Sanitation Check

v) Avoid Contamination

Never apply an egg wash to a product that has already been baked. The egg will remain uncooked, presenting the risk of salmonella bacteria.

CRITICAL THINKING When should you apply an egg wash to the product?

and longer baking times generally yield a darker crust color than lower temperatures and shorter baking times. An egg wash can add color to a crust that must be baked at a low temperature or for a short time. Egg washes should never be added to baked goods after baking. This can create a potential for foodborne illness, and will make the baked product soggy. Formulas will list the ideal oven temperature and baking time. Slight adjustments may be necessary. Appropriate placement of pans in the oven is also important. Air and heat must be allowed to circulate freely around the pans. This can be accomplished by placing pans at the appropriate distance from the heating element. Crowding the oven slows baking time and results in unevenly baked items.

Baking with Steam

Breads with thin, crispy crusts, such as French and Italian loaves, benefit from the addition of steam to the oven during baking. The steam keeps the crumb soft while adding a glossy shine to the surface. As the sugars in the crust caramelize, a thin, crispy crust is formed.

Some bakery ovens are equipped to inject a desired amount of steam into the oven for several seconds depending on the type of bread and the formula. In ovens without steam injectors, a pan can be added with just enough water so the water evaporates during the early stages of baking.

Stages of Baking

As yeast dough products bake, their internal temperatures rise. Each of the four stages of the baking process contributes to the final product.

Oven Spring

During the first five minutes of baking, the dough suddenly rises and expands as the yeast reacts to the heat of the oven. This final leavening effort, occurring before internal temperatures become hot enough to kill the yeast cells, is called oven spring.

Steam injection helps achieve oven spring. Oven spring will not occur if there is too much salt or not enough yeast in the dough or if the dough was overproofed. At this early stage, the dough is very soft and will collapse if touched.

Structure Develops

As the internal temperature rises from 130°F (54°C), starch granules in the dough begin to absorb moisture and swell up. At 150°F (66°C), the starches gel and become the final structure of the bread. At 165°F (74°C), the gluten begins to dry out and coagulate as the starch gel replaces it. The crumb is formed during this stage.

Crust Forms

At 165°F (74°C), the crust begins to form as the starches and sugar on the surface of the dough brown and thicken. The product will appear done at this stage, but additional baking time is needed to evaporate the alcohol given off by the yeast. Yeast products removed from the oven too early will not taste right.

Finished Product

By the time the internal temperature has reached 176°F (80°C), the alcohol will have evaporated. Finished products have an internal temperature of approximately 220°F (104°C).

Test for Doneness

A gauge of whether a product is done is the thump test. Tap the top of the loaf. If the loaf gives off a hollow sound, indicating that it is filled with air and not moisture, it is done. Watch rolls and small loaves carefully, as their bottom surfaces may burn before the crust color develops fully.

Another way to test for doneness is to look at the crust. If it is evenly brown on top and bottom, it is done. Figure 27.3 explains some common problems when baking yeast dough.

IllliUl*iIil!^Summarize what happens during oven spring?

Continue reading here: Cooling Storage and Serving

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