Review and Applications

Real-World Skills and Applications

Interpersonal and Collaborative Skills

16. Coordinate Jobs As a class, choose a simple meal to prepare. Your teacher will assign you to work stations. As a group, coordinate responsibilities with those of the other work stations before beginning preparation. Then, prepare your meal, working together while manning each separate work station.

Critical Thinking Skills

17. Make a List List the characteristics of a well-designed professional foodservice kitchen and give reasons for each characteristic you choose. What makes that a feature of a well-designed kitchen? What benefit does that characteristic provide? Discuss your answers as a class.

Technology Applications

18. Design a Kitchen Use a graphic design or desktop publishing program to design the cooking line of a professional kitchen. Decide which setup you will use according to the information in this chapter, and then use the program to place and label the cooking equipment.

Financial Literacy

19. Calculate Depreciation Depreciation is a loss of value of a piece of equipment. Foodservice equipment has a useful life of seven years. Useful life means the length of time it can depreciate before it has no value. If a stove costs $5,000 when it is purchased new, how much value will it lose each year?

Culinary Lab

Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.

Commercial Kitchen Design

20. Design a Kitchen Use a sample menu to design a commercial kitchen. Consider the equipment needed to prepare the menu and the flow of work during the preparation process.

A. Createyour menu. Create a simple breakfast menu with three dishes. Determine the type of tasks that will need to be performed, the type of equipment needed, and the work stations needed to complete the dishes on the menu.

B. Choose your equipment. Select the appropriate commercial equipment from the features in this chapter.

C. Makeyour sketch. Create a sketch of the kitchen, showing work stations and the cooking line. You may use the cooking line you created for question number 18.

D. Label equipment. Label each piece of equipment on your sketch.

E. Adjust your design. Review your design and make any adjustments needed. Check that it is complete.

Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.

Create Your Evaluation

Evaluate each restaurant design by answering the following questions and explaining your answers: • Was the right amount of equipment selected?

Did the designer allow enough work space?

How did the cooking line affect work flow?


Knives and Smallwares

Section 10.1 Knives Section 10.2 Smallwares ctWvVi


A paragraph is a group of sentences that develop one central idea. Write a paragraph describing one type of knife and its main uses. Include a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and an ending sentence.

Writing Tips

^^ Focus on the main idea of your paragraph.

^^ Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning.

^^ Use the dictionary to help you find additional words.


Knives and smallwares are important tools in any professional kitchen. Why is it important to know how to choose, care for, and use knives?

Learn to use, clean, and sharpen knives safely.



Reading Guide

Stay Engaged One way to stay engaged when reading is to turn each of the headings into a question, and then read the section to find the answers. For example, Knife Safety and Care might be, "How can I use knives safely?"

Content Vocabulary

Read to Learn

Key Concepts

• Categorize knives by their specific tasks.

• Demonstrate basic knife skills.

• Explain proper knife safety and storage.

Main Idea

Knives are the most commonly used kitchen tools. Therefore, it is important for a chef to know the construction, use, and maintenance of knives.

Graphic Organizer

Use a spider map like the one below to list the five parts of a knife. Fill in each branch with details about that part of a knife.


stainless steel

• diagonal



• roll cut



• julienne



• batonnet



• brunoise






• trueing



• transfer

U Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at for a printable graphic organizer.

Application Math Cooking

tJ Mathematics

NCTM Geometry Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems.

NCTM Number and Operations Understand the meanings of operations and how they relate to one another.


NSESF Students should develop an understanding of personal and community health.

Social Studies

NCSS II BTime, Continuity, and Change

Apply key concepts such as chronology and change to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity.

NCTE National Council of Teachers of English

NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSES National Science Education Standards

NCSS National Council for the Social Studies

Knife Construction

Knives are the most commonly used kitchen tools. They are an important part of any chef's tool kit. A kitchen tool is an implement that is used in the kitchen. Accomplished chefs can perform countless valuable tasks with a sharp knife. To perform these tasks, however, chefs must be familiar with knife construction and type. They must also use proper cutting techniques and knife safety. Finally, chefs must know how to care for knives properly so that they will last.

To know which knife to use for a specific task, you must have a working knowledge of the different parts of a knife.


The blade of a high-quality, professional knife is made of a single piece of metal. The metal has been cut, stamped, or forged into the desired shape. The metals most often used for the knife blade are stainless steel and highcarbon stainless steel.

Stainless steel is a hard, durable metal made of chromium and carbon steel. It does not rust or discolor. Stainless steel also will not transfer, or pass to foods, a metallic taste. The main drawback is that it is hard to sharpen.

High-carbon stainless steel is a mix of iron, carbon, chromium, and other metals. This metal combines the best features of stainless steel and carbon steel, but it is expensive.

High-carbon stainless steel does not rust or discolor and can be sharpened easily. This is the most common metal used for knives in the professional kitchen. Tang

The tang is the part of the blade that continues into the knife's handle. Some knives have full tangs, while others have partial tangs. A full tang is as long as the whole knife handle. Knives used for heavy work, such as chef's knives and cleavers, should have a full tang. Knives used for lighter work, such as paring knives and utility knives, may have a partial tang.


Knife handles can be made of several types of material, including plastic, vinyl, and hard woods such as rosewood and walnut. Because you will hold the knife for long periods of time, the handle should feel comfortable in your hand. Your hand may cramp from using a handle that is either too small or too large. Manufacturers make various sizes of handles. Try different sizes to find one that fits.


The tang is attached to the knife handle with rivets. A rivet is a metal fastener. For comfort and sanitation, the rivets should be smooth and lie flush with the handle's surface.

Bolster or



Bolster or



Cutting edge


^J Parts of a Knife Knives used for heavy work should have a tang that runs the entire length of the handle. Why do you think this is?

Cutting edge


^J Parts of a Knife Knives used for heavy work should have a tang that runs the entire length of the handle. Why do you think this is?

Boning Tournée Paring

Boning Tournée Paring





Types of Knives Chefs use a variety of knives in the kitchen for different tasks. Which knife would you choose to cut bread slices?


Some knives have a shank, or bolster, in the spot where the blade and handle come together. Knives with a bolster are very strong and durable. The bolster helps prevent food particles from entering the space between the tang and the handle.

Types of Knives

A chef chooses knives according to the type of food that she or he is preparing. For example, chopping onions requires a different knife than one used for slicing bread.

Chef's Knife

The chef's knife, also called a French knife, is the most important knife in the chef's tool kit. This all-purpose knife has an 8- to 14-inch triangular blade. It can be used for peeling, trimming, chopping, slicing, and dicing. The 10-inch chef's knife is used for general work in a commercial kitchen. A skilled chef can also use this knife to cut large foods, such as meat, poultry, and fish, into smaller pieces. A smaller knife, but similar in shape to a chef's knife, is the utility knife. A utility knife is an all-purpose knife with a 5- to 7-inch blade. It is used mainly for peeling and slicing fruits and vegetables.

Gourmet Math

Drawing and Cutting Angles

When two straight lines have the same endpoint, they form an angle. The size of an angle is measured in degrees, and written as a number between 0 and 360 followed by the degree (°) symbol. Common reference angles are 0°, 45°, 90°, and 180°. Angles measuring 0° and 180° are straight lines. A 90° angle is a right angle, and a 45° angle is halfway between a straight line and a right angle.

In cooking, angle measures are often used to help you visualize how to hold a knife. Sketch a 10° angle and a 60° angle on a piece of paper, and practice cutting each of these angles on a raw potato.

^^^^^ Measuring Angles Use a protractor to measure angles. If you do not have a protractor, you can estimate the degrees by picturing the common reference angles. Starting Hint If you have a protractor, use it to draw exact 10° and 60° angles. You can also estimate the appearance of these angles without a protractor. A 10° angle is very small, while a 60° angle is two-thirds of the way between a straight line and a right (90°) angle.

NCTM Geometry Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems.

A Taste of History


British troops capture New Amsterdam and rename it New York


King Louis XIV of France decrees that all dinner knife points be ground down to reduce violence

A Most Useful Tool

Knives are some of man's oldest tools. The earliest knives, used approximately 2 million years ago, were made of flint. Much later in history, man began to make knives from copper and bronze. In the early 1900s, advancements in steel manufacturing led to the development of the knives that are used in professional kitchens today.

Historical Application

Create a time line that traces the history of the knife, starting with a picture of an early knife. Finish with a picture of a modern chef's knife and label its parts.

NCSS II B Time, Continuity, and Change Apply key concepts such as chronology and change to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity.

Tournée Knife

Similar in size to the paring knife, the tournée (tùr-'nâ) knife has a curved blade that looks like a bird's beak. It is used to trim potatoes and vegetables into shapes that look like footballs.

Fillet Knife

The fillet knife has an 8- to 9-inch blade with a pointed tip. The blade may be rigid or flexible. It is mainly used to fillet fish.

Butcher Knife

The butcher knife has a 6- to 14-inch rigid blade whose tip curves up at a 25-degree angle. It is sometimes called a scimitar (lsi-m9-,tar) because its curved blade resembles a saber by that name. You can use the butcher knife to cut meat, poultry, and fish.

I Define What is a paring knife?


The slicer has a long, thin blade that is ideal for cutting large foods such as meat and poultry. The tip of this knife may be pointed or rounded. The blade may be rigid or flexible. The slicer's blade may also be serrated (ss-'rat-ed), meaning that it is toothed like a saw. You can use a serrated slicer to slice coarse foods without crushing or tearing them.

Boning Knife

A small knife with a thin, angled 5- to 7-inch blade, the boning knife is used to remove bones from meat, fish, and poultry and trim fat from meat. The blade may be rigid or flexible. Rigid blades are used for heavier work. Flexible blades are used for lighter work.

Paring Knife

The paring knife has a rigid blade that is only 2 to 4 inches long. You can use this knife to pare a thin outer layer or peel from fruits and vegetables. To pare means to trim off.

Knife Skills

One of the most important skills you will learn is how to use a knife properly. You will use a knife to perform many different tasks, from boning fish to paring fruits, slicing bread, and dicing or mincing vegetables. The more you practice, the more efficient you will become.

You can grip a knife in several different ways. Comfort and the task at hand will help you determine which grip to use. As a general rule, grip the knife firmly but not so tightly that your hand gets tired. Avoid placing your index finger on the top of the blade.

To make safe, even cuts, you need to guide the knife with one hand while you hold the food firmly in place with the other hand. Curl the fingertips on the hand that holds the food. This will help you avoid accidental cuts. Use the sharp edge of the blade to do the cutting. A sharp knife is the safest knife to use. Use smooth, even strokes, and never force the blade through the food. Report dull knives to a supervisor for sharpening.

a Knife

Grip the knife by placing four fingers on the bottom of the handle and the thumb firmly against back of the blade.

firmly against back of the blade.

Knife Cuts

It is important to cut foods into uniform pieces, or pieces that are even in shape and size, so that they cook evenly. Uniform sizes also make the finished product more visually appealing. When you use a properly sharpened knife, you can avoid bruising foods such as onions and tomatoes. The basic cutting techniques include slicing, mincing, and dicing. You can also roughly chop foods when visual appeal is not important, such as for stock vegtables. A rough chopped item, often vegetables, is called concassé.


When you slice food, you will use a chef's knife to cut it into large, thin pieces. To slice safely, make sure the flat side of the food is down so that it will not slip. If necessary, cut a piece of the food to create a flat surface. You can make many different specialty slices

Grip the knife by placing four fingers on the bottom of the handle and the thumb against the side of the blade.

^ Grip the knife by placing three fingers on the bottom of the handle, the index finger flat against the blade on one side, and the thumb on the other side. This grip offers extra control and stability.

Chiffonade To chiffonade (,shi-f9-'nad)

means to finely slice or shred leafy vegetables or herbs. This cut is often used to make certain garnishes.

Rondelle A rondelle (ran-'del), or round, is a disk-shaped slice. Rondelles are made from cylindrical fruits or vegetables, such as cucumbers or carrots.

Diagonal A diagonal cut results in an oval or elongated slice of a cylindrical fruit or vegetable. The technique used to slice a diagonal is similar to the one used for a rondelle except that you must hold the knife at an angle to get an oval-shaped slice.

Roll Cut A roll cut, or oblique cut, is done by first cutting a cylindrical fruit or vegetable as for a diagonal cut, rolling the fruit or vegetable by 180 degrees, and then doing another diagonal cut. This exposes more of the surface of the vegetable to decrease cooking time.

Continue reading here: Safely

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