# Safety Check

Burned by Steam

Take special care when you remove the lids from pots or containers that may have steam trapped inside. Always tip the lid open by lifting it away from your hand and body. Steam is at least 212°F (100°C) and can cause severe burns. CRITICAL THINKING Why do you think the steam is so hot?

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Review Key Concepts

1. Explain how to blanch foods.

2. Describe the braising process.

3. Procedure Browning occurs in meat when it is cooked at high heat. Cook two pieces of meat. Sear one piece, and use another cooking technique on the second piece that does not involve searing.

Analysis Compare the flavor of the seared meat with the other meat. Create a chart to record observations about the appearance and flavor. Write a short summary of why you think meat is browned before stewing or braising.

NSES B Develop an understanding of interactions of energy and matter.

### English Language Arts

4. Create a poster to illustrate the process of braising foods. Use drawings and text to display each step in the process. Display your posters in the classroom.

i i NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes.

### Mathematics

5. Gina can cook basmati rice 3V2 times faster in her pressure cooker than in a regular pot. If rice normally cooks in 20 minutes, what is the cooking time in the pressure cooker (to the nearest second)?

^^^^^ Working with Time To convert decimal minutes (such as 12.43) into minutes and seconds, keep the whole number portion (as minutes), and multiply the decimal portion by 60 (which represents the seconds).

Starting Hint Find the new cooking time by dividing 20 minutes by 3 //. Convert any decimal portion of your answer into seconds by multiplying it by 60. Round to the nearest second.

NCTM Problem Solving Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.

CHAPTER 15

Review and Applications

### Chapter Summary f

There are three different cooking techniques: dry, moist, and combination cooking. The cooking technique, temperature, and cooking time affect nutritive value, texture, color, aroma, and flavor. Dry techniques include baking, roasting, sauteing, stir-frying, pan-frying, deep-frying, grilling, and broiling. Moist cooking techniques include boiling, simmering, poaching, and steaming. Combination cooking techniques include braising and stewing.

1. Create multiple-choice test questions for each content and academic vocabulary term.

Content Vocabulary

• wok (p. 384)

• parboiling (p. 390)

• dry cooking technique (p. 376)

• frying (p. 384)

• simmering (p. 391)

• evaporate (p. 376)

• dredging (p. 384)

• reduce (p. 391)

• moist cooking technique (p. 376)

• poach (p. 391)

• combination cooking (p. 376)

• batter (p. 384)

• steaming (p. 391)

• coagulate (p. 378)

• heat lamp (p. 384)

• braising (p. 392)

• pigment (p. 378)

• pan-fry (p. 384)

• deglaze (p. 392)

• caramelization (p. 379)

• deep-fried (p. 385)

• stewing (p. 394)

• bake (p. 382)

• recovery time (p. 386)

• carryover cooking (p. 382)

• grilling (p. 386)

• smoking (p. 382)

• griddle (p. 386)

• subject (p. 378)

• roasting (p. 383)

• broiling (p. 387)

• enhance (p. 379)

• sear (p. 383)

• boiling (p. 389)

• effect (p. 382)

• basting (p. 383)

• boiling point (p. 389)

• delicate (p. 384)

• open-spit roast (p. 383)

• convection (p. 389)

• submerged (p. 389)

• sauteing (p. 384)

• blanching (p. 390)

• extracted (p. 392)

• stir-frying (p. 384)

• shocking (p. 390)

2. Compare and contrast different cooking methods.

3. Explain how cooking affects a food's nutritive value, texture, color, aroma, and flavor.

4. Demonstrate dry cooking techniques.

5. Demonstrate moist cooking techniques.

6. Describe combination cooking techniques.

### Critical Thinking

7. Imagine that a coworker has cooked a meal. The piece of cooked meat is tough and grayish-brown color, and the vegetables are limp and colorless. What has gone wrong during cooking?

8. Explain how you should prepare an extra-lean pork loin roast to avoid it becoming dry and tasteless.

9. Imagine that a food critic is coming to your restaurant. What would you tell your staff about cooking to ensure good flavor, nutritive value, texture, color, and aroma?

10. Describe the advantages of having a variety of cooking techniques on a restaurant menu. Is it possible to have too many techniques represented?

Chapter 15 Cooking Techniques 395

CHAPTER 15

Review and Applications

^^ English Language Arts

11. Interpret Cooling Methods Obtain a cookbook or a cooking magazine that has at least 10 recipes. Read through the book or magazine and review the recipes. Choose 10 recipes and identify the cooking techniques used in each. For each recipe, list the cooking technique, whether it is moist or dry, and how you think the technique will affect the dish's color, texture, aroma, and flavor.

NCTE 3 Apply strategies to interpret texts.

Social Studies

Equipment Advances Choose one cooking technique and conduct research to discover how the equipment used for that cooking method has changed over time. Create a time line with brief descriptions of the changes in the equipment used. How has the changing equipment improved that cooking technique?

NCSS VIII B Science, Technology, and Society Make judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society.

Mathematics

, Fill a Fryer Oscar has just purchased a new deep fryer for his restaurant. The fryer holds 60 pounds of cooking oil. But Oscar's containers of cooking oil on hand were measured in volume (gallons), not weight. If the oil has a density of 7.5 pounds per gallon at room temperature, and a 4-gallon container of oil costs Oscar \$38.75, how much will it cost to fill up the fryer?

tfBH^fflSE Weight vs. Volume A liquid's weight and volume are related to each other by a concept called density, which is the ratio of its weight to its volume at a particular temperature. Use the formula weight = density X volume. Starting Hint First, determine the total volume of oil that Oscar will need by rearranging the formula above to solve for volume. Use the total weight and density given in the problem. Then, find the number of containers that Oscar will need by dividing the total volume by 4. Multiply the number of containers by the cost per container.

NCTM Problem Solving Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.

Certification Prep

14. Which of the following uses a combination cooking technique?

a. braise b. stir-fry c. poach d. grill

15. At what temperature does water begin to boil?

Test-Taking Tip

Building your vocabulary will help you take tests. Practice new vocabulary and concepts with other students until you understand them all.

CHAPTER 15

Review and Applications

Real-World Skills and Applications

### Self-Management Skills

16. Work with Time Constraints Imagine that you have only 30 minutes to prepare a meal. Your main ingredient will be chicken. What cooking methods could you use to prepare the chicken in time? Which methods would retain the most nutritional value? What could you add to the meal to increase its nutritional value? Write a one-page report to describe your cooking method choices.

### Communication Skills

17. Watch a Cooking Show Watch a cooking show. Look for the particular cooking technique that the host uses. Take notes on what the host is doing and what you learned about that technique from the show. Give a five-minute oral presentation to the class to explain what you learned about the cooking technique. Turn in your notes to your teacher.

### Technology Applications

18. Create a Web Site As a class, plan and design a Web site that explains the different cooking methods. Make sure it contains basic instructions for each method. If possible, create recipes for a few or all of the techniques that you describe on the Web site. You may also want to photograph the steps of the techniques to illustrate the instructions.

### Financial Literacy

19. Cost Ingredients Ordering chicken precooked will cost you \$3 per pound of chicken. Ordering uncooked chicken and having the staff cook it will cost you \$2 per pound, including labor. How much money will you save having the staff cook the chicken if you need 25 pounds?

Culinary Lab

Cook a Meal

Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.

Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.

20. Use Cooking Techniques Working in teams, during this lab you will prepare a three-course meal that involves dry, moist, and combination cooking techniques.

A. Chooseyour courses. Follow your teacher's instructions to form teams. As a team, determine which five menu items you will prepare, and which cooking technique you will use for each food item. When you choose cooking techniques, consider nutritive value, texture, color, aroma, flavor, appearance, and cooking time.

B. Gather ingredients. Determine the list of ingredients needed to prepare the menu items. Gather those ingredients at your work station.

C. Make a schedule. Develop a workflow and preparation time schedule for team members to follow when they prepare menu items.

D. Cookand serve your meal. Once your schedule is set, cookyour menu items and serve the meal to the other teams. On a piece of paper, create a rating chart to evaluate each team's meal.

Create a chart to evaluate food items for texture, color, aroma, flavor, and appearance. Use this scale: 1 = Poor; 2 = Fair; 3 = Good; 4 = Great Discuss amongst yourselves and then with the class how each item rated in the different categories and which technique produced the best food.

CHAPTER 16

 Sea Fla soni vorir ngs and igs SECTIONS ,, — r:---1 s r k - T"HpB

16.2 Herbs and Spices

16.3 Condiments, Nuts, and Seeds

16.4 Sensory Perception

### Essay Outline

Most writing assignments will require you to gather information. Choose one herb and research it in print resources and on the Internet. Highlight information that you feel is important. Then, create an outline for an essay.

Writing Tips

^^ Use an Internet search engine, library catalog, or speak to a librarian to begin your search.

^ Evaluate each source to determine how reliable it is.

^^ Choose information that will fit into your basic structure.

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EXPLORE THE PHOTO

There are many different seasonings and flavorings you can use to enhance the flavor of food. What seasonings and flavorings can you name?

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