Whole Birds

Cut a piece of butcher's twine about three times the bird's length.

Tuck the wings behind the back.

Tie the twine loosely around the tail of the bird. Wrap the twine around the legs, and cross in front.

Flip the bird over, and tie a knot In the twine.

^ Tie a slip knot In the twine to secure.

Sanitation Check iGiblets

Giblets are the edible internal organs of poultry. They include the liver, gizzard (stomach), and heart. Giblets are usually found in a package stuffed inside a whole, cleaned bird. The neck is usually packed with the giblets. Chicken livers and gizzards are also sold separately. Giblets are often used to flavor other dishes.

Giblets packaged separately from poultry should be kept cold to prevent bacteria from growing. Store giblets at 41°F (5°C) or below, and use within one to two days. You can also freeze them at 0°F (-18°C) or below. For the best quality, use giblets within three to four months of freezing. CRITICAL THINKING What dishes do you think might use giblets?

Handling and Storage

Fresh and frozen poultry must be handled very carefully to avoid illness or spoilage. Fresh poultry is highly perishable, which means that it can quickly spoil if not handled properly. Once you receive fresh poultry, place it in cold storage or pack it in ice until you are ready to use it. If the poultry will not be used within two to three days, it should be frozen immediately.

You can store frozen poultry for up to six months at or below 0°F (-18°C). Make sure to keep frozen poultry in its original packaging. When you remove it from the freezer to thaw, keep it in its packaging until it is completely defrosted. Never refreeze poultry.

If you will be preparing and serving a whole bird, you will want to truss it. Trussing involves tying the legs and wings against the bird's body. It allows for even cooking and creates an attractive final product.

I Explain What should you do once you receive fresh poultry?

Science a la Carte

Salmonella Bacteria

Salmonella bacteria cause much of the food poisoning in the world. They can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. The illness usually lasts 5-7 days. It can require treatment if severe dehydration occurs or the infection spreads from the intestines. Hands, cutting boards, counters, knives, and other utensils should be cleaned and sanitized after contact with uncooked foods.


Research three different materials used to make cutting boards (for example, wood, plastic, and composite material). Which cutting boards are easily contaminated?


Discuss how to thoroughly clean different types of cutting boards. Create a chart to show the safety of and sanitation for each type of cutting board.

NSES C Develop an understanding of the behavior of organisms.

Review Key Concepts

1. Identify the different market forms, classes, and styles of poultry.

2. List the characteristics of Grade A poultry.

3. Explain how fresh and frozen poultry should be safely stored and used.

Practice Culinary Academics l^j Science

4. Procedure Imagine that your restaurant receives a shipment of whole chickens a week early.

Analysis Describe the procedures you would follow to check the chickens for quality. Explain how you would store them to keep them fresh.

^^ Mathematics

5. Supply prices can vary. You call three different wholesale poultry suppliers and are quoted the following prices for chicken breasts in bulk: $72, $85, and $93. What is the average price?

^^^^^^^^The mean, median, and mode are all measures of central tendency because they provide a summary of numerical data in one number. The mean is the same as the average.

Starting Hint To find the mean, first add all of the values ($72, $85, and $93) together. Divide the total of the values by the number of values in the set of data (3).

NSES F Develop an understanding of community health, and natural and human-induced hazards.

NCTM Data Analysis and Probability Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data.

Bji Check your answers at this book's Online Learning Center at

How many appealing poultry dishes can you create?


Continue reading here: Cooking Poultry

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