101 Toxic Food Ingredients

101 Toxic Food Ingredients

This program will open your eyes to what you may have heard but had never taken a keen interest in. Upon completion of the book, you will be on board with the various ingredients that are a constituent of the majority of goods you purchase at the store including your favorite candy! Get to learn about the food additives that are potential carcinogens yet they are found in almost all the foods you consume. How about knowing what your baby consumes? Because some of the manifestations of these products do not appear until later in life and sometimes may even be fatal. It is high time you look after yourself and your loved ones because no one will. This book will help you learn about the toxic ingredients you must avoid at all costs. It also goes further to provide you with healthy alternatives so that you will still be consuming what you want but in a healthy way.

101 Toxic Food Ingredients Summary

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The Truth About Food Ingredients

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Farrel K T 1990 Spices Condiments And Seasonings

Presence of eugenol and isoeugenol, Oxidation Communications, 15 72-5. farrel, k.t. (1990) Spices, Condiments and Seasoning. 2nd edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. and Cosmetics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 131-2. moyler, d.a. (1977) Oleoresin, Tinctures and Extracts. In Ashurst P.R. Food Flavorings, Company, Inc. New York, pp. 40-44, 191-2. pruthi j.s. (1980) Spices and Condiments Chemistry, Microbiology, Technology. Academic Press.


Condiments are not classed among foods, but are known as food adjuncts. They are used to stimulate the appetite by adding flavor to food. Among the most important are salt, spices, and various flavorings. Salt, according to some authorities, is called a food, being necessary to life. 70

Subpart BSpecific Substances Affirmed as GRAS

Food Additives E Numbers in the European Union FOOD ADDITIVES E NUMBERS Food Additives in the European Union permitted for use in foods according to directive as established by the European Scientific Committee for Food. Dictionary of Food Ingredients Dictionary of Food Ingredients Dictionary of Food Ingredients


Spices consist of dried plant products that exhibit flavor and aroma. Spices are obtained from vegetable substances from which none of the volatile or other flavoring substances have been removed. Spices are grouped into (a) tropical spices such as pepper and cloves (b) herbs, such as sage and rosemary (c) spicy seeds such as mustard and anise and (d) dehydrated aromatic vegetables such as onion and garlic.


Acidulants are acids used in processed foods for a variety of functions that enhance the food. Acids are used as flavoring agents, preservatives in microbial control, chelating agents, buffers, gelling and coagulating agents, and in many other ways. Examples of these functions are Flavoring agent Contributes and enhances flavor in carbonated beverages, fruit drinks, and desserts.


Sweeteners are also grouped as nutritive and non-nutritive. Nutritive sweeteners include sucrose, fructose, dextrose, lactose, maltose, honey, high fructose corn syrups, and polyols. Non-nutritive sweeteners (artificial sweeteners) include saccharine, aspartame, acesulfame-K, and sucralose.

Correct Proportions Of Food

Liquid food (milk or milk in preparation with the various prepared foods on the market) should constitute the diet of a child for the first eighteen months. After the teeth appear, by which time ferments have been developed for the digestion of starchy foods, entire wheat bread, baked potatoes, cereals, meat broths, and occasionally boiled eggs may be given. If mothers would use Dr. Johnson's Educators in place of the various sweet crackers, children would be as well pleased and better nourished with a glass of milk they form a supper suited to the needs of little ones, and experience has shown that children seldom tire of them. The diet should be gradually increased by the addition of cooked fruits, vegetables, and simple desserts the third or fourth year fish and meat may be introduced, if given sparingly. Always avoid salted meats, coarse vegetables (beets, carrots, and turnips), cheese, fried food, pastry, rich desserts, confections, condiments, tea, coffee, and iced water. For...

The Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs

How are the DRIs used They are the basis for all nutritional plans used by health care facilities and providers, food services, food manufacturers, and others who plan diets. As you will learn below, the Food Guide Pyramid, the research-based food guide developed by the government, is based on the DRIs. In addition, the Daily Values, the information on food labels that helps you determine how a food contributes to your total nutrient intake, are based on the DRIs (see the Appendix Dietary Reference Intakes, page 421).

Step 2 The Appliances

For an extra special treat, marinade several cuts of meat before throwing them on the grill. If it's tender meat, marinade only for a short time (a few hours). If it's a tough cut, pierce with a fork and allow the marinade to soak in for a day or so. The secret to a good marinate is to add one acidic component (vinegar, wine, yogurt, soy sauce, or fruit juice) to tenderize the meat and one part flavoring component (olive oil, fruit slices, herbs, honey) to flavor the meat. Here's an example of a great marinade

Tastings How fresh is that shellfish

Oysters are not for everyone, but the minority who likes them is unconditionally passionate about them. Other folks consume oysters in large quantities simply because of their reputation as an aphrodisiac. All this aside, oysters are a real delicacy, particularly when the host or hostess serves them au naturel, or raw. Since uncooked meat of any kind has little or no flavor, traditional condiments and sauces usually accompany raw oysters, in which the texture and mouthfeel give the eating pleasure more than the flavor.

Origin botanical fActs

Lime juice is an excellent meat ten-derizer and flavor enhancer, and it is well known as an ingredient in the mixed drink known as the margarita. Lime also has many nonculinary uses, including the manufacture of perfumes, suntan products, and cattlefeed (lime seeds are believed by some farmers to keep cattle's coats shiny and to prevent the appearance of parasites such as ticks).

Introducing the tribe

Some 5000 years ago, Egyptians considered onion to possess a divine power. About 2000 years ago the ancient Greeks and Romans regularly used onion for cooking. This vegetable was the most important flavoring agent in an otherwise very bland European diet in the Middle Ages. Today onion and garlic still have divine power but their almighty, powerful effect is on our taste buds and in our dishes.

The Curry Spice Culture

Last but not least, look for cilantro coriander dhaniya. It is essential, though it is mostly used as a garnish. After trial and error, I've found that whole cilantro, including the leaves and stems, chopped very fine is a powerful flavoring agent if added during the cooking process in addition to being a colorful garnish if added at the end.

Main uses in food processing

Food products which use clove are mainly curry powder, sauces and baked foods. According to Farrell (1990) curry powder uses 2 (mild) to 3 (sweet) by weight of ground clove buds, meat sauces 0.37 clove ground or 0.111 clove oil, food seasonings such as Bologna seasoning A, B and C use 0.39 ground clove, 0.07 clove oil, and 0.45 clove oil, respectively. Chili sauce uses 0.025 oil, mustard 0.111 and 0.222 ground clove in Dijon and Dusseldorf, respectively, tomato ketchup uses 0.139 clove oil, whereas sausages (Sweet Italian) use 0.111 ground clove (Farrell 1990). The highest average maximum use level reported for cloves is 0.236 in condiments and relishes, and 0.06 clove stem oil and 0.078 clove bud oleoresin in alcoholic beverages (Leung 1980).

Sharing Is Caring When Youre Cooking Both Ways

As the heading says, sharing is caring when you're cooking both ways, and there are plenty of foods the whole family can share. Instead of having two varieties of everything, use gluten-free versions of shared foods like sauces, spices, condiments, and salad dressings. This will certainly make your life easier and save you time in the kitchen and the grocery store.

Saving Money on Ridiculously Expensive Ingredients

Don't be swindled into buying specialty items that are already gluten-free. Online and specialty stores sometimes sell high-priced gluten-free condiments and spices, but these things are naturally gluten-free, and there's no need to spend the extra money for a label. You can pick up these types of items in your neighborhood grocery store.

Southern African Table

In southern African cities or in the homes of southern Africans of European descent, dining experiences can be quite different. For example, dinnertime in Mozambique may be a more formal affair, heavily influenced by Portuguese traditions. The table, covered with a lace tablecloth, might be decorated with candles and fresh flowers. And on every dinner table in Mozambique, diners find a small bowl filled with piri-piri, a spicy, hot-pepper powder used to season food. Adults usually have a glass of wine with dinner. On special occasions, many Afrikaners and southern Africans of British descent dress the table in pressed white linens, setting it with fine china and silverware. A bowl of fruit may adorn the center of the table, along with condiments such as salt, pepper, vinegar, and steak sauce. But for everyday meals, they're likely to set a more casual table often outside, where they can enjoy the warm, sunny weather.

Sources of further information

National Institute of Science Communication, CSIR, New Delhi, India. FARRELL, K. T. (1990), Spices, Condiments and Seasonings, 2nd edition. AVI book, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington. PRUTHI, J. S. (2001), Minor Spices and Condiments - Crop Management and Post Harvest Technology, ICAR, New Delhi, India.

Grandmas Fluffy Cornmeal Muffins

One year in University a bunch of us students decided to drive to Florida for spring break. We were six to a car and drove nonstop to warmer weather. It was early bleary-eyed dawn when we reached Georgia and stopped for breakfast. One of the fellas saw Cornbread on the recipe and, never having had it before, decided to try it. It's delicious, I assured him. How do you eat it he enquired, as the steaming plate arrived before him. Glancing at the assortment of condiments on the table, I suggested, You could put honey or maple syrup on it. He picked up a glass serving pitcher with amber liquid in it. You know the kind with the plastic handle and slide back spout. He doused the cornbread and eagerly picked up his fork. The thought had just crossed my idle mind that the syrup looked a little watery, but figured they were being cheesey with the tourists, when Charlie started to gag and spit his mouthful all over. Blah, he cried to our surprise. Don't you like...

The Bountiful World of Maintenance

While you probably cannot convince your best friend to have her baker make a controlled carb wedding cake just to satisfy your needs, you can create your own personal world of sweets in your kitchen. In recent years, there have been more artificial sweeteners approved for use by the Federal Drug Administration. (See Artificial Sweeteners on pages 128-129 for more on sugar substitutes.) The recipe section at the end of this book will also introduce you to sugarless versions of many classic sweet treats.

Appelmos Stewed and Mashed Apples

Especially during the late part of the 19th century and the early days of the 20th, sugar was often used in main dishes and sweet condiments were served as side dishes. One of the few sweet condiments that goes well with meat, especially pork, is applemos, stewed and mashed apples.

Ginger Salad Gin Thoke

This is one of two typical salads served after a meal or eaten at any time as a snack. The other is pickled green tea leaf salad. Both are similarly flavored with peanuts, chilies, dried shrimp, and other condiments. These two salads are eaten throughout the country and served everywhere at street stalls, markets, and restaurants.

Tastings Obsolete poison

Some bitter almonds are still in demand for their essential oil (the part of oil that contains the flavor compounds), used in food flavoring and for scents. The oil contains a high amount of cyanide, and it is this oil of bitter almond that used to be popular for both suicide and homicide. The oil is no longer in fashion for such purposes, probably because guns are easier to get.

Kicked Up Blue Cheesestuffed Bacon Hamburgers

Desired condiments, such as sliced tomatoes, Romaine lettuce, sliced onions, mayonnaise, mustard 5. Place the buns on serving plates and top with desired condiments. Arrange 1 patty on each bottom bun and top with 2 strips of bacon. Place the top buns on each burger and serve immediately.

Living Up To Contracts

Occasionally a quantity of fruit which will not meet the rigid requirements of the canning business can be turned into preserves, jellies or fruit juices. Preserves and jellies should be marketed in glass, and fruit juices in bottles, although some manufacturers are now marketing some of these products in fiber cups. This line of products will require some additional equipment, but there is a steady demand for such homemade things and many women are deriving profits through the sale of their tastily prepared jellies, just as pickles and condiments have lined the pocketbooks of ambitious housewives before now.

Go for the Whole Program Friends

This compelling research has had little effect on the packaged-food industry, but has, at least, persuaded some fast food chains to stop cooking with hydrogenated oils. And the FDA is considering mandating the listing of trans fats on the Nutrition Facts panel of food labels starting in 2002. Then, although foods would still contain these dangerous fats, you could choose to not purchase them. If enough consumers reject these foods, manufacturers would have to change their formulations.

An Individual Approach

But those foods are hardly the end of the story. There are many others that produce intolerances. Strictly speaking, you could react badly to any food you eat. A few of the other very common allergy-causing foods are those in the nightshade family white potato, tomato, eggplant, paprika, bell and other peppers and tobacco. Add to that sulfites, coffee, chocolate and citrus fruits. Among the acceptable foods when you do Atkins, shellfish, beef, chicken, onions, mushrooms, pepper and other spices, plus artificial sweeteners, can also provoke a response.

White Chili with Chicken

Condiments combine beans, 5 1 4 cup chicken broth, garlic, onion, white pepper, salt, oregano, cumin, cloves. Simmer covered for at least 5 hours until beans are tender. Stir occasionally. Stir in green chiles, chicken and 1 3 4 chicken broth. For hotter taste, add jalapeno. Cover and simmer for 1 hour. Serve with flour tortillas and condiments.

Food and Recipes to Help You Do Atkins

When it comes to the protein portion of your meal, keep entrees interesting by expanding your recipe repertoire and trying different condiments and spices. See the lists on pages 373-374 and 377-378 for some flavorful suggestions. And be sure to make extra so that you have more on hand as fixings for future meals. Monday's dinner of roast pork can easily be turned into Wednesday's lunch of Chinese Mooshoo pork (just mix in sauteed cabbage and sprouts, controlled carb hoisin sauce, and wrap the whole thing in a controlled carb tortilla). The variety principle applies to vegetables, too, especially since they will be your primary source of carbohydrate. Break away from the familiar broccoli, squash and cauliflower or you'll be bored in no time. Learn to love dark leafy greens They are among the most nutritionally dense foods available, and when prepared well are delicious.

Section 164 totwi Review Key Concepts

Seasonings and flavorings are used to enhance the natural flavor of a food. Spices and flavorings can be added to foods at any time during the cooking process. The most common seasonings are herbs and spices. Other seasonings and flavorings include condiments and nuts. Condiments are flavored sauces that are served with food. Nuts add color, texture, and flavor to food. Evaluate color, appearance, flavor, and texture of food. Foodservice professionals taste a variety of food products to evaluate, or analyze, their characteristics. flavor enhancer (p. 400) 5. Describe various condiments and the foods they can accompany. 16. Replace Salt Think of five dishes to which you normally add salt, either during or after preparation. Now, think of other seasonings, flavorings, or condiments that could be added to the dish instead of salt that would improve the flavor without adding sodium. Make a list of the dishes and substituting that you find. Discuss your possible answers as a class. 17....

Nutritional analysis OF recipes

A fermented paste made from beans and or grains and salt. It is a remarkable digestive aid. It is used mainly as a flavoring agent in soups and sauces. Tamari Soy Sauce can be used in its place, but the flavor will not be as deep, and rich. GLUTEN NOTE If you are avoiding gluten, be sure to select misos that do not contain wheat or barley.

Introduction and description

Herbs Pictures And Description

Three types of mustard seeds are popularly used as condiments pale yellow or white mustard (Sinapsis alba syn. Brassica hirta Moench or Brassica alba) brown or oriental mustard (Brassica juncea) and black or dark brown mustard (Brassica nigra). Apart from their use as a spice, mustards are widely used as green vegetables, as a salad crop, as an important oil seed crop (particularly in India where rape seed-mustard is the largest vegetable oil next to groundnut), green manure or as fodder crop and for industrial oil purposes.

Functional properties

The discovery of inhibition of lipid oxidation by some phenolic compounds during the late 1940s has contributed to the application of synthetic antioxidants in the food industry (Dapkevicius et al., 1997). Widely used artificial antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (Chan, 1987) are very effective in their role. However, their use in food products has been falling off due to their instability, strict legislation on the use of synthetic food additives, as well as due to a suspected action as promoters of carcinogenesis (Namiki, 1990 Pokorny, 1991 Duh and Yen, 1997). For these reasons there is a growing interest in the study of natural additives as potential antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of many herbs and spices are reported to be effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in oils and fatty acids and have gained interest of many research groups. Shahidi et al. (1992) and Madsen et al. (1997) suggested that the...

The Food Guide Pyramid

You must have noticed the food guide pyramid on food labels. The USDA and the DHHS designed this pyramid to be a flexible dietary guide for Americans. Each compartment contains a different food group and the recommended number of servings that should be consumed daily. The primary energy-providing nutrient (Chapter 2) found in each food group is written in parenthesis. See Figure 3-1. Although this Food Guide Pyramid is found on most food labels, many people are unsure how to use its information. The most common questions are about serving sizes and how many servings should be eaten. Often people overestimate the size of a serving, thereby eating more kcals than they anticipated. Table 3-1 gives an estimate of the amount of food per serving for each food group and Table 3-2 lists the number of servings required from each food group to meet the various total daily kcals shown in the left column. Look up the number of servings you need from each of the food groups to meet your Estimated...

Seasonings and Flavorings

Imagine eating food without any flavor. Or, imagine that you ate several foods that all had the same flavor. This does not sound very appetizing, does it Customers expect flavorful dishes when they visit a restaurant. Fortunately, foods have their own natural flavoring. Sometimes, however, these flavors need to be strengthened. Foodservice professionals use seasonings, flavorings, and flavor enhancers to help. Some seasonings are called flavor enhancers. A flavor enhancer increases the way you perceive the food's flavor without changing the actual flavor of the prepared dish. They do not add flavor to a dish. Flavor enhancers do this by affecting your taste buds. Monosodium glutamate (,ma-n9-,so-de-9m 'glu-ts-ma t), or MSG, is an example of a flavor enhancer. It intensifies the flavor of savory foods. A wide variety of ingredients can be used as seasonings, flavorings, and flavor enhancers. Salt and pepper are two of the most common seasonings that are used. A more detailed...

Conventional Classification Of Spice

The Geneva-based International Standards Organisation (ISO) defines spices and condiments as Any of various aromatic vegetable productions as pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, allspice, ginger, cloves, etc., used in cookery to season and to flavour sauces, pickles, etc. a vegetable condiment or relish, usually in the form of a powder also, as condiments collectively.

The Complexities of Carbohydrates

But you cannot necessarily rely on food labels. Recently (in 2001) the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rejected a request by numerous health food manufacturers to allow non-digestible and non-metabolized carbohydrates to be listed separately on packaging, so that diabetics and other people with glucose insulin disorders would be able to have the information upon which to make health-promoting decisions. I can't tell you I agree with this decision, and I certainly don't agree with the apparent notion that all carbohydrates are the same and affect your body the same way.

Main uses in food processing and medicine 1441 General

Oregano is used in meat, sausages, salads, stewings, dressings and soups. The food industry uses oregano oil and oregano resin both in foods and in beverages and also in cosmetics. Oregano oil is used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meats and meat products, condiments and relishes, milk products, processed vegetables, snack foods, and fats and oils. It is the most common spice for pizza. Along with black pepper, it is a common ingredient of dressings and a good substitute for table salt. Marjoram, too, is used in many foods and beverages in food industry meat sauces, canned foods, vinegar, vermouths and bitters are often seasoned with marjoram. It increases aroma in such vegetable dishes as pea soup and other pea dishes, squash and stews made from mixed vegetables, mushrooms and asparagus.

Salad Bars And Buffet Service

Salad bars are frequent fixtures in restaurants and are popular with both customer and restaurateur.The customer enjoys being able to custom make a salad with selections from a large bowl of greens, smaller containers of assorted condiments, and a variety of dressings.The restaurateur likes them because they take some of the pressure off the dining room staff during service. Many restaurants have designed unique salad bars that have become almost a trademark. Others may not have salad bars as part of their regular meal service but rely on them for efficiency at certain times, such as weekend brunch. 3. Select a variety of condiments to appeal to a variety of tastes.Try both familiar and unusual items to make your salad bar stand out.There is no reason to restrict the choices to the same old stuff everyone else is serving. There are two basic kinds of salad bar condiments Suggested arrangement of a salad bar. Key (1) plates (2) large bowl of salad greens (3) condiments (4) dressings...

Governmental Regulations

Usda Egg Grading Chart

Department of Agriculture (USDA) grades and inspects poultry and poultry products, eggs and egg products, and meat and meat products. The USDA also controls food grading, processing plant inspections, and the use of pesticides, preservatives, and food additives.

Nutrient Composition

The two basic types of fennel, common fennel and Florence fennel, bear a close resemblance to one another but are used differently. The shoots, leaves, and seeds (called fruit ) of the common fennel are used primarily as flavoring agents for food. Several varieties of common fennel have seeds that differ in length, width, and taste. These include the sweet variety, also known as French or Roman fennel, characterized by long, yellowish green fruit with a sweet flavor Indian fennel, which is brownish, smaller, and less rounded and the pale-green Persian and Japanese varieties, which are the smallest and have a stronger anise flavor and odor.

Introduction and terminology

Food extrusion is a process in which food ingredients are forced to flow, under one or several conditions of mixing, heating and shear, through a die that forms and or puff-dries the ingredients (Rossen and Miller, 1973). Food extruders can be visualized as devices that can transform a variety of raw ingredients into intermediate and finished products. The cooking temperature can be as high as 180-190 C (355-375 F) during extrusion, but residence time is usually only 20-40 seconds. For this reason, the extrusion cooking process can be called a high temperature short time (HTST) process. It is important to learn extrusion terminology, and to remember that many manufacturers use terms based on their own equipment.

Protecting jars from crosscontamination

Instead of using jars, I recommend getting squeezable containers for your mustard, jelly, mayonnaise, honey, and any other condiments. Ah, those wonderful holiday dinners. The house is full of people, fragrant aromas fill the air, and then Helpful Helen manages to contaminate nearly every jar in the kitchen by using the same spoon to dish up gluten-free and glutenous sauces, spreads, and condiments. Cousin Clara puts the croutons in the salad and gives it a thorough toss. Sister Susie surprises you by putting the stuffing inside the turkey. Aunt Ginny mixes the crunchy onion rings into the green bean casserole, and Uncle Sid gets crumbs in the butter after spreading some onto his roll. Last but not least, Aunt Mary spoons gravy over her stuffing, pressing down firmly to make a well, and then sticks the stuffing-crusted spoon back into

The Uses And Limitations Of Recipes

Food ingredients are natural products, so they are not uniform like machine bolts, ballpoint pens,and typing paper. One tomato may be riper than another, one carrot more tender or sweeter than another, one oyster saltier than another. Such variations may affect how the ingredients are handled, how long they are cooked, what proportions are needed, and how much seasoning is required.

Personal Hygiene

At the beginning of this chapter,we defined contamination as harmful substances not present originally in the food. Some contamination occurs before we receive the food, which means that proper purchasing and receiving procedures are important parts of a sanitation program. But most food contamination occurs as a result of cross-contamination, which may be defined as the transferring of hazardous substances, mainly microorganisms, to a food from another food or another surface, such as equip-ment,worktables, or hands. Some examples of situations in which cross-contamination can occur include the following


Blue points are the only proper oysters to serve for luncheon or dinner. They should always be served in the deep shell, and if possible upon oyster plates, but may be neatly served upon cracked ice, covered with a small napkin, in soup plates. The condiments are salt, pepper, cayenne, Tabasco sauce, and horse radish. A quarter of lemon is also properly served with each plate, but the gourmet prefers salt, pepper, and horse radish, as the acid of lemon does violence to the delicious flavor of the freshly-opened bivalve. Clams should be served in precisely the same way.

Bison Burger

Shape Ground Bison into four1 2 inch thick patties. Grill covered 4-6 inches above medium hot coals, turning oncejust until the pink has disappeared. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Tuck into a toasted bun, top with your favorite condiments and enjoy. Serves 4. Per patty 156 calories 9.1 g fat 30 mg cholesterol 60 mg sodium. *Ground Bison can vary in leanness. The above recipe is based on 92 lean Ground Bison. Ask your meat market for the lean content of their product extra-lean 95 or greater lean 90 to 95 regular 85-90 .

The Onion Tribe

Salt is our number one flavor enhancer without it we could not prepare a truly flavorful dish. Number two has to be the various members of the onion tribe. Onion and garlic both contribute a commanding flavor to foods. They are used in every cuisine in the world, at least to some extent, and in most of them not just casually. People whose tradition favors bland foods the British and Scandinavians use them sparingly, while highly-flavored cuisines Latin America, the Mediterranean, Central Europe and Asia rely much more heavily on them. In North America, with our predominantly British and Northern European food heritage, we also used to cook with onion and garlic rather sparingly until the food revolution of the 1970s. Before that shift many people even refused any dish that contained onion, and the even stronger flavor of garlic was considered close to poisonous.

Brown flour

Brown flour Wheat flour containing between 80 and 90 of the dehusked grain. Part of the bran is removed but the wheat germ remains. Also called wheatmeal flour brown fungus Cloud ear fungus brown hare Common hare brownie United States A slightly underbaked rich chocolate sponge, soft in the middle, possibly with nuts and or iced with chocolate, made in a square tin and cut into square or rectangular individual pieces brown lamb stew See navarin brown long-grain rice An unpolished long-grain rice which, when boiled, has a nutty flavour with a chewy texture. Requires about 30 minutes boiling. See also brown rice brown mustard seed The hot and bitter brown seed of an annual, Brassica juncea, native to India. Used whole in Indian cooking or ground and mixed with white mustard in the various mustard-based condiments and flavourings available. Also called Indian mustard


There are two main types of this aromatic plant, both with pale green, celery like stems and bright green, feathery foliage. Florence fennel, also called finocchio, is cultivated throughout the Mediterranean and in the United States. It has a broad, bulbous base that's treated like a vegetable. Both the base and stems can be eaten raw in salads or cooked in a variety of methods such as braising, sauteing or in soups. The fragrant, graceful greenery can be used as a garnish or snipped like dill and used for a last-minute flavor enhancer. This type of fennel is often mislabeled sweet anise, causing those who don't like the flavor of licorice to avoid it. The flavor of fennel, however, is sweeter and more delicate than anise and, when cooked, becomes even lighter and more elusive than in its raw state.


Many essential oils from herbs and spices are used widely in the food, health and personal care industries and are classified as GRAS substances or are permitted food additives (Kabara, 1991). A large number of these compounds have been the subject of extensive toxicological scrutiny and an example of the data available is shown in Table 3.6. However, their principal function is to impart desirable flavours and aromas and not necessarily to act as antimicrobial agents. Therefore, it is possible that additional safety and toxicological data would be required before regulatory approval for their use as novel food preservatives would be granted.

Pigs in a Blanket

Butter one side only of each piece of bread. Place one slice of bread, buttered side down, in your pie iron. Fill with a few hot dog slices and strips of American cheese. Top with another slice of bread, buttered side up. Close the pie iron, trim crusts, and cook for 4 minutes, turning occasionally. To serve, dip in catsup and mustard, or other desired condiments. Serves 4.

Snackin Healthy

No matter what your age, you should be aware of a couple of rules when it comes to snacking. Know the ingredients in snacks you buy off the grocery shelf. For a general healthy rule, try to stay away from Olestra, artificial sweeteners, and anything hydrogenated (trans fats) or with MSG (those things don't have gluten in them they're just bad for you).

Genoa Salami

Mortadella is a cooked and smoked sausage that is light in color and similar in texture to bologna. Mortadella is made from finely ground pork, beef, and chunks of pork fat. It is recognizable by large chunks of pork fat and pistachio nuts on its interior cut surface. Other condiments that may be included are sweet red peppers and whole black peppers. Sticks have a uniform diameter measuring from 4.0 to 5.0 inches (10.2 to 12.7 cm). Mortadella may also be produced as a dry or semi-dry product. It may be made with or without pork fat chunks. Mortadella also may be made from poultry and pork fat and may include extenders.


Combined with brown mustard, a more aromatic variety, in various proportions to give the variety of mustard-based condiments available. white mutton stock As white beef stock but substituting mutton or lamb bones for beef bones. Also called fond blanc de mouton white octopus Curled octopus white of egg See egg, egg white white onion A variety of onion with a similar shape to the globe but with a silvery white skin. They have a mild sweet flavour and are usually served raw. white onion soup Basic soup with onions.

Other food enhancers

The two in wide use are IMP (short for 5'-inosine monophosphate) and GMP (short for 5'-guanosine monophosphate). (For those fanatics who are not organic chemists but want to be correct in pronouncing these chemicals, the 5' in the name is pronounced five prime ). Study some food labels on cans and packages on your shelf and you will find names like 5'-inosinate, 5'-guanylate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, inosinate and guanylate. These are variations on the names for the same two enhancers, IMP and GMP.

Hispanic Foods

The names of Hispanic food ingredients vary from country to country. Convenience foods that have found general acceptance are listed. Reddish yellowish seeds from the tropical annatto tree. The very hard seeds are used as dye and as a flavoring agent. Available as paste, powder, and whole. Packs By weight.


Following the estimation of the composition of seeds and evaluation of its properties, Marangoni et al. (1988) opined that tamarind seeds are potential sources of food or food ingredients. They recorded that seeds formed about 35 of the whole fruit with 30 testa and 70 endosperm (kernel). When analysed seeds were found to contain 17.1-20.1 protein 6.0-8.5 fat 65.1-72.2 carbohydrates 0.7-4.3 crude fibre and 2.3-3.2 ash. The chemical composition and nutritive value of tamarind seeds and kernels was determined by several workers (Bose et al., 1954 York et al., 1993 Siddhuraju et al., 1995 Patil and Nadagouder, 1997). Bhattacharya et al. (1993, 1994a) reported that the kernel protein is rich in lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, leucine and potassium, but deficient in sulphur-containing amino acids. Dehusked tamarind seeds have been found to be a rich source of pectin, the jelly-forming constituent of many fruits, vegetables, seeds, etc. (Kumar, 1997). According to him proper...

Condiment Varieties

You have learned about herbs and spices and how they affect the flavor of foods, but what about the condiments, nuts, and seeds that can be served with food to enhance flavor You will need to know which foods they enhance. A condiment is traditionally served as an accompaniment to foods. An accompaniment is something that goes well with something else. Condiments' purpose is to complement, or go together well with, food flavors. They vary from sweet and tart to hot and spicy, or sour. Condiments can be purchased ready to use or can be created in the kitchen. Pickled Condiments Some condiments have pickled ingredients. Pickles are made from vegetables that are fermented (Qfsr-'men-ted), or chemically changed in brines or vinegars flavored and seasoned with dill, garlic, sugar, peppers, or salt. Cucumbers, tomatoes, and peppers are commonly pickled. A coarsely chopped or ground pickled item is called a relish. The most common flavors are sweet and dill. A flavored oil has been enhanced...

Mealtime Customs

Obed (lunch) is the main meal of the day for Czechs, where dinner may be no more than a cold plate of meats or cheese, such as mala sousta se syre ( small cheese bites ), and condiments. Obed is eaten between 11 a.m. and 1 p.m. Popular dishes may include gulas (goulash), svickova, roast beef in a creamy sauce topped with lemon and lin-gonberries (similar to cranberries), sma-zeny syr (fried cheese), or smazene zampiony (fried mushrooms).

The Perils of Sugar

This is not real food it's invented, fake food. It's filled with sugar and highly refined carbohydrates and with chemically altered trans fats (they are listed as hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oil on food labels), not to mention plenty of other chemical additives. For thousands of years, human beings were in luck-none of this food existed. Now we're stuck with it. Because it's incredibly profitable, it's also widely distributed. But there isn't a person on this planet who should be eating it.


Of the spices, condiments and herbs studied with respect to their effect on yeast fermentation in wines, etc., mustard flour was easily the most effective. It was found stronger than the two chemical preservative tried, viz. benzoic acid and sulphur dioxide (Pruthi, 1992). Mustard and its constituent allyl isocyanate have bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties (Charalambous, 1994).

Sanitation Check

Foodservice professionals must have excellent personal hygiene. Microorganisms can spread from tools, equipment, and cooking surfaces to food on the hands of foodservice workers. This can lead to food contamination, disease, or food poisoning. To lower the chance of spreading microorganisms in the kitchen, you should 1. Describe the biological sources of food contamination. 5. Describe the sources of food contamination. 6. Identify sources of chemical food contamination.

Caribou Burgers

Your favorite burger spices, herbs and condiments to taste egg to bind the ingreds Mix all the ingredients handling as little as possible. Heat grill or broiler. Brush burgers with vegetable oil and grill about 4 minutes turn and cook to desired doneness. Serve on rolls with your choice of condiments.


It all began with tender greens topped with a light dressing of oil and vinegar. This basic theme got more and more elaborate, first with the addition of other raw and cooked vegetables, then fish, poultry, meats and cheeses. Today anything can, and does, go into a salad bowl. The dressings on the salad also became intricate with spices and herbs, condiments, exotic oils and vinegars. Now you hardly, if ever, see a simple salad recipe in a new cookbook or in a fashionable restaurant, yet simple salads and dressings have much to recommend even for festive meals. If I experiment with salads, I prefer the exotic ingredients in the main body but leave the dressing simple.

Beef Curry

It became popular in Britain during the British colonization of India in the 1700s, and curry soon became a favorite in Australia as well. This dish is usually served with plain white rice and a variety of condiments for garnishing, such as peanuts, sliced bananas, golden or dark raisins, diced pineapple, sliced or chopped hard-boiled egg, and bottled chutney. 8. Serve with rice and a selection of condiments.


You can make as dramatic a production as you want out of a bouillabaisse, but remember it originated as a simple, Mediterranean fisherman's soup, made from the day's catch or its unsalable leftovers, and flavored with the typical condiments of the region olive oil, garlic, leeks or onions, tomatoes, and herbs. The fish are rapidly boiled in an aromatic broth and are removed to a platter the broth is served in a tureen. Each guest helps himself to both and eats them together in a big soup plate. If you wish to serve wine, choose a ros , or a light, strong, young red such as a C tes de Provence or Beaujolais, or a strong, dry, white wine from the C tes de Provence, or a Riesling.