# Skills You Can Use at School and in the Workplace

As you read, look for feature boxes throughout each chapter. These features build skills that relate to other academic subjects and prepare you for the foodservice industry.

Gourmet Math You can solve math problems related to culinary skills and techniques. Each math concept is described for you, as well as a starting hint to help you solve each problem.

Science à la Carte You can connect the information in the chapter with the science content you have learned or are learning. Each of these features include a scientific procedure and how to analyze the information you find.

Gourmet Math

### Unit Prices

Unit price is the cost per unit of measure. This may be per item, per pound, per quart, or any other unit measure. When you buy food packaged in two different quantities, it is wise to know which is the better buy. To find the better buy, you need to know the unit price. Which breadcrumbs package is the better buy: / pound for 75i, or 3 pounds for \$5.65? Which orange juice is the better buy: 3 quarts for \$7.45, or 10 quarts for \$20.25?

Calculating Unit Rates A unit rate is a ratio showing how much of one quantity is needed to match 1 unit of another quantity. Unit price, a type of unit rate, is calculated by dividing the price by the quantity. Starting Hint To find which item is the better buy, you need to calculate the unit price for each item. Do so by dividing the item's price by its quantity. The unit price of the first breadcrumbs package, for example, equals \$0.75 /, or \$1.50. This means that you pay \$1.50 per pound of breadcrumbs.

NCTM Number and Operations Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.

Do you know what gives green vegetables their color? Green vegetables, such as broccoli and spinach, contain two types of the pigment chlorophyll. One type of chlorophyll is a bright bluish-green color. The other type is a yellowish-green color. Green vegetables have about four times more of the blue-green type than the yellow-green type.

To maintain the color of a green vegetable, do not overcook it. Heat from cooking damages the vegetable's cells. This allows the acids that were in the once-living cells of the vegetable to be released. Once exposed to this acid, the chlorophyll changes to a brownish-yellow color. Procedure

To complete the following experiment, you will need four broccoli stalks, a pot with a lid, and a second pot without a lid. Bring 3 cups of water to a boil in each uncovered pot. Separate the florets, or flowers, of the broccoli. Place half of the broccoli in one pot and cover it with the lid. Place the rest of the broccoli in the other pot without a lid. Cook both pots of broccoli for 7 minutes. After 7 minutes, drain each pot and place the broccoli into two separate bowls. Analysis

Determine which style of cooking provided a greener vegetable. Examine each bowl. Describe the color and the texture of the broccoli in each bowl. Which dish has the greener broccoli? Explain in a short summary why you think one method of cooking had a greater impact on the color change than the other.

NSES B Develop an understanding of chemical reactions.

A Taste of History These features help you to learn the local, national, and international impact of history on the foodservice industry. Each feature has a time line to show you how important culinary dates connect with world events.

a Taste of ht story

2007

Mandatory pasteurization of all California almonds begins

2004

The Spirit rover leaves Cape Canaveral, Florida, for the planet Mars

### Battle Against Bacteria

French scientist Louis Pasteur was a pioneer in the study of microbiology. He was the first person to understand that bacteria can cause disease, and his experiments led to a process known as pasteurization. During pasteurization, controlled heat is applied to food to kill microorganisms that could cause disease or spoilage. Pasteurization had a major impact on the food industry. Today, pasteurization is commonly used for milk and other dairy products. History Application

Research Pasteur's discovery of how bacteria and disease are linked and how pasteurization works. Write a paragraph discussing how you believe milk and milk products have been improved because of its use.

NCSS VIII B Science, Technology, and Society Make judgments about how science and technology have transformed our understanding of human-environment interactions.

Study with Features (continued)

How To These step-by-step photo features help you understand the basics of different culinary skills.

Braise

Food

Return the seared food to the deglazed pan and add liquid, such as stock or sauce. Add enough liquid to cover no more than two-thirds of the food.

Begin by searing the food in a frying or roasting pan. When using meats, a mixture of carrots, celery, and onions is usually added to the pan when the meat is seared.

Begin by searing the food in a frying or roasting pan. When using meats, a mixture of carrots, celery, and onions is usually added to the pan when the meat is seared.

Return the seared food to the deglazed pan and add liquid, such as stock or sauce. Add enough liquid to cover no more than two-thirds of the food.

Place the pan in a 350°F (177°C) oven, and cook the food slowly until it is tender when pulled apart with a fork. Turn the food every 20 to 30 minutes. Often, braised items are covered while cooking. Braising can also be done on the rangetop over low heat.

Remove the food from the pan, and deglaze the pan.

Place the pan in a 350°F (177°C) oven, and cook the food slowly until it is tender when pulled apart with a fork. Turn the food every 20 to 30 minutes. Often, braised items are covered while cooking. Braising can also be done on the rangetop over low heat.

Remove the food from the pan, and deglaze the pan.

Safety Check

\ Egg Safety

Take the following extra precautions when you prepare eggs:

• Always store eggs and foods that contain eggs separately from raw foods. Also, store eggs away from foods that may have an undesirable odor. Eggs absorb odors easily.

• Always wash your hands before and after working with eggs and foods that contain eggs.

• Wash, rinse, and sanitize utensils, equipment, and work surfaces after you prepare eggs or products that contain eggs.

• Make sure cooked eggs do not sit out for more than a very short period of time.

CRITICAL THINKING Why do foodservice professionals need to be extra cautious when they work with eggs?

Sanitation Check

)Serve Raw Fish and Shellfish

Many restaurants offer raw fish or shellfish on the menu, such as sushi or raw oysters. Many health officials advise against serving raw fish or shellfish because of the danger of parasites and contamination from polluted water. However, if you do serve these items, follow these guidelines:

• Buy fish from reputable vendors.

• Choose only the highest quality fish because it will not be cooked.

• Handle the fish as little as possible.

• Follow state-mandated guidelines concerning the serving of raw fish and shellfish.

Critical Thinking Why do you thinkyou should handle the fish as little as possible?

^ Study with Features (continued)

Master Recipes These recipes from Johnson & Wales University are made for the professional kitchen. In each recipe, you will find international alternatives, solid nutritional information, and cooking techniques.

Omelet with Cheese

Culinary Showcase Full-color photos with descriptions show you the tools, equipment, and types of ingredients that you will use in the professional foodservice industry.

 3C Eggs, cracked into a bowl Salt and ground white pepper, to taste 8 oz. Milk 5 oz. Clarified butter, melted 1 lb. Cheese, julienne 3 oz. Fresh parsley, washed, excess moisture removed, and chopped

/ YIELD: 10 SERVINGS SERVING SIZE: 8 OZ.

Service Equipment

### Service Equipment

Insulated C«niere Insulated carriers are E boxes that can hold hotel pans and sheet pans fl^ed with cooked food. Insulated carriers keep ot foods hot and cold foods cold. Some Sated carriers have wheels. If the came, has Tsp giAwarm or cold beverages can be stored

Chafing Dishes Chafing dishes are typically stainless steel pans used to keep food hot during service. Hotel pans of food can be inserted into the chafing dish. Chafing dishes are available in a variety of sizes.

The classic omelet recipe originated in France, but egg dishes are popular in many countries. Use the Internet or library to research these international omelet recipes, and write a half-page report on your findings:

• Tortilla de patataj (Spain)

Mrthod of Preparation iSST the e®S ""hi''" and PSPPe'- Add the ™lk' and whisk until the eggs are well combined.

2. Heat an °melet pan with / oz. of butter.

4. Sh'ke ,he pan, and mix the eggs until they begin to firm l|ft|ng tile edges to alow liquid egg to run underneath (see Chef Notes).

5. When the omelet |s almost firm, or 145°F (63°C), turn it over PS^ 1 oZ of cheese |n the center of the omelet, fold,' and roH onto a preheated dinner plate. Serve immediately or hold at 135°F (57°C) or above. ale,y,

7. Repeat the procedure until all of the eggs are cooked.

8. Garn|sh with chopped parsley.

Cooking Technique

Shallow-Fry

1. Heat the cooking medium to the proper temperature.

2. Cook the food product throughout.

3. Season, and serve hot.

Chef Notes

When the eggs have set in the sauté pan,place the pan under a broiler for 10-15 seconds to finish cooking the eggs. This creates a fluffier presentation and ensures that the eggs are well done. Substitutions

• To lower the fat, use low-fat milk, or half the amount of cheese in each omelet.

• Add fresh herbs to the omelet to increase flavor without adding salt.

• To lower cholesterol, use egg whites, or an egg substitute.

Whisk to a whip

Julienne matchstick

1 Cook to 145°F (63°C; Hold cooked eggs at 135°F (57°C) or

Hold uncooked egg mixture below 41°F (5°C)

436 Unit 5 binary Applications

Calories 480 Calories from Fat 32C Total Fat 35 g Saturated Fat 17 g Trans Fat 0g Cholesterol 790 mc Sodium 720mg Total Carbohydrate 4 c Fiber 0 g Sugars 3 g Protein 34 g

Nutrition Notes Do you know how nutritional poultry is? These features can offer you advice on the nutrition in food and how to enhance its value.

^ Nutrition Notes *

### Poultry Nutrition

Poultry is packed with protein. A 3/-ounce roasted chicken breast with skin has about 197 calories, 30 grams of protein, 84 milligrams of cholesterol, and 7.8 grams of fat. CRITICAL THINKING How does poultry fit into a well-rounded diet?

Using Edible Flowers When you add flower petals to a salad, be sure to clean them well. Dirt and insects can hide deep down in the petals and slip unnoticed into the salad.

Small Bites Have you ever wanted to know how to crumb a table, or how to create a new dish for a menu? These handy features offer extra information on cooking techniques, the foodservice industry, equipment and tools, and more.

^ Online Learning Center

Use the Internet to

Follow these steps to access the textbook resources at Culinary Essentials' Online Learning Center.

Online Learning Center Icon Look for this icon throughout the text that directs you to the book's Online Learning Center for more activities and information.

H Graphic Organizer Go to this boolc's ^Ime ^am^ Cente!-at glencoe.com for a printable graphs organizer.

Step 7 Click Student Center to access student resources.