Introduction and description

Hosffm.) is a warmth-giving herb belonging to the family Apiaceae (Umbilliferae). Its taste and fragrance fill the senses the way warmth does, slowly and subtly. Chervil was once called myrhis for its volatile oil, which has an aroma similar to the resinous substance of myrrh. One of the traditional fine aromas with a hint of myrrh, chervil is noticed even when in the background, because of its warm and cheering flavour and fragrance. This herb is called many...

Uses in food processing perfumery and paramedical spheres

Lavandin oil, lavender oil, spike lavender oil and lavender absolute and even concrete are used as natural food flavours. Reported uses in the food industry (Fenaroli, 1998) include baked goods, frozen dairy, soft candy, gelatin, pudding, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages from 4 to 44 ppm. Lavenders are also included in tissanes or teas booklets of Norfolk Lavender, UK, suggest many recipes for cooking with lavender at home, e.g. herring or trout stuffed with lavender sprigs, and Vickers...

The American Spice Trade Association ASTA

The American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) was established at the beginning of the twentieth century. Given its long involvement in regulating the quality of herbs and spices entering the USA, ASTA standards are recognised and endorsed by the United States Food & Drug Administration (USDA). Cleanliness specifications exist for all major herbs and spices, in terms of permitted amounts of extraneous matter or filth, mould (visible), insects, excreta and insect damaged material. The amount of...

Marjoram

Krishna Kumar, Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Kerala Sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis (M.)) of the Labiatae family, is indigenous to Mediterranean countries and was known to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans (Tainter and Grenis, 1993). They cultivated it as a pot herb and used it not only to flavour food but also prized it as a miraculous herb with the power to heal practically all diseases, especially colds and chills. The Greeks felt it a symbol of happiness...

Main uses in food processing and perfumery

Virtually all essential oils produced are used in the food and perfumery cosmetics industries. Reported uses (Fenaroli, 1998) are, in ppm baked goods, 13.0 frozen diary, 7.11 soft candy, 11.39 gelatin and pudding, 5.41 non-alcoholic beverages, 3.47 alcoholic beverages, 2.08 hard candy, 295.2 and chewing gum, 308.4. The leaves of many of the scented plants are used in domestic baking and the mint-flavoured P. tomentosum is used to make 10.4.2 Novel uses of geranium oil and extracts in food...

Functional properties

The nutritive value of ginger is given in Table 17.2. Ginger is much used in traditional Indian (Ayurveda) and Chinese medicine (Sivarajan and Balachandran, 1994). Recent research has supported its functional value in the following areas Ginger has excellent antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are increasingly linked to the prevention of certain cancers (Kikuzaki et al., 1994) and coronary heart disease, as well as their more established role in preserving lipid-based foods. Studies include...

Chemical composition

This was reviewed in full by Williams and Harborne (2002). There is a wide variation in the flavonoid constituents among the ten taxa (Bate-Smith 1973) with a preponderance of myricetin, kaempferol and quercetin in species from sections Hoarea and Pelargonium. Later, quercetin was found to be universally present. Myricetin and kaempferol were detected in 71 of the taxa in section Glaucophyllum (van der Walt et al., 1990) and myricetin was found in most species in section Cortusina (Dreyer et...

References

AMMON, H.P.T. (1989), Phytotherapeutika in der Kneipp-therapie, Therapiewoche, 39, 117-27. AOSHIMA, H. and HAMAMOTO, K. (1999), Potentiation of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by perfume and phytoncid, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 63, 743-8. ARCTANDER, S. (1960), Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, Elizabeth, NJ. ATANASSOVA-SHOPOVA, S. and ROUSSINOV, K.S. (1970), On certain central neurotropic effects of lavender essential oil, Izvest. Inst. Fiziol. Sofiia, 13, 69-77....

Production

11.3.1 Lavender grown for oil production Lavandula angustifolia is mainly propagated by seed, sown in spring or autumn, depending on the severity of the winters in the region (Weiss, 1997). Sowing can be directly into fields but more often is in nursery beds, where the plants remain for about a year. Clonal plants are made via cuttings. Healthy mother plants are cut down near ground level and the branches can be stored for months before preparing the cuttings of 10-15 cm with one or two...

Cultivation and production technology

Chervil probably originated in southern Europe or the Caucasus region. It is found in Europe and Asia. It has been cultivated in England since 1597 and in America since 1806. However, it can also be found growing in other places where the right conditions prevail. Chervil grows well in any good garden soil with high fertility. However, moist, humus-rich soils with good drainage are most suitable. It can be successfully grown in soils with a pH of 6.5, especially turnip-rooted chervil, which has...

Quality indices and standards

The presence of a minimum of 5.0 3,9,epoxy-p-menthene in dill herb oil is a good indicator of its purity. There is no commercial source of this compound available to enable reconstitution of the oil. Lawrence (1981) has opined that examination of the percentage ratio of, a-phellandrene to limonene to -phellandrene is another test for quality determination the acceptable ratio was found to be 20 25 3 in dill herb oil. Dill herb oil is easily differentiated from caraway oil as carvone content in...

World trade

No reliable published data are available on global trade in organic agricultural products. The International Trade Centre, Geneva has, however, carried out a market survey in Europe (Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria and Italy) and in the United States and Japan in 1997. According to this survey, retail sales of organic foods in these markets were estimated at US 11 billion. The survey did not include Australia, New Zealand and other developed countries....

Chemical structure

The early work of several authors, summarized by Guenther (1975), shows the presence of 1,8-cineole, d-a-terphenol, terpinyl acetate, limonene, sabinene and borneol. The first detailed analysis of the volatile oil of cardamom was reported by Nigam et al. (1965). They used gas chromatography under isothermal conditions and analyzed both the total oil and fractions obtained by fractional distillation and alumina column chromatography. They confirmed and quantified all the hydrocarbon and...

The European Spice Association ESA

Standards in Europe are typified by the standards set by the ESA which draw both on national standards such as those issued by AFNOR (the French standards authority) and BSI (British Standards Institute), and international standards issued by the ISO (International Standards Organisation). The minimum general ESA quality standards for all herbs and spices are summarised in Table 2.2, whilst quality standards for specific Table 2.1 American Spice Trade Association Cleanliness Specifications...

Essential oils and their physicochemical properties

Parsley essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the seeds or the above-ground parts of the plant. Commercially, there exist two types of parsley oil, viz., parsley herb oil and parsley seed oil. Parsley seed oil and herb oil should be stored in full, preferably glass, tin-lined, or other suitably lined containers in a cool place protected from light. Parsley herb oil is a pale yellow or greenish yellow, rarely water-white liquid of a peculiar, warm-spicy, heavy-leafy, yet...

Types of assays

The ways in which the bioactivity of compounds or extracts can be analysed is almost limitless. An overview of types of assays that are often used is given below however, this should not be regarded as a comprehensive list since for each scientific question several methods may be applied. The common denominator of screening assays is that they are performed in vitro. The complexity of the model system ranges from simple assays using a single molecule, up to assays using whole cells. For...

Hyssop

Hyssop is the flowering top of the evergreen perennial shrub Hyssopus officinalis, which is a valuable expectorant. Hyssop is native to southern Europe and the temperate zones of Asia. It grows wild in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. It is cultivated in Europe, especially in southern France, mainly for its essential oil. In India it is found in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at altitudes of 2435-3335 m and is cultivated in Baramullah, in Kashmir. The plant grows to a height of...

Introduction to herbs and spices

The history of herbs and spices is as long as the history of mankind. People have used these plants since earliest times. No other commodity has played a more pivotal role in the development of modern civilization as spices. The lives of people and plants are more entwined than is often realized. Some herbs have the power to change our physiological functioning, they have revolutionized medicine, created fortunes for those who grow, process and treat them, and in many cases have assumed social...

Salunkhe Et Al 1992

The world production of sesame seed is almost wholly utilized for culinary purposes. In India, about 78 of sesame produced is used for oil extraction and about 20 is used for domestic purposes such as preparation of sweetmeats and confectionery (Maiti et al., 1988 Weiss, 1983) and about 2 is retained for the next sowing. Dehulled sesame seeds are sweet and oleaginous and are used directly in different types of foods in various parts of the world. They are used in the manufacture of traditional...

Concept of organic farming

The concept of organic farming is based on an holistic approach where nature is perceived to be more than just an individual element. In this farming system there is dynamic interaction between soil, humus, plant, animal, eco-system and environment. Hence organic farming differs from industrial agriculture as in the latter, biological systems are replaced by technical production systems with liberal use of chemicals (Anon. 1999). Organic farming improves the structure and fertility of the soil...

Quality issues and adulteration 771 Specifications

Cleanliness, safety issues (microbes and moisture levels) and economic parameters (aroma, flavour and granulation) are the main quality aspects dealing with spice. The cleanliness specifications have been set out in laws such as Food and Drug Administration Defect Action Levels (FDADALs) (USA) or in trade practices such as the American Spice Trade Association (ASTA), European Spices Association (ESA), etc. As per the ISO specifications, allspice is described as the dried, fully mature but...

Defining quality

Within the herb and spice industry, the terms authenticity and quality are sometimes at odds. Authenticity can be defined as freedom from adulteration, most obviously in the sense of absence of foreign bodies or extraneous matter, but it also suggests freedom from impurities in the product itself. However, in practice authenticity is not always helpful in the case of herbs and spices. As an example, sage in virtually all textbooks is defined as Salvia officinalis. But there are some 300 species...

Toxicology and disease

Rosemary is generally considered safe and devoid of toxic side effects if taken in recommended doses. However, there have been occasional reports of allergic reaction such as skin irritation. Pregnant and lactating women are advised not to use rosemary, as are pepole with epilepsy. Rosemary oil should be used with caution by persons suffering from hypertension, blood pressure or insomnia cfm). In vitro studies of liquid extract of rosemary ('Herbor 025') and a mixed oily extract of herbs such...

Uses

Rosemary is a most effective herb with a wide range of uses in food processing. In Europe and the USA, rosemary is commercially available for use as an antioxidant, though not technically listed as natural preservative or antioxidant (Yanishlieva-Maslarova and Heinonen, 2001). Rosemary has potential application in the suppression of warmed over flavour (WOF) (Valenzuela and Nieto, 1996). The main antioxidant principles in rosemary are carnosic acid, 12-methoxy carnosic acid and carnosol as well...

Production and cultivation

Rosemary is grown in Algeria, China, France, Hungary, Italy, the Middle East, Morocco, Portugal, Russia, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, the USA, and to a limited extent in India. France, Spain and Tunisia are the important countries producing rosemary oil. The annual production of rosemary is oil now about 200-300 Mt. Rosemary is a perennial herb propagated either by cuttings or seeds. Cuttings of 10-15 cm length from selected mother plants are ideal for vegetative...

Introduction morphology and related species

Star anise (Illicium verum, Hooker) belongs to the Magnoliaceae or Magnolia family and is an important spice. The tree is very ancient and is part of a primitive family. It is indigenous to southeastern China. Star anise was known beyond China long before the Christian era as one of the few familiar spices, like cinnamon. However, it was not until the late 16th century that this spice was first brought to Europe by an English navigator, Sir Thomas Cavendish.1 Commercial production of star anise...

Measuring antimicrobial activity

The antimicrobial activity of plant-derived compounds against many different microorganisms, tested individually and in vitro, is well documented in the literature (Tables 3.1 and 3.2 Ippolito and Nigro, 2003). However, the results reported in different studies are difficult to compare directly. Indeed, contradictory data have been reported by different authors for the same antimicrobial compound (Mann and Markham, 1998 Manou et al., 1998 Skandamis, 2001 Skandamis et al., 2001b). Also, it is...

Vanilla products

The cured beans are further processed to produce the various vanilla products. This is commonly accomplished in the importing countries. The different products developed from vanilla are described below. The major product derived from cured vanilla is an alcoholic essence, which is commercially known as vanilla extract. The vanilla flavour is obtained through solvent extraction with the use of the best grade of ethanol. Generally, the basic process in the preparation of vanilla extract involves...

Appendix Physical properties of some spice essential oils and flavourants

Specific gravity Refractive index Optical rotation ( ) 0.960-0.985 a in oils of lower quality as low as 0.951 9 0' to +9 18' 0 32'to 5 0' laevorotatory up to 2 , seldom up to -3 Soluble in 1-2 vols and more of 70 alcohol, occasionally with opalescence to turbidity on dilution Freshly distilled oils are soluble usually in 1-2 vols of 70 alcohol solubility decreases rapidly on storage Soluble in 2-2.5 vols of 60 alcohol, sometimes even in 66.5 vols of 50 alcohol Soluble in 1-2.5 vols of 70...

Main uses in food processing 1841 Kokam

The kokam rind is the richest source of natural red pigment anthocyanin, which has great market potential in developed countries.2 Kokam rind contains two to three per cent anthocyanin pigments and is a promising source of natural colourant for acid foods. Cyanidin-3-sambudioside and cyanidin-3-glucoside are the major pigments present in the ratio 4 1.27A new fat-soluble yellow pigment, namely garcinol, has been isolated from the fruit rind.28 Kokam fruit serves as a flavouring substitute and...

Quality issues

The quality of the raw material used in the processing industry determines to a large extent the quality of the finished product. Raw materials of poor quality cannot be expected to result in a final product of high quality even with the best processing methods. Therefore, gaining an understanding of the nature of the raw material and of its possible defects is an essential step in building quality into a product. Likewise thorough knowledge of the likely effects of defects, defective raw...

Greater galangal

Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd belongs to the family Zingiberaceae, and is commonly known by such names as galangal, galanga, greater galangal and Java galangal. The related species A. officinarum is the lesser galangal. 5.3.1 Production and international trade Data on production, consumption and trade are scarce and not reliable because traders make no distinction between A. galanga and A. officinarum both are used as the source plant for the Ayurvedic raw drug rasna. India is a major supplier,...

Processing issues

Spices can be added to foods in several forms as whole spices, as ground spices, as essential oils, as oleoresins or as prepared and filtered vinegar infusions. A more recent alternative is spice extracts. These consist of the flavour components of a spice, dispersed on one of several types of base, the most suitable bases for pickle and sauce use, for example, being salt or dextrose. Natural materials used in flavour creations are still most often isolated from essential oils. Extraction of...

Appendix continued

Spice Specific gravity Refractive index Optical rotation ( ) to +13 0' to +82 0' Fennel seed Celery seed Solubility characteristics Other remarks Most oils not completely soluble in 10 vols of 95 alcohol. Occasionally soluble in 1-2 vols or more of 95 alcohol Not readily soluble in alcohol, usually soluble in 10-15 vols of ale soluble in 3-10 vols of 95 alcohol Soluble in 1.5-3.0 vols of 90 alcohol Soluble in 1-2 vols and more of 80 alcohol Soluble in 1.5-3.0 vols of 90 alcohol Soluble in 5-8...

Future prospects and multifactorial preservation

Given the high flavour and aroma impact of plant essential oils, the future for using these compounds as food preservatives lies in the careful selection and evaluation of their efficacy at low concentrations but in combination with other chemical preservatives or preservation processes. Synergistic combinations have been identified between garlic extract and nisin, carvacrol and nisin, vanillin or citral and sorbate, thyme oil and or cinnamaldehyde in an edible coating, and low-dose gamma...

Organic farming

Farmers, consumers and policy makers have shown a renewed interest in organic farming as the objective of today's common agricultural policy - the sustainability of both agriculture and the environment without compromising food production and conservation of finite resources and protecting the environment so that the needs of people are met today and for generations to come. Approximately 2 of the US food supply is grown using organic methods. Since 1990, sales of organic products have shown an...

Production and trade

In the international market, cured vanilla beans are conveniently classified according to their geographical source or origin (Correll, 1953). The principal groupings are Mexican beans - those coming only from Mexico Bourbon beans - formerly referring only to those produced from the island of R union (then named Bourbon) but currently inclusive of all beans from Madagascar and the Mascarene, Comoro and Seychelles islands Tahiti beans -grown in the French group of the Society Islands and Java...

Main uses in food processing

The thyme herb or processed products can be used in culinary and or food processing as a separate flavouring or in the composition of compounded seasonings, spice, essential oil, oleoresins or other product blends. The list of thyme applications includes almost all foods beverages, cheese, fish, meat, salad dressings, sauces, vegetables, egg dishes, game and poultry, soups and honey. Usually, owing to its sensory characteristics, thyme is not suitable for sweet products. The main uses of thyme...

Black pepper

Kallupurackal, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kerala Among the spices, black pepper is the king. It is the most important, most popular and most widely used spice in the world. It has extensive culinary uses for flavouring and preserving processed foods and is important medicinally. Of the total spices traded internationally pepper accounts for about 34 (throughout this chapter, pepper is used to mean black pepper, unless otherwise stated). South West India is...

Pomegranate

Pomegranate, used as spice, constitutes the dried seed with the pulp of Punica granatum, The tree has been placed by various authorities in different orders, but is now included in the family Punicaceae. The pomegranate is mentioned in the Papyrus of Ebers. It is still used by the Jews in some ceremonies, and as a design has been used in architecture and needlework from the earliest times. It formed part of the decoration of the pillars of King Solomon's Temple, and was embroidered on the hem...

Value addition

Spices are valued as ingredients of incense, embalming preservatives, perfumes, cosmetics and medicines. The use of coriander dates back to the day humans learnt to use fire for preparing food. But for a very long time the seed spices were used as freshly harvested dried form. Much later, people realized the possibility of producing essential oil by pressing the plant parts. This was used for medicine and fragrance. The beginning of industrialization at the end of the 19th century changed the...

Kokam Oil Industries In India

India is the major producer of kokam and cambodge. The important producing areas for kokam in India are Western Ghats, Coorg, Wynad and Ratnagiri.21 It is estimated that in the Konkan region alone about 4000 tonnes are produced.11 Western Ghats region contains about 15 lakh trees and the estimated yield is 10,000 bags each with 100 seers of seeds.19 Kokam is exported mainly in the forms of fruit, oil (kokam butter) and syrup. Indian kokam is popular in several countries like UK, Canada,...

Essential oil

Sweet marjoram essential oil, known in the trade as 'Oil of sweet Marjoram', is obtained by steam distillation of the dried leaves and the flowering tops of the herb yielding 0.3 to 0.4 oil from fresh and 0. 7 to 3.5 from dry herb. It is a pale yellow or pale amber coloured rather mobile liquid (Shankaracharya and Natarajan, 1971 Farrell, 1985). Dayal and Purohit (1971) obtained 0.8 essential oil from marjoram seeds, which was also a pale yellow mobile liquid with a characteristic smell....

Diseases pests and the use of pesticides

The following are the major important diseases that affect coriander Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. corianderi The coriander wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. conrianderi may infect the plant at any stage of the crop, but more frequently affects younger plants. The infected plants wilt and dry up, resulting in a loss of up to 10 of the yield. Adopting the following measures can reduce the incidence of disease Seed treatment with Thiram and Bavistin with the proportion of 1 1...

Horseradish

Gaertn., B. Mey. and Scherb) belongs to the family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) and contains the distinctive mustard oils that are common to this family. The plant is known by various common names such as horseradish, red cole, creole mustard, German mustard, horse-radish root (archaic) and red horseradish. Horseradish is a pungent herb, with leaves that are used in salads and sandwiches, and roots that are used for sauces that are added to meat. It is also used...

Contributors

Tel +91 487 371302 Fax +91 487 370019 E-mail kvptr yahoo.com kauhqr ren.nic.in Ms Maria Clay and Martin Muggeridge, Tel +44 (0)208 836 2460 Fax +44 (0)208 836 0580 E-mail mclay fdf.org.uk Dr Rehka S. Singhal, Professor Pushpa R. Tel +91 22 414 5616 Fax +91 22 414 5614 E-mail rekha foodbio.udct.ernet.in Tel +91 486 332497, 332496, 332197 Fax +91 486 332096 E-mail pedes satyam.net.in pedes md2.vsnl.net.in Professor Dr Mensure Ozguven Department of Field Crops Faculty of Agriculture University of...

Properties

Brown mustard seed is spherical, medium in size and has a nutty, sweeter and mellow burning flavour. The whole mustard seed has no flavour, but can provide a pungent taste after chewing (Hirasa and Takemasa, 1998). The heat experienced in yellow mustard is on the tongue, whereas in brown and black mustard the heat is also felt in the nose and eyes. The severity of pungent aroma varies with different mustards. The white or yellow type has a less pungent aroma than brown mustard seeds, which have...

Main uses in food processing and medicine 1441 General

Oregano is used in meat, sausages, salads, stewings, dressings and soups. The food industry uses oregano oil and oregano resin both in foods and in beverages and also in cosmetics. Oregano oil is used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meats and meat products, condiments and relishes, milk products, processed vegetables, snack foods, and fats and oils. It is the most common spice for pizza. Along with black pepper, it is a common ingredient of dressings and a good substitute for table salt....

Main uses in the food industry

A large proportion of the total usage of cinnamon is for culinary purposes. It can be bought as whole sticks, used to flavour rice and meat dishes, but recipes can also call for ground cinnamon. Cinnamon being more delicate is mostly used in dessert dishes. Hot apple cider just does not taste the same without a cinnamon stick. It is used to spice mulled wines, creams and syrups in Europe. In Mexico, the largest importer of Sri Lankan cinnamon, it is drunk with coffee and chocolate or brewed as...

Major international quality specifications

Herbs and particularly spices have always been highly-priced commodities and vulnerable to adulteration. In consequence simple standards evolved early. As an example, in 1180 in the United Kingdom in the reign of Henry II, a 'peppers' guild was established in London to set and enforce standards for spices. In 1429 it was incorporated into the Grocers Company which is still in existence. This guild was granted a charter by Henry VI to manage the trade in spices. This organisation was given...

Quality indices for spice essential oils

V. Rege, University of Mumbai Essential oil fractions and oleoresins derived from spices are used widely in the food industry to provide flavour. Some of the main essential oils and their origins are shown in Table 3.1. Determining the quality and purity of essential oils faces similar difficulties to establishing the quality of raw spices, given the accepted variations in and mixing of varieties within a particular spice. There are, however, a number of...

Processing

Raw garlic no doubt has the ideal flavour and provides desirable textural and water retaining properties when incorporated into food products, bulk of raw garlic is water and lacks flavour and aroma. Also handling and storage costs are more when garlic is used in raw form. Dehydration or flavour extraction reduces the quantity which ultimately lowers the transportation and storage costs. Processing, however, may introduce undesirable changes in appearance. It may also modify the natural...

Functional properties and toxicity

All over the world, thyme, Thymus vulgaris, is highly regarded. Thyme as a medicine has developed from a simple traditional herb into a drug that is taken seriously in phytotherapy. Herbal thyme, thyme extracts and thyme oil are used for symptoms of bronchitis and whooping cough as well as catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract. This development is based on numerous experimental in vitro studies revealing well-defined pharmacological activities (Zarzuelo and Crespo, 2002 and references cited...

Conventional Classification Of Spice

Peter, Kerala Agricultural University (formerly at Indian Institute of Spices Research) The Geneva-based International Standards Organisation (ISO) defines spices and condiments as Vegetable products or mixtures thereof, free from extraneous matter, used for flavouring, seasoning and imparting aroma in foods. Any of various aromatic vegetable productions as pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, allspice, ginger, cloves, etc., used in cookery to season and to flavour sauces, pickles, etc. a...

Introduction

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), also known as sesamum, gingelly, beniseed, sim-sim and til, is perhaps the oldest oilseed known and used by human beings (Joshi, 1961 Weiss, 2000). It has been cultivated for centuries, particularly in Asia and Africa, for its high content of edible oil and protein. The crop is now grown in a wide range of environments, extending from the semi-arid tropics and subtropics to temperate regions. Consequently, the crop has a large diversity in cultivars and cultural...

Quality specifications

India and China are the world's largest producers and exporters of ginger. Other important producers are Jamaica, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Thailand and Australia. USA, United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Hong Kong and Canada are the major importers of ginger. The importing countries give top priority to the health of their citizens and it is important that the ginger imported conforms to the quality standards prescribed by the particular country. Exporting countries also fix...

Quality specifications and adulteration 1361 Specification for whole seed

The quality of Nigella seed mainly depends on appearance matt-black seeds, oily white interior and roughly triangulate, 1.5-3 mm long, uniformity in size, shape and texture. The odour in Nigella seeds when crushed resembles strawberry. Some authors have mentioned its smell is similar to oregano or carrots. The Indian Agmark grade specifications for Nigella seeds with minimum specific quality indices as laid down under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Indian Act (PFA standards) for Nigella...

Tamarind

Mary Mathew, Indian Cardamom Research Institute Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tree species in the Indian sub-continent. It is a large evergreen tree with an exceptionally beautiful spreading crown, and is cultivated throughout almost the whole country, except in the Himalayas and western dry regions (ICFRE, 1993, Rao et al., 1999). The tamarind fruit pulp has been an important culinary ingredient in India...

Quality issues and adulteration

11.6.1 Quality specifications of essential oils of lavender and solvent extracts Boelens (1995) reviewed the chemical and sensory evaluation of Lavandula oils. The true oil is almost colourless and has a sweet, floral, herbaceous, refreshing odour with a pleasant, balsamic-wood undertone and a fruity-sweet top-note. Definition of lavender and lavandula oils The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines Oil of French Lavender, ISO 3515 as 'The oil obtained by steam...

Quality specifications and commercial issues

Although oregano has been known and used for centuries, it has only lately gained mass popularity, largely because of its relationship with marjoram (O. marjorana), the popular and botanical terms for both species having long been confused. While sweet marjoram was one of the most popular herbs during the Middle Ages, oregano was scarcely cultivated, probably because of the plant's tendency to compete against other plants growing nearby. On the other hand, wild oregano has been traditionally...

Farrel K T 1990 Spices Condiments And Seasonings

Belcher E.F.M. (1965) The Distillation of Clove Oils. In Christian, Karl (ed.), Perfume and Essential Oil Review. pp 148-51. crofton, r.h. (1936) A Pageant of the Spice Islands. John Bale, Sans and Danielson Ltd., London. Table 12.7 The maximum solvent residues limit in foodstuff Table 12.7 The maximum solvent residues limit in foodstuff * Combined used is forbidden. Source Ziegler and Ziegler (1998). * Combined used is forbidden. Source Ziegler and Ziegler (1998). davcheva y.g., ivanov s.k....

Galangal

Galanga or galangal (Kaempferia galanga L.) which should not be confused with the greater galangal (Alpinia galanga), is a perennial aromatic rhizomatous herbaceous plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. This genus comprises about 70 species, among which K. galanga and K. rotunda are of economic value. These plants are used for flavouring food and also in medicine. Rhizome and roots are aromatic and are used as spice. The genus is presumably native to tropical Asia and is distributed in...

Production consumption and processing

Most of the herbal spices originated in Mediterranean countries and have been used since ancient Egyptian and Roman times mainly for the purpose of embalming. Even today, the Mediterranean zone is the major source of herbal spices, and Germany, France and the USA are the major producers of high-quality cultivated herbs. Curly parsley, chives and dill are widely grown in Germany, while flat parsley and tarragon are widely grown in France. The USA has cultivation of high-quality herbs such as...

How To Make Hopia With Onion Bulb

Lawande, National Research Centre for Onion and Garlic, Pune Onion is a famous spice commodity grown all over the world and consumed in various forms. It has been in cultivation for more than 4000 years. The maximum diversity of Allium species is found in a belt from the Mediterranean basin to Iran and Afghanistan, i.e. Iran, north Iraq, Afghanistan, Soviet middle-Asia and west Pakistan,1 indicating the primary centre of origin. The earliest record comes from Egypt where onions appear as...

ISO list of plant species

Sweet flag, myrtle flag, calamus, flag root Stony leek, Welsh onion, Japanese bunching onion Greater galangal, Longwas, Siamese ginger Round cardamom, Chester cardamom, Siamese cardamom, Indonesian cardamom Greater Indian cardamom, large cardamom, Nepalese cardamom Sri Lankan cinnamon, Indian cinnamon No. Botanical name of Family the plant American pepper, Californian pepper tree Mother of thyme, wild thyme, creeping thyme Vanilla planifolia syn. Vanilla fragrans Chinese prickly ash pepper,...

The structure of this book

This book is the second volume for the series on Herbs and Spices and has two parts. The first part deals with health benefits of herbs and spices and the use of herbs and spices as antimicrobials and antioxidants. The second part deals with detailed information on individual spices. This covers a brief description, classification, production, cultivation, post-harvest handling, uses in food processing, chemical structure and functional properties of important compounds extracted and quality...

Quality standards and grade specifications

Dried cardamom require cleaning to remove all stalks and dried remains of floral parts. This should be done by rubbing dried cardamom over a coarse surface of wire-mesh or bamboo trays. This is best carried out while the cardamom is still hot. Fig. 9.1 Structure of important aroma compounds. 2001 Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Fig. 9.1 Structure of important aroma compounds. 2001 Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Table 9.3 Flavour characteristics of important volatile components in cardamom Components Flavour...

Other tests

There are a number of other tests used in the industry, some of which are for specific herbs or spices. Some of the best-known and widely used are Piperine levels. The test is specifically for peppers of the piper species. This involves extraction measurement of the characterising heat portion of the pepper the piperine content. After refluxing in alcohol to extract the piperine, absorbency is compared to a standard in a spectrophotometer at 342-345 nm. (ASTA) Colour values. This is a...

Rosemary and sage as antioxidants

Yanishlieva-Maslarova, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia and I. M. Heinonen, University of Helsinki Rosemary is one of the most effective spices, widely used in food processing. It is the only spice commercially available for use as an antioxidant in Europe and the United States. One of the main potential uses is the suppression of warmed over flavour (WOF).1 However, because of their prime use as flavouring agents, rosemary extract products are not technically listed as natural...

Cultivation and postharvest practices

Coriander is a tropical crop it requires a cool and comparatively dry frost-free climate, particularly at the time of flowering and seed formation stages, for good quality and high yields. Frost following the flowering stage reduces production drastically. High temperature and high wind velocity during anthesis and seed formation enhances sterility and reduces yield. Cloudy weather at the time of flowering increases the number of aphids and disease. Coriander is grown as an irrigated crop on...

Kawakishi S 1994 Herbs

Al-jalay, B., blank, G., MCCONNELL, B. and AL-KHAYAT, M. 1987 Antioxidant Activity of Selected Spices Used in Fermented Meat Sausage, J. Food Protection, 50 1 257. burkill, i.h. 1966 A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, Kuala Lumpur, Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives. fuijo, h., HIYOSHI, a., aSari, T. and SUMINOE, K. 1969 Studies on the Preventative Method of Lipid Oxidation in Freeze-Dried Foods Part III. Antioxidative Effects of Spices and Vegetables, Nippon...

Postharvest technology

Leaves, flowering tops, flowers and twigs are of economic importance. First harvesting is done about eight months after planting, with the onset of flowering or just before flowering. In the first year, two crops can be taken, whereas in the subsequent years two to four harvests are possible at an interval of 100-120 days. Generally, harvesting of the plants can be done up to 50 flowering. At above 90 flowering, harvesting is not desirable Farooqi and Sreeramulu, 2001 . Tender, non-hardy shoots...

Future trends

The organic spice trade is of particular interest to many developing countries growing spices. It should be noted that the initial growth in the organic spice sector is encouraging. Some organic food experts visualize that insufficient supply of organic spices, especially those which are required in large quantities, might become a problem in the next few years George 1999b . The future demand for organic spices appears to be bright. Any processed food can only be labelled organic if 95 of the...

Screening bioactive compounds

An important consideration before starting a screening exercise aimed at identifying bioactive compounds from plant extracts is that plants often contain many different bioactive compounds. Thus, a well-characterized beneficial effect of a given plant may be the result of a combination of effects of different plant constituents. This may result in initial disappointing screening results, since fractionation of these extracts may either give inconclusive results, e.g. several fractions show...

Active plant constituents

Herbs and spices are rich in volatile oils, which give pleasurable aromas. In addition, herbs may contain alkaloids and glycosides, which are of greater interest to pharmacologists. Some of the main active constituents in herbs are as follows Brown, 1995 De Guzman and Sienonsma, 1999 Acids - these are sour, often antiseptic and cleansing. Alkaloids - these are bitter, often based on alkaline nitrogenous compounds. They affect the central nervous system and many are very toxic and addictive....

Winter savory

Winter savory S. montana is a semi-evergreen bushy and woody perennial shrub, with smaller pink or white flowers and a stronger flavour. Essential oil is extracted commercially from this species and other uses are similar to summer savory. The stems are woody at the base, diffuse, much branched. The leaves are oblong, linear and acute, or the lower ones spatulate or wedge-shaped and obtuse. Flowering is in June the flowers are very pale purple, the cymes shortly pedunculate. It is propagated...

Postharvest handling

Fruits are separated out of the harvested panicles for drying and curing. Harvested capsules are dried on a mud-plastered threshing floor for seven to ten days, and sold in markets. This contains about 50 moisture and dried again by traders to avoid fungal contamination. Mainly three types of curing systems are available Traditional 'bhatti' system. In this system, a load of about 200-250 kg capsules are heaped per m2 in a 25-70 cm thick bed, and heated directly over a fire by firewood. The...

Quality and regulatory issues

The quality required for clove products depends on each country, for use in domestic or export and nature of the product. The ASTA American Spice Trade Association and FDA Food and Drug Administration recommendations for whole spice are described in Table 12.5. The specific requirement for clove ground is 12 for minimum quercitannic content, clove stem content maximum 5 , and volatile ether extract minimum 15 Reineccius 1994 . For clove oil, specifications are illustrated in Table 12.6. For...

Improving production of natural vanillin

The vanilla flavouring market is dominated by synthetic vanillin more than 90 of the US market and 50 of the French market the lowest national share RAP Market Information Bulletin, 2002 . The reason for such a huge market share is two-fold. Considering flavour strength, 100 g of synthetic vanillin approximately yields the same flavouring power of 13 l of natural vanilla extract. The price of synthetic vanillin is only about one-hundredth that of derived from cured beans. The high cost of the...

Spensely Et Al 1972 Content Of Defatted Sesame Flour

ABDEL-RAHMAN A.H.Y., HASSABALLA E.S., EL-MORSHIDY M.A. and KHALIFA M.A. 1980 , Res. Bull., Assiat, An Shams University. AGREN G. and GIBSON R. 1968 , Food Composition Tables for Use in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Children's Nutrition Unit. AGUILAR V.G. and TORRES E.G. 1969 , 'Determination of sugars in sesame seeds by chromatography', Zeit. Lebensm. Unter Forsch., 140, 332-5. AIYADURAI S.G. and MARAR M.M.K. 1951 , 'Studies on the development of capsules in Sesamum indicum', Coimbatore, India, First...

Sweet flag

Sweet flag is the rhizome of Acorus calamus Linn, of the family Acoraceae and is highly valued as herbal medicine in India and other European countries. It is used as an ingredient Table 5.1 List of some of the under-utilized herbs and spices Table 5.1 List of some of the under-utilized herbs and spices Armoracia rusticana Gart. Horseradish of several drugs of the Unani, Ayurvedic and modern systems of medicine. It is also well known for its insecticidal properties. The word Acorus is derived...

Nutmeg and mace

Hydrate Camphene

Rema, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kerala Nutmeg and mace are two different parts of the same fruit of the nutmeg tree, Myristica fragrans Houtt. Myristicaceae . The nutmeg tree is indigenous to the Banda islands in the Moluccas. The species of the genus Myristica are distributed from India and SouthEast Asia to North Australia and the Pacific Islands. Sinclair 1958 listed a total of 72 species distributed in these areas. The major nutmeg growing areas are...

Turmeric

Sasikumar Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kerala Turmeric of commerce is the dried rhizome of the plant Curcuma domestica Val. syn. C. longa L. Turmeric is used in curry powder, chicken bouillon, sauces, gravies, dry seasonings, backing mixes, processed cheese pickles, relishes, breading soups, beverages, and confections Peter, 1999 in addition to its use in medicine, religious functions and as biopesticide. The genus Curcuma originated in the Indo-Malayan region Purseglove, 1968 ....

Betel vine

The betel vine Piper betle L. is a perennial climber belonging to the family Piperaceae. Betelvine has been widely used in various parts of India and other South Asian countries for centuries. The name Piper is probably originated from the Sanskrit term 'PippaW meaning long pepper and the name 'betle' might have come from the Malayalam word 'Vetila'. It is cultivated, as a commercial crop, for its leaf, which is used as a masticatory. As a masticatory, the betel leaf pan is credited with...

Saffron

Cyclohexane Derivatives

Velasco-Negueruela, Universidad Complutense, Madrid Saffron, the most expensive spice in the world, is derived from the dry stigmata of the saffron crocus Crocus sativus L., a member of the family Iridaceae. The plant is a sterile autotriploid cultigen, 2n 24, possibly selected from C. cartwrightianum Herbet, of Greek origin. The family Iridaceae is included in the order Liliales, subclass Liliidae Monocots , and is divided into four subfamilies Crocus L. belongs to subfamily Ixioideae tribe...

Bay leaves

Chemical Structure Bay Leaf

Sharma, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India The commodity, traded as sweet bay leaf, and true, Roman, or Turkish laurel, is derived from the leaves of Laurus nobilis L. Family - Lauraceae . Because of the similarity in the leaves, several other trees are also variously known as West Indian bay tree Pimenta racemosa , Cherry laurel Prunus laurocerasus , Portugal laurel Prunus lusitanica , Laurel of the southern states Prunus caroliniana ,...

Capers

Capers also known as caperberry or caperbush are immature flower buds of Capparis spinosa L. syn. Capparis rupestris , also known as Capparis ovata Desf. belonging to the family Capparidaceae. The flower buds are pickled in vinegar or preserved in granular salt. Semi-mature fruits caperberries and young shoots with small leaves may also be pickled for use as a spice. Two types of capers occur C. spinosa spiny in nature and C. inermis no spines . Use of this plant has been known since Biblical...

Quality specifications and issues 1961 Specifications

The medicinal and non-medicinal uses of thyme and thyme preparations demand high-quality standards. In the USA, the American Spice Trade Association ASTA, 1960 is the advisory organization that helps the spice and seasoning industry develop acceptability standards for whole and ground spices and herbs. The recommended physical and chemical specifications of whole thyme leaves and ground thyme can be seen in Table 19.6. Internationally accepted specifications also exist for the commercially...

Asafoetida

Asafoetida is the dried latex oleogum obtained from the rootstocks or taproots of certain species of Ferula such as F. asafoetida L., F. foetida Regel, F. alliacea Boiss, F. rubricaulis Boiss, Linn. and F. narthex Boiss. Ferula belongs to the family Apiaceae. It is also known as Devil's dung, food of gods, asafetida, etc. Early records state that Alexander the Great carried this 'stink finger' to the West in 4 bc. It is also used as a flavouring agent in the kitchens of ancient Rome. This...

Summer savory

Lamiaceae comprises about 14 species of highly aromatic, hardy annual or perennial herbs or under-shrubs. Two important species of this genus are S. hortensis summer savory and S. montana winter savory CSIR, 1972 . Summer savory Satureja hortensis is a hairy aromatic annual and is grown as a popular garden herb. The savory of commerce is the dried leaves and flowering tops, but the best class comprises only leaves CSIR, 1972 . 5.13.1 Production and international trade...

Poppy Plant Spices

Singh, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow Poppy is the common name for several species of the genus Papaver of the family Papaveraceae. It includes many species which are grown as garden flowers garden poppies and the species P. somniferum and its different varieties grown for the production of the important narcotic medicine opium the dried latex exudate from the fully grown green capsule and its edible seeds and seed oil. Opium is one of the oldest known...

Blak Pepper Column

Pepper Karimunda

LL Table 7.3 Export '0001 and production exported from major producing countries, 1995-99 Source IPC, 1997, Pepper Statistical Year Book 1995-96, IPC, Kuningan, Jakarta. IPC Publications, 1999. Source IPC, 1997, Pepper Statistical Year Book 1995-96, IPC, Kuningan, Jakarta. IPC Publications, 1999. Table 7.4 Pepper consumption in developed countries in grams Table 7.4 Pepper consumption in developed countries in grams In such branches, as the growth proceeds, the terminal bud gets modified into...