Healthy Nutrition

Supplements Foods or Functional Foods

Supplements are concentrated forms of vitamins, minerals, fiber, amino acids, fatty acids, herbal products, enzymes, plant or animal tissue extracts, or hormones. Some supplements contain one or two known nutrients or a small group of nutrients such as B vitamins or antioxidants. Carotenoids, including lycopene, lutein Gums (fiber) Hemicellulose (fiber) Indoles Isoflavones Isothiocyanates Lignins (fiber) Monoterpenes Phenolic acids Protease inhibitors Phytosterols A Food Pharmacy That May Fight...

The Power of the Food Guide Pyramid

Usda Food Pyramid 2021

The Food Guide Pyramid, the triangular symbol you see on many food packages, was developed by nutrition experts at the U.S. Department ofAgriculture (USDA) (see below). The Pyramid is an educational tool that translates nutrient requirements into the foods you need to eat and helps you put into action the advice offered by the Dietary Guidelines. In graphic form, the Pyramid displays the variety of food choices and the correct proportions needed to attain the recommended amounts of all the...

Complex Carbohydrates

Found almost exclusively in foods of plant origin, complex carbohydrates are long chains of molecules of the simple sugar glucose. The complex carbohydrates in plant foods can be divided into two groups starch and fiber. Starch is the form of carbohydrate that is found in grains, some fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts, and seeds. It provides energy for newly sprouting plants. Fiber is the tougher material that forms the coat of a seed and other structural components of the plant (see...

The Bottom Line on Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates sugars and starches are the main source of fuel for our bodies. When we choose carbohydrate-rich foods, our best bets are fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes, because these foods are also rich sources of health-promoting vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, and fiber. But like all calories, extra calories from carbohydrates beyond those we need to replenish the energy we burn are converted to fat and stored in our fat cells. Non-caloric sweeteners seem to be a safe...

Nutrient Composition

Eggplant is composed mostly of water and contains only small amounts of nutrients. Fennel is an aromatic herb similar in appearance to dill. It has pale yellowish-green, hollow stems and bright-green, feathery leaves. The clear yellow flowers of fennel produce seed structures that resemble umbrellas. Both the root and the leaves have a mild licorice flavor. The seeds have a pungent, aromatic scent. Scientific name Foeniculum vulgare (dulce) Common name fennel, sweet anise The two basic types of...

Herbal Supplements

The popularity of herbal products, those made from extracts of plants and believed to have medicinal properties, continues to increase. Americans spend 700 million a year on herbal remedies. The use of some plant remedies dates back thousands of years, and plant materials are the basis for many of our most helpful medications, including aspirin and morphine. Scientists continue to investigate and discover new medicinal uses for substances in plants (see sidebar Herbal Products, page 37). Even...

Includes Poultry Eggs Meat Fish Shellfish Legumes Nuts Seeds

Compared with other populations, Americans have always found plentiful sources of proteins from both animal and plant sources. Ever since the 1800s, fueled by a growing American cattle industry and refrigerated railroad cars, meat has been viewed as the key component to a meal. If you doubt that statement, think of the last time you were asked, What's for dinner Even if the menu included a balanced meal of green salad, glazed carrots, brown rice, and a small lean steak, many people would...

Teenage Years Ages 13 to

The teen years and the arrival of puberty are the second period of remarkable growth for youngsters. It is a period of profound development that has important nutritional implications. As a result, requirements increase for energy and all nutrients. The growth and energy requirements of the teen years nudge daily calorie needs upward. On average, boys 11 to 14 years old need to have approximately 2,500 calories per day. From age 15 to 18, daily calorie requirements increase to 2,800 calories....

Fat as a Nutrient

Fat is an essential nutrient, because our bodies require small amounts of several fatty acids from foods (the so-called essential fatty acids) to build cell membranes and to make several indispensable hormones, namely, the steroid hormones testosterone, progesterone, and estrogen, and the hormone-like prostaglandins. Dietary fats also permit one group of vitamins, the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K), to be absorbed from foods during the process of digestion. Fats help these vitamins to be...

Fat Substitutes

To appeal to our desire for lower-fat substitutes for our favorite high-fat foods, the commercial food industry has developed low- or lower-fat versions of many foods using various fat replacers. Until recently, fat replacers always consisted of proteins or carbohydrates, such as starches or gels, but the kinds of foods that could be prepared with these fat replacers were limited by their inability to withstand the high temperatures of frying. In 1996, after a long period of development, safety...

Carbohydrates

The carbohydrates are a vast and diverse group of nutrients found in most foods. This group includes simple sugars (like the sugar you add to your morning coffee) and complex forms such as starches (contained in pasta, bread, cereal, and in some fruits and vegetables), which are broken down during digestion to produce simple sugars. The main function of the simple sugars and starches in the foods we eat is to deliver calories for energy. The simple sugar glucose is required to satisfy the...