Standardized Recipe Basics
Check for Understanding If you have questions as you are reading, that means you are checking your understanding of the material. To get the most out of the text, try to answer these questions.
Read to Learn
• Explain how standardized recipes help to maintain product consistency.
Recipes provide specific instructions to prepare food items. A recipe includes details on how to use ingredients, procedures, and cooking instructions.
As you read, use a web diagram like this one to list the seven different parts of a recipe.
• portion size
j ingredient list
£Etk Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com for a printable graphic organizer.
English Language Arts
NCTE12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes.
Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement.
NSESB Develop an understanding of the structure and properties of matter.
Social Studies NCSS VIIIA Science, Technology, and Society
Identify and describe both current and historical examples of the interaction and interdependence of science, technology, and society in a variety of cultural settings.
NCSS IX A Global Connections Explain how language can facilitate global understanding or cause misunderstanding.
NCTE National Council of Teachers of English
NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSES National Science Education Standards
NCSS National Council for the Social Studies
The English cookbook A Proper Newe Booke of Cokerye is written
Elizabeth I, queen of England, is crowned
The History of the Recipe
The written history of the recipe can be traced back to 1400 bce. Ancient Egyptians used painted hieroglyphics to show the preparation of food. However, it was not until Roman times that recipes were written down using words. In 1896, American Fannie Merritt Farmer is credited with creating the model for how we write recipes today. By standardizing measurements, she made sure that recipe results were more reliable.
Conduct research to find a written recipe that is at least 100 years old. Does the writing and recipe differ from recipes you can find in today's cookbooks? Does it provide enough information for you to follow? Rewrite the recipe to follow today's recipe style.
NCSS IX A Global Connections Explain how language can facilitate global understanding or cause misunderstanding.
Recipes are important tools in the foodservice industry. A recipe is not just a general set of instructions. Instead, a recipe is an exact set of directions on how to use ingredients, equipment, and preparation and cooking techniques for a certain dish.
To get the result you want from a recipe, you must carefully follow the specific directions that are listed on the recipe. If you do, the food will be a consistent quality, or will be free from variations, every time you prepare it. You will also end up with the same quantity of food every time you prepare the dish. Quantity is the total amount a recipe makes.
A standardized (lstan-d9r-,dlzd) recipe is a set of written instructions that is used to consistently prepare a known quantity and quality of a certain food. Standardized recipes are often changed to meet the needs of a particular user. Standardized recipes are also changed based on the type of equipment that a foodservice establishment has.
Each standardized recipe must go through quality control. Quality control is a system that ensures that everything will meet the foodservice establishment's standards. Recipes are tested many times to make sure that they work the same way every time before they are used for customers. To do this, directions on a standardized recipe must be clear and easy to follow, and ingredients must be listed correctly and accurately, in the order in which they will be used.
There are many benefits to using a standardized recipe:
• The quality of the food will be consistent each time the recipe is made.
• The quantity of the food will be consistent each time the recipe is made.
• You can control the portion size and cost of the recipe.
• Movement in the kitchen by foodservice workers will be more efficient because of clear, exact instructions.
• You will have fewer errors in food orders. j You will eliminate waste by not overproducing food.
• You will meet customers' expectations of quality each time the food is prepared. Standardized recipes offer many benefits to foodservice operations. However, they cannot solve problems caused by purchasing or receiving poor-quality items, or purchasing too much food. If you make a substitution in the ingredients in a recipe, you must retest the recipe to make sure that the dish still has the same quality. A recipe that is specific and that produces the same product each time is the hallmark, or distinguishing feature, of a successful foodservice organization.
The success of any standardized recipe depends upon the experience of the person who uses it. If the person who uses the recipe does not understand basic cooking techniques, for example, he or she will not get the right results from the dish.
An experienced cook may be able to make slight changes to recipes without changing the outcome. This is because an experienced cook has learned to apply sound judgment and past experience to the techniques and instructions in each recipe.
Parts of a Recipe
These parts are always the same for any standardized recipe (See the recipe on page 332):
• Product Name Customers expect to receive what they order from a menu. The product name, or name given to the recipe, should be consistent with the name of the dish listed on the menu. Both of these should accurately describe the same product. This helps eliminate confusion between the kitchen and service staff.
• Yield The number of servings, or portions, that a recipe produces is its yield. The yield of a recipe is an important factor that is used to calculate the cost per serving of the recipe.
• Portion Size The portion size is the amount or size of an individual serving. Standardized recipes always show a portion size. This allows you to plan enough food for your customers.
• Ingredient Quantity Standardized recipes give directions on how to measure each ingredient to help control quantity. Use the right quantity of each ingredient during preparation.
• Preparation Procedures A preparation procedure is a step that you must take to prepare the dish. Preparation procedures are the result of careful testing of the recipes by experienced culinary professionals. To consistently produce a high-quality product, you must follow any preparation procedures carefully in the order in which they are listed. Environment, such as altitude, may affect preparation procedures.
• Cooking Temperatures You can ruin a dish if you use too high or too low of a temperature for cooking. Range-top cooking temperatures are listed in a recipe as low, medium, or high. Temperatures for ovens and other appliances that have a thermostat to control cooking temperature are listed as exact degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius. Many recipes require that the oven be preheated to a specific temperature before any food is placed inside for cooking. The time that you will need for preheating will vary with the type of oven. • Cooking Time Standardized recipes list the required cooking time for the dish. It is important to cook the food for the recommended time, using the specified equipment at the specified temperature. Using different equipment, a different size or type of cookware, or changing the cooking time can change the results. The dish may not come out the way you had expected.
Formula or Recipe?
A formula is a special type of recipe that is used in the bakeshop. Baking is different from cooking in many ways. One of the most important differences involves the chemistry of baking. Because baking involves chemical reactions, baked goods require precise formulas to work correctly. Small variations in the ingredients or measurements can affect the quality of the baked good item noticeably.
Although formulas and recipes are similar in the way in which they are written, there are three major differences between the two.
Ingredient Preparation Ingredient quantity and preparation steps must be listed accurately on a recipe. Important preparation steps are usually written just before or after the mention of an ingredient. For many foods, chopping, slicing, or other preparation is done before you measure the ingredients.
YIELD: 20 SERVINGS Zl YIELD SERVING SIZE: 4 OZ. Zl PORTION SIZE
Fresh green beans, washed, ends trimmed, and cut in half
8 cloves Garlic, peeled and minced
Canned crushed tomatoes
White chicken stock, heated to a boil
Salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste
Method of Preparation
1. In a saucepan, place the fresh green beans in boiling, salted water. Cook until done. Drain beans and shock in an ice bath. When beans are cold, remove and drain them.
2. In a sauté pan, melt the butter and sauté the garlic. Add the crushed tomatoes, and sauté for 5 minutes.
3. Add the green beans and chicken stock to the tomatoes, butter, and garlic.
4. Simmer at 180°F (82°C) until done. Season with salt and pepper to taste and serve, or hold at 135°F (57°C) or above.
1. Preheat the cooking medium on high heat.
2. Add fat oil or oil. When fat or oil is almost smoking, add food.
3. Do not overcrowd the pan.
Green beans are used in many different cultures as a side dish. Use the Internet or library to research these or other international variations, and write a half-page report on your findings:
-> Masaledar sem (India)
j Fagiolini di Sant' Anna (Italy)
Fresh green beans should snap apart when bent. Green beans that bend but do not break are not fresh.
Substitutions j To lower saturated fat, use olive oil rather than butter for sauteing.
j Use herbs or spices to add flavor without adding salt.
Simmer to cook slowly and steadily in hot water
Shock to drop simmered or boiled food into cold water or ice to stop cooking
Calories 284 Calories from Fat 41 Total Fat 5 g
Saturated Fat 3g Cholesterol 10 mg Sodium 99 mg Total Carbohydrate 46 g Fiber 12g Sugars 5 g Protein 17g
• Ingredient List Order Recipes and formulas both contain an ingredient list. This list includes all ingredients that will be used in the dish. In recipes, ingredients are listed in the order that they will be used. This list will be followed by procedures to use those ingredients for successful results. In formulas, however, ingredients are typically listed in order by decreasing weight. These are often given as percentages.
• Baker's Percentage Precise weight measurements are used in formulas to prepare food. This type of measurement, often called a baker's percentage, includes the percentage of each ingredient in relation to the weight of flour in the final baked product. Baker's percentages make it easy to increase or decrease the quantity of individual ingredients. (Chapter 26 explains how to increase and decrease ingredients in detail.) • Preparation Instructions Baking formulas may not always include the instructions that are needed to prepare the baked product.
the three differences between recipes and formulas?
SECTION 13.1 ^iïtfïttmî Review Key Concepts
1. Explain how quality control works.
Practice Culinary Academics Science
2. Procedure Locate a muffin recipe or formula and prepare it using the specified flour type. Then, prepare the recipe again using a different flour type.
Analysis What are the differences in the two muffins? What do you think causes this difference? Form a hypothesis, and research to find if your hypothesis was correct. Write a summary of your findings.
NSES B Develop an understanding of the structure and properties of matter.
^^^ English Language Arts
3. Locate a recipe that you like and create a recipe card for it. Place each recipe element in the appropriate place and make sure that all elements are included. Make any appropriate changes to the recipe language to make it clearer and easier to follow.
NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes.
4. Technology can help foodservice establishments improve the way they use standardized recipes.
Find one example of how technology has improved the use of standardized recipes and present it to the class in a five-minute oral presentation. Use images if possible.
NCSS VIII A Science, Technology, and Society Identify and describe both current and historical examples of the interaction and interdependence of science, technology, and society in a variety of cultural settings.
5. The recipe for Green Beans in Garlic Sauce in this chapter yields 20 4-ounce servings. What is the total yield of the recipe in ounces? What is the total yield in pounds?
^^^^^ Converting Ounces to Pounds
There are 16 ounces in 1 pound. When converting from a smaller unit to a bigger unit, the number will always be smaller. Therefore, you must divide by the conversion factor (16).
Starting Hint Multiply the number of servings by the serving size to get the total number of ounces. To convert to the larger unit (pounds), divide the total ounces by 16.
NCTM Measurement Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement.
cBj Checkyour answers at this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com.
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