Stages of Making Yeast Dough
Because each step in the process of making yeast dough is critical, it is important that you complete each step in the proper order. Skipping any steps or being unprepared for a step can lead to the failure of your product.
Accurate, or correct, measurement, or scaling, of all ingredients is critical, or necessary, in the preparation of yeast doughs. Successful formulas are based on proportional mixtures of ingredients. Too much or too little of an ingredient will affect yeast activity, gluten formation, and product quality.
Use a baker's scale to weigh all ingredients that are denser than milk or water. This includes flour, yeast, shortening, eggs, honey, molasses, malt, and oil. Milk and water may be measured with volume measures.
Scale each ingredient separately. Make sure the weight of each ingredient will correspond to, or match, the weights called for in the formula. Remember that weight and volume are not the same unit of measurement. Even a small error in measuring can cause a baked product to fail. This will waste time, and will cost extra money through wasted resources. In some formulas, ingredients are given as a percentage of the total weight of the flour. Foodservice operations usually post procedures for converting percentages to weights and weights to percentages.
Gourmet Math r
Use the 240 Factor
The desired dough temperature for yeast dough is 80°F. Several factors affect dough temperature, including flour temperature, room temperature, friction temperature (which depends on the mixer speed), and water temperature. Of these, only the water temperature can be easily modified by the baker. Commercial bakers use a shortcut known as the 240 Factor to easily calculate desired water temperature. Simply add together the flour, room, and friction temperatures, and subtract that total from 240°F. The result is the target water temperature.
Find the ideal water temperature for yeast rolls given the following conditions: flour temperature = 62°F; room temperature = 25°C; and friction temperature = 30°F.
^^^^^ Converting Temperature Celsius temperatures (C) can be converted to Fahrenheit (F) using the following formula: F = (9/5 X C) + 32
Starting Hint Because the 240 Factor calculations utilize degrees Fahrenheit, start by converting the room temperature from Celsius to Fahrenheit using the conversion formula above. Then add the three temperatures (flour, room, and friction), and subtract that sum from 240 to get the desired water temperature.
NCTM Number and Operations Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.
There are four stages to the continuous breadmaking process:
• Pickup Use a low speed to mix the water and yeast. If oil is used, add it immediately after the liquid ingredients. Then, incorporate the dry ingredients, and add solid fats or shortenings last. Once all ingredients have been added to the mixer, turn the speed to medium.
• Cleanup During this stage the ingredients come together into a ball around the dough hook. The bottom of the mixing bowl can be clearly seen. All liquid is absorbed into the flour.
j Development During this longest stage of mixing and kneading, oxygen is incorporated into the dough and gluten is developed. The dough will be uneven in color and will tear easily.
• Final Clear This stage is reached when proper gluten has developed. To verify gluten formation, cut off a small piece of dough and stretch it apart with your fingers. It should stretch to such a thinness that light can be seen through the dough. You should also be able to stretch the dough several times without it breaking. At this point, remove the dough from the mixer.
Mixing and Kneading
When you mix dough ingredients thoroughly, it ensures even yeast distribution, gluten development, and a uniform mixture. Be careful not to overmix, as it can lead to let down. A let down is a condition in which the ingredients in a dough completely break down. Once the ingredients are mixed, the dough must be kneaded to further develop the gluten. Kneading means to work the dough until it is smooth and elastic.
In continuous breadmaking or commercial baking, mixing and kneading are done in a spiral mixer.
Once a regular yeast dough has been kneaded thoroughly by hand or has reached the final clear stage in a mixer, the dough is ready for fermentation. Fermentation is the process by which yeast converts the sugars in dough into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Gases that are trapped in the gluten cause the dough to rise. For fermentation to take place, you must:
• Shape the kneaded dough into a ball.
• Cover the dough to keep it from drying out. Avoid popping any bubbles that may appear beneath the dough surface.
• Place the dough in a proofing cabinet, or proofer.
Continue reading here: The Sponge Method
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