Rolled Cookies

Chill the dough for rolled cookies after mixing. Using as little flour as possible, roll out the dough to Va-inch thickness.

Use cookie cutters to cut out the cookies. To minimize the amount of wasted dough, cut the cookies as close together as possible. The dough can be rolled and cut twice. The scrap left over after the second cutting should be discarded because it will make tough cookies.

^ Place cookies on a parchment-lined baking sheet and bake.

^ J FIGURE 29.1 Cookie Dough Troubleshooting

' Cookie Problems Measurements for cookie ingredients must be as exact as measurements for other types of baked goods. What might be the problem if your cookies do not spread properly?

Cookie Dough Errors ; Spreading : Crumbly : Hard ; Dry : Lack of Spread

Poorly mixed z z z z z

Too little sugar Too much sugar z

Too little flour Too much flour z z z z

Too much leavening Too much baking soda z z

Not enough eggs Too much shortening z z

Bar Cookies

These cookies are made from dough that has been shaped into long bars, baked, and then cut. Popular bar cookies are hermits, coconut bars, and fruit bars. Biscotti are bar cookies that are baked, sliced, and then baked again.

Baking and Cooling Cookies

Always use clean pans that are not warped for baking cookies. A warped pan has become slightly less flat because of excessive heat and use. Lining the pans with parchment paper keeps cookies from sticking to the pan. It also allows for even browning. (Figure 29.1 on page 752 offers troubleshooting tips for baking cookies.)

The heat from the pan that continues to bake the cookies once they are removed from the oven is called carryover baking. It is better to slightly under bake cookies. To prevent burning the bottoms or edges of cookies before they are done, double pan them by

Use Basic Cookie Mixes It can be more cost-effective to use a basic cookie mix as the foundation for several types of cookies. Some mixes require the addition of liquid only. Others may require liquid, fat, and eggs.

placing the sheet pan inside a second pan of the same size. This double-pan technique is recommended for rich dough. When you bake two sheets at one time on separate oven racks, reverse them halfway through the baking process. This ensures even baking.

Cookies are done when the bottoms and edges turn light golden brown. Be sure not to remove cookies from the pans until they are firm enough to handle.


What are the five different types of cookies?


Review Key Concepts

1. Explain what gives a chewy cookie its chewy texture.

2. Describe how to cool cookies.

Practice Culinary Academics ^^ English Language Arts

3. Imagine that you run a bakery and that you will offer five different kinds of cookies. Create a display card for each type of cookie. Give the name of the cookies, and describe them in a way that is informative and appealing to a potential customer.

NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes.

Social Studies

NCSS I A Culture Analyze and explain the ways groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns.

^^ Mathematics

5. Serena is a baker at a local bakery. She is making rolled cookies for a party. Serena uses a circular cutter that is 2 ^ inches in diameter to cut cookies from rolled dough. After baking, each cookie's diameter is 3 inches. By what amount did the circumference of each cookie increase during baking?

^^^^^^^^ Circumference The distance around a circle is known as the circle's circumference. Calculate circumference (C) as C = nd, where d = the circle's diameter and n = 3.14. Starting Hint Using d = 2.5 inches in the above formula, calculate the circumference of a raw cookie. Subtract that from the circumference of a baked cookie, using d = 3 inches.

4. Cookies have a varied history. Some have interesting origination stories. Research one type of cookie. Determine where the cookie originated from and how it was originally created. Write a report on your chosen cookie.

NCTM Measurement Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements.

B Check your answers at this book's Online Learning Center at

B Check your answers at this book's Online Learning Center at


Successful cakes make a beautiful addition to any special occasion.



Reading Guide

Before You Read

Use Color As you read this section, try using different colored pens to take notes. This can help you learn new material and study for tests. You could use red for vocabulary words, blue for explanations, and green for examples.


Read to Learn

Key Concepts

• Differentiate between different types of cakes and their ingredients.

• Summarize how to mix, prepare, bake, and ice cakes.

Main Idea

There are five types of layer cakes that are distinguished by their mixing methods. To make a successful cake, you must know how to scale and pan it properly.

Content Vocabulary

• high-fat cake

• meringue

• low-fat cake

• high-ratio

• pound cake

layer cake

• sponge cake

j Italian

• emulsified



• fondant

• genoise

• Swiss

• angel food cake


• chiffon cake

• simple syrup

Academic Vocabulary

Graphic Organizer

Use a herringbone organizer like the one here to list the five types of cakes.

English Language Arts

NCTE 5 Use different writing process elements to communicate effectively.

J Mathematics

NCTM Geometry

Analyze characteristics of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships.

NCTM Number and Operations Understand the meanings of operations and how they related to one another.


NSESB Develop an understanding of chemical reactions.

NCTE National Council of Teachers of English

NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSES National Science Education Standards

NCSS National Council for the Social Studies

Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at for a printable graphic organizer.

Customers often look forward to something sweet, such as cake, for the end to a good meal. Cakes are made of eggs, flour, sugar, fat, leavening, and flavorings. They can be elaborate, like multi-layered tortes, or combined with other desserts, like ice cream cake. This section introduces different types of cakes and how to make them.

Cake Ingredients

Cake ingredients either weaken or strengthen a cake's structure and determine its texture, moisture, and sweetness. For example, sugar and fat, used in the right amounts, help weaken cake structure and give the cake tenderness. On the other hand, eggs and flour both have proteins that, when they are baked, join together to give the cake support.

The starch in flour also helps stabilize, or support, the cake by absorbing liquid when it is mixed. Liquid, such as milk or water, forms gluten when it combines with flour. When mixed, gluten gives structural support to the cake.

High-Fat Cakes

A high-fat cake generally uses baking powder as its leavening agent. High-fat cakes, such as butter cake, also require that air cells be creamed into the center of the fat cell. The air cells then pick up the leavening gases that the heat of the oven releases.

Low-Fat Cakes

A low-fat cake, such as sponge cake, is leavened from air that is whipped into the egg batter. These cakes have a light and springy texture. This makes them a good choice for desserts such as a torte that has many layers with cream and fruit between them. A torte is a cake that uses a large amount of eggs, and sometimes ground nuts or bread crumbs as well as flour.

Pound Cakes

The pound cake's origin can be traced back to England. A pound cake contains a pound each of butter, flour, sugar, and eggs. The butter pound cake is a familiar example, and is considered to be the basis for all layer cakes.

^Cake Textures Cakes come in a variety of pleasing textures and flavors. What do you notice about these cakes' textures?

Continue reading here: An Angel Food Cake

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