Indian Institute of Spices Research, India 2 The functional role of herbal spices M. R. Shylaja and K. V. Peter, Kerala Agricultural University, India 2.3 Production, consumption and processing 2.5 Sources of further information 3 Herbs and spices and antimicrobials C. C. Tassou, National Agricultural Research Foundation, Greece, and G.-J. E. Nychas and P. N. Skandamis, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece 3.2 Barriers...

Functional properties and toxicity

Peppers are well-known for their health benefits. Herbalists have long promoted peppers for their health-enhancing effects. These include clearing the lungs and sinuses, protecting the stomach by increasing the flow of digestive juices, triggering the brain to release endorphins (natural painkillers), making your mouth water, which helps to neutralize cavity-causing acids, and helping protect the body against cancer through anti-oxidant activity.3 The acute toxicity of capsaicin has been...

Introduction and description

The genus Nigella contains about 20 species of annual herbs, the most popular of which is Nigella sativa L. It is native to the Mediterranean region through West Asia to northern India and has long been domesticated. It can be frequently found growing wild as a weed in cultivated crops. Nigella as black cumin is mentioned in ancient Greek, Roman and Hebrew texts as a condiment and component of herbal medicines and was reportedly introduced to Britain in 1548. It is a minor seed spice cultivated...

References

ACHUTHAN, C.R. and PADIKKALA, J. (1997), Hypolipidemic effect of Alpinia galanga (Rasna) and Kaempferia galanga (Kachoori). Indian J. of Clini. Biochem. 12(1) 55-8. ACUNA, U.M., ATHA, D.E., MA, J., NEE, M.H. and KENNELLY, E.J. (2002), Antioxidant capacities of ten edible North American Plants. Phytotherapy Res. 16 63-5. AGARWAL, S.O. (1987), Some industrially important aromatic plants of Sikkim. Indian Perfumer 31 113-15. ALBERTAZZI, F.J., KUDLA, J. and BOCK, R. (1998), The cox2 locus of the...

Functional properties

The pharmaceutical data mentioned in the literature mainly refer to anise oil and anethole. Anethole is structurally related to the catecholamines adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine.37 Anise oil and anethole have a number of functional properties stimulant, carminative and expectorant. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil distilled from Pimpinella anisum against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium ovis were evaluated. Against S....

Kawakishi S 1994 Herbs

Al-jalay, B., blank, G., MCCONNELL, B. and AL-KHAYAT, M. 1987 Antioxidant Activity of Selected Spices Used in Fermented Meat Sausage, J. Food Protection, 50 1 257. burkill, i.h. 1966 A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, Kuala Lumpur, Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives. fuijo, h., HIYOSHI, a., aSari, T. and SUMINOE, K. 1969 Studies on the Preventative Method of Lipid Oxidation in Freeze-Dried Foods Part III. Antioxidative Effects of Spices and Vegetables, Nippon...

Diseases pests and the use of pesticides

The following are the major important diseases that affect coriander Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. corianderi The coriander wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. conrianderi may infect the plant at any stage of the crop, but more frequently affects younger plants. The infected plants wilt and dry up, resulting in a loss of up to 10 of the yield. Adopting the following measures can reduce the incidence of disease Seed treatment with Thiram and Bavistin with the proportion of 1 1...

Quality specifications and issues 1961 Specifications

The medicinal and non-medicinal uses of thyme and thyme preparations demand high-quality standards. In the USA, the American Spice Trade Association ASTA, 1960 is the advisory organization that helps the spice and seasoning industry develop acceptability standards for whole and ground spices and herbs. The recommended physical and chemical specifications of whole thyme leaves and ground thyme can be seen in Table 19.6. Internationally accepted specifications also exist for the commercially...

Quality issues

19.6.1 Quality control and adulteration As the vegetative parts of marjoram are used in the food and pharmaceutical industries, maintenance of quality of the produce is of utmost importance right from the harvesting stage onwards. All possible means should be taken to eliminate any chance of physical or microbial contamination. El-Kady et al. 1995 highlighted the importance of quality control to prevent growth of fungi and bacteria in food products. They analysed 120 samples belonging to 24...

Production

Spices And Herbs That Contain Eugenol

The world annual demand stays at 4 000-5 000t, with the USA consuming 1850 metric tonnes in 1990. Indonesia became the world's largest producer of cloves in 1996 with total production 90 000t, mostly consumed by the Indonesian kretek cigarette manufacturers, with exports of 9 000t. Despite a rapid increase in Indonesian clove production, Zanzibar and Madagascar remain the main sources for international markets Fig. 12.1 Chemical structures of eugenol, eugenol acetate and ,0-carophyllene...

Farrel K T 1990 Spices Condiments And Seasonings

Belcher E.F.M. (1965) The Distillation of Clove Oils. In Christian, Karl (ed.), Perfume and Essential Oil Review. pp 148-51. crofton, r.h. (1936) A Pageant of the Spice Islands. John Bale, Sans and Danielson Ltd., London. Table 12.7 The maximum solvent residues limit in foodstuff Table 12.7 The maximum solvent residues limit in foodstuff * Combined used is forbidden. Source Ziegler and Ziegler (1998). * Combined used is forbidden. Source Ziegler and Ziegler (1998). davcheva y.g., ivanov s.k....

ISO list of plant species

Sweet flag, myrtle flag, calamus, flag root Stony leek, Welsh onion, Japanese bunching onion Greater galangal, Longwas, Siamese ginger Round cardamom, Chester cardamom, Siamese cardamom, Indonesian cardamom Greater Indian cardamom, large cardamom, Nepalese cardamom Sri Lankan cinnamon, Indian cinnamon No. Botanical name of Family the plant American pepper, Californian pepper tree Mother of thyme, wild thyme, creeping thyme Vanilla planifolia syn. Vanilla fragrans Chinese prickly ash pepper,...

Greater galangal

Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd belongs to the family Zingiberaceae, and is commonly known by such names as galangal, galanga, greater galangal and Java galangal. The related species A. officinarum is the lesser galangal. 5.3.1 Production and international trade Data on production, consumption and trade are scarce and not reliable because traders make no distinction between A. galanga and A. officinarum both are used as the source plant for the Ayurvedic raw drug rasna. India is a major supplier,...

Other tests

There are a number of other tests used in the industry, some of which are for specific herbs or spices. Some of the best-known and widely used are Piperine levels. The test is specifically for peppers of the piper species. This involves extraction measurement of the characterising heat portion of the pepper the piperine content. After refluxing in alcohol to extract the piperine, absorbency is compared to a standard in a spectrophotometer at 342-345 nm. (ASTA) Colour values. This is a...

Harvesting and postharvest management 1921 Harvesting

Marjoram grown in Egypt is harvested from March to July. French marjoram is harvested in September to November. Guenther (1974) mentioned that if marjoram is harvested prior to seed formation, the leaves usurp the volatiles. Kybal and Kaplicka (1990) opined that the herb might be harvested and dried in early summer before flowering. The foliage is cut off about 6 cm above the ground and it will put out new shoots and yield another crop in autumn. According to Prakash (1990) the first harvest of...

Value addition

Spices are valued as ingredients of incense, embalming preservatives, perfumes, cosmetics and medicines. The use of coriander dates back to the day humans learnt to use fire for preparing food. But for a very long time the seed spices were used as freshly harvested dried form. Much later, people realized the possibility of producing essential oil by pressing the plant parts. This was used for medicine and fragrance. The beginning of industrialization at the end of the 19th century changed the...

Major international quality specifications

Herbs and particularly spices have always been highly-priced commodities and vulnerable to adulteration. In consequence simple standards evolved early. As an example, in 1180 in the United Kingdom in the reign of Henry II, a 'peppers' guild was established in London to set and enforce standards for spices. In 1429 it was incorporated into the Grocers Company which is still in existence. This guild was granted a charter by Henry VI to manage the trade in spices. This organisation was given...

Rosemary and sage as antioxidants

Yanishlieva-Maslarova, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia and I. M. Heinonen, University of Helsinki Rosemary is one of the most effective spices, widely used in food processing. It is the only spice commercially available for use as an antioxidant in Europe and the United States. One of the main potential uses is the suppression of warmed over flavour (WOF).1 However, because of their prime use as flavouring agents, rosemary extract products are not technically listed as natural...

Charai Planta Medicinal

ADAM K., SIVROPOULOU A., KOKKINI S., LANARAS T. and ARSENAKIS M. 1998 , 'Antifungal activities of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Mentha spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, and Salvia fruticosa essential oils against human pathogenic fungi,' J. Agric. Food Chem., 46 5 , 1739-45. ANTOUN N. and TSIMIDOU M. 1997 , 'Gourmet olive oils stability and consumer acceptability studies', Food Res. Int., 30 2 , 131-6. AZZOUZ M.A. and BULLERMAN L.B. 1982 , 'Comparative antimycotic effects of selected herbs,...

Defining quality

Within the herb and spice industry, the terms authenticity and quality are sometimes at odds. Authenticity can be defined as freedom from adulteration, most obviously in the sense of absence of foreign bodies or extraneous matter, but it also suggests freedom from impurities in the product itself. However, in practice authenticity is not always helpful in the case of herbs and spices. As an example, sage in virtually all textbooks is defined as Salvia officinalis. But there are some 300 species...

Nutmeg and mace

Hydrate Camphene

Rema, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kerala Nutmeg and mace are two different parts of the same fruit of the nutmeg tree, Myristica fragrans Houtt. Myristicaceae . The nutmeg tree is indigenous to the Banda islands in the Moluccas. The species of the genus Myristica are distributed from India and SouthEast Asia to North Australia and the Pacific Islands. Sinclair 1958 listed a total of 72 species distributed in these areas. The major nutmeg growing areas are...

Uses of herbs and spices

Herbs and spices have tremendous importance in the way we live, as ingredients in food, alcoholic beverages, medicine, perfumery, cosmetics, colouring and also as garden plants. Spices and herbs are used in foods to impart flavour, pungency and colour. They also have antioxidant, antimicrobial, pharmaceutical and nutritional properties. In addition to the known direct effects, the use of these plants can also lead to complex secondary effects such as salt and sugar reduction, improvement of...

The structure of this book

This book is the second volume for the series on Herbs and Spices and has two parts. The first part deals with health benefits of herbs and spices and the use of herbs and spices as antimicrobials and antioxidants. The second part deals with detailed information on individual spices. This covers a brief description, classification, production, cultivation, post-harvest handling, uses in food processing, chemical structure and functional properties of important compounds extracted and quality...

Improving production of natural vanillin

The vanilla flavouring market is dominated by synthetic vanillin more than 90 of the US market and 50 of the French market the lowest national share RAP Market Information Bulletin, 2002 . The reason for such a huge market share is two-fold. Considering flavour strength, 100 g of synthetic vanillin approximately yields the same flavouring power of 13 l of natural vanilla extract. The price of synthetic vanillin is only about one-hundredth that of derived from cured beans. The high cost of the...

Quality issues and adulteration

Madagascar Vanilla Sensory

The quality of cured vanilla beans is the result of confluent factors that run the whole gamut of raw material production to curing. The agro-climatic conditions during cultivation, coupled with various degrees of sophistication or non-sophistication of methods employed in the preparation of harvested beans, can spell the difference in meeting market standards. Physical attributes such as those enumerated in Section 20.4.1 provide the initial criteria by which to judge the cured bean and assign...

Introduction to herbs and spices

The history of herbs and spices is as long as the history of mankind. People have used these plants since earliest times. No other commodity has played a more pivotal role in the development of modern civilization as spices. The lives of people and plants are more entwined than is often realized. Some herbs have the power to change our physiological functioning, they have revolutionized medicine, created fortunes for those who grow, process and treat them, and in many cases have assumed social...

How To Make Hopia With Onion Bulb

Lawande, National Research Centre for Onion and Garlic, Pune Onion is a famous spice commodity grown all over the world and consumed in various forms. It has been in cultivation for more than 4000 years. The maximum diversity of Allium species is found in a belt from the Mediterranean basin to Iran and Afghanistan, i.e. Iran, north Iraq, Afghanistan, Soviet middle-Asia and west Pakistan,1 indicating the primary centre of origin. The earliest record comes from Egypt where onions appear as...

Horseradish

Gaertn., B. Mey. and Scherb) belongs to the family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) and contains the distinctive mustard oils that are common to this family. The plant is known by various common names such as horseradish, red cole, creole mustard, German mustard, horse-radish root (archaic) and red horseradish. Horseradish is a pungent herb, with leaves that are used in salads and sandwiches, and roots that are used for sauces that are added to meat. It is also used...

Main uses in food processing and medicine 1441 General

Oregano is used in meat, sausages, salads, stewings, dressings and soups. The food industry uses oregano oil and oregano resin both in foods and in beverages and also in cosmetics. Oregano oil is used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meats and meat products, condiments and relishes, milk products, processed vegetables, snack foods, and fats and oils. It is the most common spice for pizza. Along with black pepper, it is a common ingredient of dressings and a good substitute for table salt....

Processing issues

Spices can be added to foods in several forms as whole spices, as ground spices, as essential oils, as oleoresins or as prepared and filtered vinegar infusions. A more recent alternative is spice extracts. These consist of the flavour components of a spice, dispersed on one of several types of base, the most suitable bases for pickle and sauce use, for example, being salt or dextrose. Natural materials used in flavour creations are still most often isolated from essential oils. Extraction of...

Chemical composition

Allspice Chemical Structure

The dried, mature but not ripe, berries are the pimento spice of commerce. Pimento is also sold as ground spice. The berries of international standard should be between 6.5 and 9.5 mm in diameter, medium to dark brown in colour, with an uneven surface and with a pleasant odour, characteristic of the spice and with approximately 13 fruits g. The dried berry contains aromatic steam volatile oil, fixed (fatty) oil, resin, protein, starch, pigments, minerals, vitamins (Table 7.4), etc. The...

Blak Pepper Column

Pinene Structure

LL Table 7.3 Export '0001 and production exported from major producing countries, 1995-99 Source IPC, 1997, Pepper Statistical Year Book 1995-96, IPC, Kuningan, Jakarta. IPC Publications, 1999. Source IPC, 1997, Pepper Statistical Year Book 1995-96, IPC, Kuningan, Jakarta. IPC Publications, 1999. Table 7.4 Pepper consumption in developed countries in grams Table 7.4 Pepper consumption in developed countries in grams In such branches, as the growth proceeds, the terminal bud gets modified into...

Chemical structure

14.2.1 Chemical composition of Origanum species and their volatile oils Although abundant chemical compounds have been isolated from oregano, the most important group, from a commercial and application point of view, refers to its volatile oils, basically composed of terpenoids. A comprehensive review of the composition of a 'standard' essential oil is given in Table 14.1. However, composition may vary significantly among different genotypes. Oregano species are rich in phenolic monoterpenoids...

Main uses in food processing

The refreshing pleasant aroma, biting taste and carminative property of ginger make it an indispensable ingredient of food processing throughout the world. Fresh ginger, ginger powder from dry ginger, oleoresin and oil are all used for this purpose. Fresh ginger is unique for its flowery flavour and spicy taste. Hygienic oleoresin and oil in convenient consumer friendly packing and dispenser system find a place in the culinary art of developed countries and upper society strata of developing...

Production and cultivation

Around the globe, during 2002, mustard was grown over an area of 663 697 ha with a total seed production of 468 725 Mt (FAO database). Of the total world mustard seed sale, about 60 accounts for seeds of S. alba and the rest by B. juncea. In the USA the present consumption of mustard is more than any other spice except pepper. The important mustard-growing countries in the world are Canada, Nepal, the USA, Russian Federation, Myanmar, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, Germany and France. But...

Main uses in the food industry

A large proportion of the total usage of cinnamon is for culinary purposes. It can be bought as whole sticks, used to flavour rice and meat dishes, but recipes can also call for ground cinnamon. Cinnamon being more delicate is mostly used in dessert dishes. Hot apple cider just does not taste the same without a cinnamon stick. It is used to spice mulled wines, creams and syrups in Europe. In Mexico, the largest importer of Sri Lankan cinnamon, it is drunk with coffee and chocolate or brewed as...

Uses in food processing perfumery and paramedical spheres

Lavandin oil, lavender oil, spike lavender oil and lavender absolute and even concrete are used as natural food flavours. Reported uses in the food industry (Fenaroli, 1998) include baked goods, frozen dairy, soft candy, gelatin, pudding, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages from 4 to 44 ppm. Lavenders are also included in tissanes or teas booklets of Norfolk Lavender, UK, suggest many recipes for cooking with lavender at home, e.g. herring or trout stuffed with lavender sprigs, and Vickers...

Salunkhe Et Al 1992

The world production of sesame seed is almost wholly utilized for culinary purposes. In India, about 78 of sesame produced is used for oil extraction and about 20 is used for domestic purposes such as preparation of sweetmeats and confectionery (Maiti et al., 1988 Weiss, 1983) and about 2 is retained for the next sowing. Dehulled sesame seeds are sweet and oleaginous and are used directly in different types of foods in various parts of the world. They are used in the manufacture of traditional...

Winter savory

Winter savory S. montana is a semi-evergreen bushy and woody perennial shrub, with smaller pink or white flowers and a stronger flavour. Essential oil is extracted commercially from this species and other uses are similar to summer savory. The stems are woody at the base, diffuse, much branched. The leaves are oblong, linear and acute, or the lower ones spatulate or wedge-shaped and obtuse. Flowering is in June the flowers are very pale purple, the cymes shortly pedunculate. It is propagated...

World trade

No reliable published data are available on global trade in organic agricultural products. The International Trade Centre, Geneva has, however, carried out a market survey in Europe (Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria and Italy) and in the United States and Japan in 1997. According to this survey, retail sales of organic foods in these markets were estimated at US 11 billion. The survey did not include Australia, New Zealand and other developed countries....

Spensely Et Al 1972 Content Of Defatted Sesame Flour

ABDEL-RAHMAN A.H.Y., HASSABALLA E.S., EL-MORSHIDY M.A. and KHALIFA M.A. 1980 , Res. Bull., Assiat, An Shams University. AGREN G. and GIBSON R. 1968 , Food Composition Tables for Use in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Children's Nutrition Unit. AGUILAR V.G. and TORRES E.G. 1969 , 'Determination of sugars in sesame seeds by chromatography', Zeit. Lebensm. Unter Forsch., 140, 332-5. AIYADURAI S.G. and MARAR M.M.K. 1951 , 'Studies on the development of capsules in Sesamum indicum', Coimbatore, India, First...

Contributors

Tel +91 487 371302 Fax +91 487 370019 E-mail kvptr yahoo.com kauhqr ren.nic.in Ms Maria Clay and Martin Muggeridge, Tel +44 (0)208 836 2460 Fax +44 (0)208 836 0580 E-mail mclay fdf.org.uk Dr Rehka S. Singhal, Professor Pushpa R. Tel +91 22 414 5616 Fax +91 22 414 5614 E-mail rekha foodbio.udct.ernet.in Tel +91 486 332497, 332496, 332197 Fax +91 486 332096 E-mail pedes satyam.net.in pedes md2.vsnl.net.in Professor Dr Mensure Ozguven Department of Field Crops Faculty of Agriculture University of...

The American Spice Trade Association ASTA

The American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) was established at the beginning of the twentieth century. Given its long involvement in regulating the quality of herbs and spices entering the USA, ASTA standards are recognised and endorsed by the United States Food & Drug Administration (USDA). Cleanliness specifications exist for all major herbs and spices, in terms of permitted amounts of extraneous matter or filth, mould (visible), insects, excreta and insect damaged material. The amount of...

The European Spice Association ESA

Standards in Europe are typified by the standards set by the ESA which draw both on national standards such as those issued by AFNOR (the French standards authority) and BSI (British Standards Institute), and international standards issued by the ISO (International Standards Organisation). The minimum general ESA quality standards for all herbs and spices are summarised in Table 2.2, whilst quality standards for specific Table 2.1 American Spice Trade Association Cleanliness Specifications...

Production consumption and processing

Most of the herbal spices originated in Mediterranean countries and have been used since ancient Egyptian and Roman times mainly for the purpose of embalming. Even today, the Mediterranean zone is the major source of herbal spices, and Germany, France and the USA are the major producers of high-quality cultivated herbs. Curly parsley, chives and dill are widely grown in Germany, while flat parsley and tarragon are widely grown in France. The USA has cultivation of high-quality herbs such as...

Active plant constituents

Herbs and spices are rich in volatile oils, which give pleasurable aromas. In addition, herbs may contain alkaloids and glycosides, which are of greater interest to pharmacologists. Some of the main active constituents in herbs are as follows Brown, 1995 De Guzman and Sienonsma, 1999 Acids - these are sour, often antiseptic and cleansing. Alkaloids - these are bitter, often based on alkaline nitrogenous compounds. They affect the central nervous system and many are very toxic and addictive....

Pomegranate

Pomegranate, used as spice, constitutes the dried seed with the pulp of Punica granatum, The tree has been placed by various authorities in different orders, but is now included in the family Punicaceae. The pomegranate is mentioned in the Papyrus of Ebers. It is still used by the Jews in some ceremonies, and as a design has been used in architecture and needlework from the earliest times. It formed part of the decoration of the pillars of King Solomon's Temple, and was embroidered on the hem...

Types of assays

The ways in which the bioactivity of compounds or extracts can be analysed is almost limitless. An overview of types of assays that are often used is given below however, this should not be regarded as a comprehensive list since for each scientific question several methods may be applied. The common denominator of screening assays is that they are performed in vitro. The complexity of the model system ranges from simple assays using a single molecule, up to assays using whole cells. For...

Summer savory

Lamiaceae comprises about 14 species of highly aromatic, hardy annual or perennial herbs or under-shrubs. Two important species of this genus are S. hortensis summer savory and S. montana winter savory CSIR, 1972 . Summer savory Satureja hortensis is a hairy aromatic annual and is grown as a popular garden herb. The savory of commerce is the dried leaves and flowering tops, but the best class comprises only leaves CSIR, 1972 . 5.13.1 Production and international trade...

Introduction

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), also known as sesamum, gingelly, beniseed, sim-sim and til, is perhaps the oldest oilseed known and used by human beings (Joshi, 1961 Weiss, 2000). It has been cultivated for centuries, particularly in Asia and Africa, for its high content of edible oil and protein. The crop is now grown in a wide range of environments, extending from the semi-arid tropics and subtropics to temperate regions. Consequently, the crop has a large diversity in cultivars and cultural...

Processing

Sesame seeds are mostly used without removing the cuticle or the seed coat. This is especially the case in areas where sesame is processed for its oil. The cuticle contributes to the colour, bitterness, and fibre and oxalate contents of the resultant screw-pressed meal. Such meal is not useful as a source of protein for humans and other monogastric animals and is used mostly as a cattle feed or manure. Therefore, dehulling of sesame seed is followed to improve its quality and utilization as a...

Vanilla products

The cured beans are further processed to produce the various vanilla products. This is commonly accomplished in the importing countries. The different products developed from vanilla are described below. The major product derived from cured vanilla is an alcoholic essence, which is commercially known as vanilla extract. The vanilla flavour is obtained through solvent extraction with the use of the best grade of ethanol. Generally, the basic process in the preparation of vanilla extract involves...

Black pepper

Kallupurackal, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kerala Among the spices, black pepper is the king. It is the most important, most popular and most widely used spice in the world. It has extensive culinary uses for flavouring and preserving processed foods and is important medicinally. Of the total spices traded internationally pepper accounts for about 34 (throughout this chapter, pepper is used to mean black pepper, unless otherwise stated). South West India is...

Quality specifications and adulteration 1361 Specification for whole seed

The quality of Nigella seed mainly depends on appearance matt-black seeds, oily white interior and roughly triangulate, 1.5-3 mm long, uniformity in size, shape and texture. The odour in Nigella seeds when crushed resembles strawberry. Some authors have mentioned its smell is similar to oregano or carrots. The Indian Agmark grade specifications for Nigella seeds with minimum specific quality indices as laid down under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Indian Act (PFA standards) for Nigella...

Pekinense Maekawa

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is the second most widely cultivated Allium after onion. According to FAO estimates for the year 1999, the world area cultivated is 889,000 ha and production is 8,776,000 mt. China, Korea, India, USA, Spain, Argentina and Egypt are the major garlic growing countries. China ranks first in area (424,000 ha) and production (5,690,000 mt) followed by India in area (113,000 ha) and Korea in production (484,000 mt) (Table 16.1). In productivity, Egypt tops the list (25,366...

Quality standards and grade specifications

Dried cardamom require cleaning to remove all stalks and dried remains of floral parts. This should be done by rubbing dried cardamom over a coarse surface of wire-mesh or bamboo trays. This is best carried out while the cardamom is still hot. Fig. 9.1 Structure of important aroma compounds. 2001 Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Fig. 9.1 Structure of important aroma compounds. 2001 Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Table 9.3 Flavour characteristics of important volatile components in cardamom Components Flavour...

Organic farming

Farmers, consumers and policy makers have shown a renewed interest in organic farming as the objective of today's common agricultural policy - the sustainability of both agriculture and the environment without compromising food production and conservation of finite resources and protecting the environment so that the needs of people are met today and for generations to come. Approximately 2 of the US food supply is grown using organic methods. Since 1990, sales of organic products have shown an...

Essential oil

Sweet marjoram essential oil, known in the trade as 'Oil of sweet Marjoram', is obtained by steam distillation of the dried leaves and the flowering tops of the herb yielding 0.3 to 0.4 oil from fresh and 0. 7 to 3.5 from dry herb. It is a pale yellow or pale amber coloured rather mobile liquid (Shankaracharya and Natarajan, 1971 Farrell, 1985). Dayal and Purohit (1971) obtained 0.8 essential oil from marjoram seeds, which was also a pale yellow mobile liquid with a characteristic smell....

Main uses in food processing and perfumery

Virtually all essential oils produced are used in the food and perfumery cosmetics industries. Reported uses (Fenaroli, 1998) are, in ppm baked goods, 13.0 frozen diary, 7.11 soft candy, 11.39 gelatin and pudding, 5.41 non-alcoholic beverages, 3.47 alcoholic beverages, 2.08 hard candy, 295.2 and chewing gum, 308.4. The leaves of many of the scented plants are used in domestic baking and the mint-flavoured P. tomentosum is used to make 10.4.2 Novel uses of geranium oil and extracts in food...

Quality indices and standards

The presence of a minimum of 5.0 3,9,epoxy-p-menthene in dill herb oil is a good indicator of its purity. There is no commercial source of this compound available to enable reconstitution of the oil. Lawrence (1981) has opined that examination of the percentage ratio of, a-phellandrene to limonene to -phellandrene is another test for quality determination the acceptable ratio was found to be 20 25 3 in dill herb oil. Dill herb oil is easily differentiated from caraway oil as carvone content in...

Main uses in food processing 1841 Kokam

The kokam rind is the richest source of natural red pigment anthocyanin, which has great market potential in developed countries.2 Kokam rind contains two to three per cent anthocyanin pigments and is a promising source of natural colourant for acid foods. Cyanidin-3-sambudioside and cyanidin-3-glucoside are the major pigments present in the ratio 4 1.27A new fat-soluble yellow pigment, namely garcinol, has been isolated from the fruit rind.28 Kokam fruit serves as a flavouring substitute and...

Black caraway

Black caraway (Bunium persicum Boiss Fed. (syn. Carum bulbocastanum)) is a perennial aromatic spice belonging to the family Apiaceae. It is a temperate plant, naturally occurring in the dry temperate regions of the northwest Himalayas, where the winter is severe, and the ground is under snow in winter. A long chilling period is essential for germination of seeds. In India the plant occurs in the alpine areas of Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir and Utharanchal. Black caraway is often confused with...

Cultivation and production technology

Chervil probably originated in southern Europe or the Caucasus region. It is found in Europe and Asia. It has been cultivated in England since 1597 and in America since 1806. However, it can also be found growing in other places where the right conditions prevail. Chervil grows well in any good garden soil with high fertility. However, moist, humus-rich soils with good drainage are most suitable. It can be successfully grown in soils with a pH of 6.5, especially turnip-rooted chervil, which has...

Concept of organic farming

The concept of organic farming is based on an holistic approach where nature is perceived to be more than just an individual element. In this farming system there is dynamic interaction between soil, humus, plant, animal, eco-system and environment. Hence organic farming differs from industrial agriculture as in the latter, biological systems are replaced by technical production systems with liberal use of chemicals (Anon. 1999). Organic farming improves the structure and fertility of the soil...

Future trends

The organic spice trade is of particular interest to many developing countries growing spices. It should be noted that the initial growth in the organic spice sector is encouraging. Some organic food experts visualize that insufficient supply of organic spices, especially those which are required in large quantities, might become a problem in the next few years George 1999b . The future demand for organic spices appears to be bright. Any processed food can only be labelled organic if 95 of the...

Cultivation and postharvest practices

Coriander is a tropical crop it requires a cool and comparatively dry frost-free climate, particularly at the time of flowering and seed formation stages, for good quality and high yields. Frost following the flowering stage reduces production drastically. High temperature and high wind velocity during anthesis and seed formation enhances sterility and reduces yield. Cloudy weather at the time of flowering increases the number of aphids and disease. Coriander is grown as an irrigated crop on...

Kokam Oil Industries In India

India is the major producer of kokam and cambodge. The important producing areas for kokam in India are Western Ghats, Coorg, Wynad and Ratnagiri.21 It is estimated that in the Konkan region alone about 4000 tonnes are produced.11 Western Ghats region contains about 15 lakh trees and the estimated yield is 10,000 bags each with 100 seers of seeds.19 Kokam is exported mainly in the forms of fruit, oil (kokam butter) and syrup. Indian kokam is popular in several countries like UK, Canada,...

Production and trade

Jamaica is the largest producer and exporter of pimento, accounting for 70 of the world trade. The remaining 30 is produced by Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Brazil and Belize. The dried mature but unripe berries, berry oleoresin, berry oil and leaf oil are the products of commercial importance obtained from P. dioica and they find varied uses in the food, medicine and perfume industries. Among the pimentos from various geographical locations, Jamaican pimentos are considered to be of high...

Quality specifications and commercial issues

Although oregano has been known and used for centuries, it has only lately gained mass popularity, largely because of its relationship with marjoram (O. marjorana), the popular and botanical terms for both species having long been confused. While sweet marjoram was one of the most popular herbs during the Middle Ages, oregano was scarcely cultivated, probably because of the plant's tendency to compete against other plants growing nearby. On the other hand, wild oregano has been traditionally...

Quality issues and adulteration 771 Specifications

Cleanliness, safety issues (microbes and moisture levels) and economic parameters (aroma, flavour and granulation) are the main quality aspects dealing with spice. The cleanliness specifications have been set out in laws such as Food and Drug Administration Defect Action Levels (FDADALs) (USA) or in trade practices such as the American Spice Trade Association (ASTA), European Spices Association (ESA), etc. As per the ISO specifications, allspice is described as the dried, fully mature but...

Toxicology and disease

Rosemary is generally considered safe and devoid of toxic side effects if taken in recommended doses. However, there have been occasional reports of allergic reaction such as skin irritation. Pregnant and lactating women are advised not to use rosemary, as are pepole with epilepsy. Rosemary oil should be used with caution by persons suffering from hypertension, blood pressure or insomnia cfm). In vitro studies of liquid extract of rosemary ('Herbor 025') and a mixed oily extract of herbs such...

Quality indices for spice essential oils

V. Rege, University of Mumbai Essential oil fractions and oleoresins derived from spices are used widely in the food industry to provide flavour. Some of the main essential oils and their origins are shown in Table 3.1. Determining the quality and purity of essential oils faces similar difficulties to establishing the quality of raw spices, given the accepted variations in and mixing of varieties within a particular spice. There are, however, a number of...

Introduction morphology and related species

Star anise (Illicium verum, Hooker) belongs to the Magnoliaceae or Magnolia family and is an important spice. The tree is very ancient and is part of a primitive family. It is indigenous to southeastern China. Star anise was known beyond China long before the Christian era as one of the few familiar spices, like cinnamon. However, it was not until the late 16th century that this spice was first brought to Europe by an English navigator, Sir Thomas Cavendish.1 Commercial production of star anise...

Postharvest technology

Leaves, flowering tops, flowers and twigs are of economic importance. First harvesting is done about eight months after planting, with the onset of flowering or just before flowering. In the first year, two crops can be taken, whereas in the subsequent years two to four harvests are possible at an interval of 100-120 days. Generally, harvesting of the plants can be done up to 50 flowering. At above 90 flowering, harvesting is not desirable Farooqi and Sreeramulu, 2001 . Tender, non-hardy shoots...

Essential oils and their physicochemical properties

Parsley essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the seeds or the above-ground parts of the plant. Commercially, there exist two types of parsley oil, viz., parsley herb oil and parsley seed oil. Parsley seed oil and herb oil should be stored in full, preferably glass, tin-lined, or other suitably lined containers in a cool place protected from light. Parsley herb oil is a pale yellow or greenish yellow, rarely water-white liquid of a peculiar, warm-spicy, heavy-leafy, yet...

Screening bioactive compounds

An important consideration before starting a screening exercise aimed at identifying bioactive compounds from plant extracts is that plants often contain many different bioactive compounds. Thus, a well-characterized beneficial effect of a given plant may be the result of a combination of effects of different plant constituents. This may result in initial disappointing screening results, since fractionation of these extracts may either give inconclusive results, e.g. several fractions show...

Measuring antimicrobial activity

The antimicrobial activity of plant-derived compounds against many different microorganisms, tested individually and in vitro, is well documented in the literature (Tables 3.1 and 3.2 Ippolito and Nigro, 2003). However, the results reported in different studies are difficult to compare directly. Indeed, contradictory data have been reported by different authors for the same antimicrobial compound (Mann and Markham, 1998 Manou et al., 1998 Skandamis, 2001 Skandamis et al., 2001b). Also, it is...

Poppy Plant Spices

Singh, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow Poppy is the common name for several species of the genus Papaver of the family Papaveraceae. It includes many species which are grown as garden flowers garden poppies and the species P. somniferum and its different varieties grown for the production of the important narcotic medicine opium the dried latex exudate from the fully grown green capsule and its edible seeds and seed oil. Opium is one of the oldest known...

Quality specifications

India and China are the world's largest producers and exporters of ginger. Other important producers are Jamaica, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Thailand and Australia. USA, United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Hong Kong and Canada are the major importers of ginger. The importing countries give top priority to the health of their citizens and it is important that the ginger imported conforms to the quality standards prescribed by the particular country. Exporting countries also fix...

Postharvest handling

Fruits are separated out of the harvested panicles for drying and curing. Harvested capsules are dried on a mud-plastered threshing floor for seven to ten days, and sold in markets. This contains about 50 moisture and dried again by traders to avoid fungal contamination. Mainly three types of curing systems are available Traditional 'bhatti' system. In this system, a load of about 200-250 kg capsules are heaped per m2 in a 25-70 cm thick bed, and heated directly over a fire by firewood. The...

Introduction classification and use

Many different varieties of the genus Capsicum are widely grown for their fruits, which may be eaten fresh, cooked, as a dried powder, in a sauce, or processed into oleoresin.1 There are three major products traded on the world market for use in food processing paprika, oleoresin, and dried chilli (both whole and in powdered form). Some fresh fruits and some fermented mash is used for food processing, but these are relatively minor amounts and by necessity they are produced close to the...

Appendix continued

Spice Specific gravity Refractive index Optical rotation ( ) to +13 0' to +82 0' Fennel seed Celery seed Solubility characteristics Other remarks Most oils not completely soluble in 10 vols of 95 alcohol. Occasionally soluble in 1-2 vols or more of 95 alcohol Not readily soluble in alcohol, usually soluble in 10-15 vols of ale soluble in 3-10 vols of 95 alcohol Soluble in 1.5-3.0 vols of 90 alcohol Soluble in 1-2 vols and more of 80 alcohol Soluble in 1.5-3.0 vols of 90 alcohol Soluble in 5-8...

Appendix Physical properties of some spice essential oils and flavourants

Specific gravity Refractive index Optical rotation ( ) 0.960-0.985 a in oils of lower quality as low as 0.951 9 0' to +9 18' 0 32'to 5 0' laevorotatory up to 2 , seldom up to -3 Soluble in 1-2 vols and more of 70 alcohol, occasionally with opalescence to turbidity on dilution Freshly distilled oils are soluble usually in 1-2 vols of 70 alcohol solubility decreases rapidly on storage Soluble in 2-2.5 vols of 60 alcohol, sometimes even in 66.5 vols of 50 alcohol Soluble in 1-2.5 vols of 70...

The trade in spices

Some of the main spice-producing areas are listed in Appendix 2 at the end of this chapter. The current annual global trade in spices is 6-7 lakh tonnes valued at US 3-3.5 billion. The value of the spice trade is particularly dependent on pepper prices as pepper remains the main spice in international trade. The global spice trade is expected to increase with the growing consumer demand in importing countries for more exotic, ethnic tastes in food. In the UK, for example, spice imports have...