# Section 164 totwi Review Key Concepts

1. Explain how lighting affects the perception of food.

2. Illustrate how product temperature can affect a customer's enjoyment of food.

Practice Culinary Academics ^^ English Language Arts

3. The next time you eat a meal, focus on the sensory properties of the meal: the color, appearance, flavor, and texture. Try to remember how you perceived each property when you ate the meal. Write a description of the meal using details to describe each of the sensory properties.

NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively.

### Social Studies

4. To the Japanese, presentation and sensory properties are very important in a meal. Do some research or interview a chef of Japanese cuisine about how the sensory properties affect the preparation of various Japanese menu items.

How might you apply these practices to your own cooking? Write a one-page report of your research.

NCSS I C Culture Apply an understanding of culture as an integrated whole that explains the functions and interactions of language, literature, the arts, traditions, beliefs and values, and behavior patterns.

^^ Mathematics

5. You would like to place a circle of mashed potatoes in the center of an 11-inch dinner plate so that it covers one-half of the surface area of the plate. What is the diameter of the mashed potatoes?

Area of a Circle Calculate the area {A) of a circle as>l = nr2, where r indicates the radius (or V2 of the diameter) of the circle. Use 3.14 for n.

Starting Hint Calculate the area of the plate as A = (3.14)(5.5)(5.5). Take half of that amount (which is the area of the potatoes), and plug that into the formula as A, and solve for r.

NCTM Geometry Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems.

fi3l Check your answers at this book's Online I^F Learning Center at glencoe.com.

CHAPTER 16

Review and Applications

### Chapter Summary f

Seasonings and flavorings are used to enhance the natural flavor of a food. Spices and flavorings can be added to foods at any time during the cooking process. The most common seasonings are herbs and spices. Other seasonings and flavorings include condiments and nuts. Condiments are flavored sauces that are served with food. Nuts add color, texture, and flavor to food. Evaluate color, appearance, flavor, and texture of food. Foodservice professionals taste a variety of food products to evaluate, or analyze, their characteristics.

1. Arrange the vocabulary terms

Content Vocabulary

• monosodium glutamate (p. 403)

Review Key Concepts below into groups of related words.

2. Describe the varieties and uses of seasonings and flavorings.

3. Compare and contrast the uses and storage for different herbs.

4. Describe the uses and storage for different spices.

5. Describe various condiments and the foods they can accompany.

6. Identify a variety of nuts and seeds.

7. Summarize the three sensory properties of food.

8. Illustrate how sensory factors can affect a customer's enjoyment of food.

Critical Thinking

9. Choose three seasonings that you would use in the preparation of a lamb dish. Explain which three you would choose, and why.

10. Explain why you think some foodservice operations might choose to use dried herbs rather than fresh herbs.

CHAPTER 16

Review and Applications

^^ English Language Arts

11. Evaluate Magazine Articles Locate three magazine articles that focus on seasonings or flavorings. Evaluate each magazine article by answering these questions: what is the intended audience for this article? What is the focus of the article? What kind of information does the article give? What is the writing style of this article? If you were to write an article, what seasoning or flavoring would you choose and what would be the focus?

NCTE 3 Apply strategies to interpret texts.

ijj Science

12. Apples and Onions Your sense of smell plays an important role in how you perceive the flavor of food.

Procedure Get several pieces of cut up apple and onion and a blindfold. With a partner, take turns being blindfolded. While you are blindfolded, pinch your nose and have your partner give you a piece of each food, not revealing which you are getting. Can you tell which is which? Try it again but with your partner holding the food so you can smell it. Can you tell which is which now?

Analysis Write a short summary of your experience, and theorize why the sense of small is so important to the sense of taste.

NSES B Develop an understanding of the structure and properties of matter.

Certification Prep

Mathematics

Calculate Salt Use You are in charge of refilling the salt and pepper shakers at your restaurant. On Monday, you fill an empty 2-ounce salt shaker completely full. The next day, you fill it up again when it is % full. Wednesday, the shaker is % full when you refill it. On Thursday, you fill it again when it is % full. At the end of the week, you refill the shaker when it is ^ full. What is the total amount of salt that you put in the shaker during the week?

Order of Operations If an expression contains multiple operations, you can save time and effort if you perform the operations in a certain order. Perform the operations in this order: Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication and Division, and finally Addition and Subtraction. Within each type of operation, work from left to right. Use the acronym PEMDAS to remember this mnemonic device for order of operations for evaluating math expressions. Starting Hint Each day, you add a fraction of 2 ounces to the shaker. For example, if the shaker is % full, you will add X 2 ounces) of salt to the shaker. Write an expression listing all of the amounts added to the shaker: 2 + (V4 X 2) + (Vs X 2) and so on. Solve within the parentheses first, and convert any fractions to common denominators. Use the PEMDAS order to help you to solve the equations in the expression.

NCTM Number and Operations Understand the meanings of operations and how they relate to one another.

14. What is the shelf life of opened vinegar?

a. 2 weeks c. 3 months b. 1 month d. 1 year

15. What is the first indication of how food will taste?

a. appearance c. texture b. aroma d. flavor

### Test-Taking Tip

If the test is timed, you may have a tendency to rush. If you go too fast, you may lose focus or miss something. Take your time, but keep an eye on the clock.

CHAPTER 16

Review and Applications

Real-World Skills and Applications

### Critical Thinking Skills

16. Replace Salt Think of five dishes to which you normally add salt, either during or after preparation. Now, think of other seasonings, flavorings, or condiments that could be added to the dish instead of salt that would improve the flavor without adding sodium. Make a list of the dishes and substituting that you find. Discuss your possible answers as a class.

### Interpersonal and Collaborative Skills

17. Create a Recipe Collection Gather five recipes that use different seasonings and flavorings. The seasonings and flavorings can be used during or after preparation. As a class, divide each recipe into categories of herbs, spices, condiments, and seeds and nuts. Some recipes may fit in more than one category. Write down the recipes in a standard format. Then, create a classroom recipe file for the recipes you have gathered.

### Technology Applications

18. Make a Spreadsheet Using spreadsheet software, make a chart listing the different seasonings and flavorings in the chapter and some potential uses for each. Include columns for the type (seasoning or flavoring), how it works, what foods it might enhance, and the page number it is found on in this book. Divide the spreadsheet into categories so that you can easily locate the type of item you wish to use. Turn in a copy of your spreadsheet to your teacher. You may wish to combine the spreadsheets as a class.

Financial Literacy

19. Purchase Spices 20 ounces of Chinese

5 Spice Powder costs \$20 from your supplier. The ingredients are: cinnamon (\$5.00), star anise (\$5.00), anise seed (\$3.00), ginger (\$5.00), and cloves (\$6.00). How much money will you save by purchasing the blend rather than purchasing each ingredient individually?

Culinary Lab

Continue reading here: Herbs and Spices in Action