Identifying Wild Mushrooms

Swiss Edible Wild Mushrooms

Having recorded details of a mushroom's habitat, the next step is to note its distinguishing features. Key factors include colors, dimensions, and whether the underside of the mushroom is covered with gills, spines, or a system of tubes that makes the underside look like a finely textured sponge. If gills are present, details such as whether they are attached or free from the stalk, or extend down the stalk, their color, and thickness are important. Two very important details are whether the...

Cultivating Mushrooms

Depending on how they obtain nutrients, mushrooms are either non-mycorrhizal (saprobic or parasitic) or mycorrhizal. Saprobes gain their nutrition from dead plants and animals. Many can be cultivated, with varying degrees of difficulty (Stamets 2000). Some, like the morels, require very specialized conditions, while others have never been cultivated (Anonymous 1997, Stamets 1993). In contrast to the saprobes, parasitic mushrooms, such as the honey mushroom (Armillaria mellea) and some bracket...

Year

Leones Escudos

Tuber melanosporum (Perigord black truffle) production in Quercy, France, since 1920 (Fauconnet and Delher 1998). However, there is mounting concern that the quantities of mycorrhizal mushrooms that can be harvested are declining. While articles with titles like Disappearing Mushrooms Another Mass Extinction (Cherfas 1991) are somewhat alarmist, it is undeniable that there have been catastrophic declines in the harvest of some mycorrhizal mushrooms over the past hundred years. For example, at...

Info

A key to the main mushroom genera covered in this book that have various shapes those not cap-shaped with stalks. mushrooms that grow on live trees are edible, while those that grow on dead trees are poisonous mushrooms eaten by snails or other small animals, or that are not poisonous to animals such as squirrels, are edible violet and viscid mushrooms are poisonous mushrooms whose flesh changes color on cutting are poisonous mushrooms that exude latex are poisonous mushrooms that smell like...

References And Further Reading

In addition to references cited, we have included information about useful Asian, Australasian, and Western field guides and books on the cultivation of saprobic, mycorrhizal, and medicinal mushrooms. Abate, D. 1996. Cultivation of the oyster mushroom in traditional brick pots. Mycologist 9 179-181. Alexopoulos, C. J., C. W. Mims, and M. Blackwell. 1996. Introductory Mycology. 4th ed. New York John Wiley and Sons. Allen, J. W., M. D. Merlin, and K. L. R. Jansen. 1991. An ethnomy-cological...

Chinese Names Of Mushrooms

Chinese common names, scientific names, and English common names of edible and medicinal mushrooms known from China. Some of the mushrooms listed are not mentioned in the text because of their relatively minor importance outside of China. Additional information is provided in the text for many of the more important examples. English common names are given only for those species for which they are available. t Species known or suspected to be mycorrhizal. c Cultivated species. * Name formulated...

Mycorrhizal Mushrooms

Many edible mushrooms are found only in association with the roots of certain trees. In these intimate symbiotic relationships the fungus benefits the growth of the tree by helping with the uptake of essential elements, and the plant provides the fungus with carbohydrates and a place to live. These are the mycorrhizal mushrooms, and among them are some of the most expensive foods in the world. To understand the high value placed on edible mycorrhizal mushrooms and why attempts to cultivate them...

Edible Fungi Which Use In Kitchen

When tree leaves change color, dew rises, and autumn mists descend, mushrooms begin to appear above the soil, and logs, stumps, and fallen branches come alive with toadstools and other mysterious protuberances. This is the signal for mushroom collectors to take to the fields and forests. They often do so with the zeal and passion of antique collectors in a flea market, or miners smitten by gold fever though experienced collectors temper excitement with caution, knowing as they do that an...

Nonmycorrhizal Mushrooms

Edible And Medicinal Mushroom

About 95 percent of all cultivated mushrooms are saprobic and can be cultivated on various dead organic materials such as straw, wood, and wastepaper. Some saprobes are produced in what are little more than cottage industries, while others are grown in huge, highly efficient factories, their production and sale the basis of multimillion-dollar industries. Certain saprobes, called the sugar fungi, can only use sugars available in the growth medium. Others, including many edible varieties, can...

Wild Mushrooms

Edible Fungus

For some people the collection of wild mushrooms is simply an adjunct to an enjoyable walk in the countryside, but for others their collection and sale are a profitable hobby or even a full-time business. Anyone who eats or intends to eat wild mushrooms must be knowledgeable about species with unpleasant flavors or textures and, more importantly, species that can lead to serious poisoning or even death. Some mushrooms found growing in the wild are not actually indigenous but have found their...

Lactarius Sanguifluus Kitchen

Agaricus pilatianus Bohus, 196 Agaricus placomyces Peck, 110 Agaricus praeclaresquamosus A. E. Freeman, 110 Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeff., 311 Agaricus sylvicola (Vittad.) Peck, 303 103, 110, 196, 197 Agrocybe, 66, 101, 183 Agrocybe cylindracea (DC.) Maire, 317 Agrocybe parasitica G. Stev., 184,310 Agrocybe praecox (Pers. Fr.) Fayod, 183, 314 Albatrellus confluens (Alb. et Schwein. Fr.) Kotl. et Pouzar, 304 Aleuria, 102 Fuckel, 293, 294, 308 almond portobello. See Agaricus blazei 104, 105, 114,...