Prepare for Academic Success

By improving your academic skills, you improve your ability to learn and achieve success now and in the future. It also improves your chances of landing a high-skill, high-wage job. The features and assessments in Culinary Essentials provide many opportunities for you to strengthen your academic skills

National English Language Arts Standards

To help incorporate literacy skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) into Culinary Essentials, each section contains a listing of the language arts skills covered. These skills have been developed into standards by the National Council of Teachers of English and International Reading Association.

• Read texts to acquire new information.

• Read literature to build an understanding of the human experience.

• Apply strategies to interpret texts.

• Use written language to communicate effectively.

• Use different writing process elements to communicate effectively.

• Conduct research and gather, evaluate, and synthesize data to communicate discoveries.

• Use information resources to gather information and create and communicate knowledge.

• Develop an understanding of diversity in language use across cultures.

• Participate as members of literacy communities.

• Use language to accomplish individual purposes.

National Academic Standards

National Math Standards

You also have opportunities to practice math skills indicated by standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.*

• Data Analysis and Probability

• Geometry

• Measurement

• Number and Operations

• Problem Solving

• Standards are listed with the permission of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). NCTM does not endorse the content or validity of these alignments.

National Science Standards

The National Science Education Standards outline these science skills that you can practice in this text.

• Science as Inquiry

• Physical Science

• Life Science

• Earth and Space Science

• Science and Technology

• Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

• History and Nature of Science

National Social Studies Standards

The National Council for the Social Studies is another organization that provides standards to help guide your studies. Activities in this text relate to these standards.

• Time, Continuity, and Change

• People, Places, and Environments

• Individual Development and Identity

• Individuals, Groups, and Institutions

• Power, Authority, and Governance

• Production, Distribution, and Consumption

• Science, Technology, and Society

• Global Connections

• Civic Ideals and Practices

What role does reading play in your life? The possibilities are countless. Are you on a sports team? Perhaps you like to read about the latest news and statistics in sports or find out about new training techniques. Are you looking for a part-time job? You might be looking for advice about résumé writing, interview techniques, or information about a company. Are you enrolled in an English class, an algebra class, or a business class? Then your assignments require a lot of reading.

Improving or Fine-Tuning Your Reading Skills Will:

♦ Improve your grades.

♦ Allow you to read faster and more efficiently.

♦ Improve your study skills.

♦ Help you remember more information accurately.

♦ Improve your writing.

^The Reading Process

Good reading skills build on one another, overlap, and spiral around in much the same way that a winding staircase goes around and around while leading you to a higher place. This handbook is designed to help you find and use the tools you will need before, during, and after reading.

Strategies You Can Use

Identify, understand, and learn

Take breaks while you read and ask

new words.

yourself questions about the text.

Understand why you read.

Take notes.

Take a quick look at the whole text.

Keep thinking about what will

Try to predict what you are about

come next.

to read.

Summarize.

^Vocabulary Development

Word identification and vocabulary skills are the building blocks of the reading and the writing process. By learning to use a variety of strategies to build your word skills and vocabulary, you will become a stronger reader.

Use Context to Determine Meaning

The best way to expand and extend your vocabulary is to read widely, listen carefully, and participate in a rich variety of discussions. When reading on your own, though, you can often figure out the meanings of new words by looking at their context, the other words and sentences that surround them.

Tips for Using Context

Look for clues like these:

♦ A synonym or an explanation of the unknown word in the sentence: Elise's shop specialized in millinery, or hats for women.

♦ A reference to what the word is or is not like:

An archaeologist, like a historian, deals with the past.

♦ A general topic associated with the word:

The cooking teacher discussed the best way to braise meat.

♦ A description or action associated with the word: He used the shovel to dig up the garden.

Predict a Possible Meaning

Another way to determine the meaning of a word is to take the word apart.

If you understand the meaning of the base, or root, part of a word, and also know the meanings of key syllables added either to the beginning or end of the base word, you can usually figure out what the word means.

Word Origins Since Latin, Greek, and Anglo-Saxon roots are the basis for much of our English vocabulary, having some background in languages can be a useful vocabulary tool. For example, astronomy comes from the Greek root astro, which means "relating to the stars." Stellar also has a meaning referring to stars, but its origin is Latin. Knowing root words in other languages can help you determine meanings, derivations, and spellings in English.

Prefixes and Suffixes A prefix is a word part that can be added to the beginning of a word. For example, the prefix semi means "half" or "partial," so semicircle means "half a circle." A suffix is a word part that can be added to the end of a word. Adding a suffix often changes a word from one part of speech to another.

Using Dictionaries A dictionary provides the meaning or meanings of a word. Look at the sample dictionary entry on the next page to see what other information it provides.

Thesauruses and Specialized Reference Books A thesaurus provides synonyms and often antonyms. It is a useful tool to expand your vocabulary. Remember to check the exact definition of the listed words in a dictionary before you use a thesaurus. Specialized dictionaries such as Barron's Dictionary of Business Terms or Black's Law Dictionary list terms and expressions that are not commonly included in a general dictionary. You can also use online dictionaries.

Glossaries Many textbooks and technical works contain condensed dictionaries that provide an alphabetical listing of words used in the text and their specific definitions.

Dictionary Entry

Reading Skills Handbook

Reading Skills Handbook

Dictionary Entry

Recognize Word Meanings Across Subjects Have you learned a new word in one class and then noticed it in your reading for other subjects? The word might not mean exactly the same thing in each class, but you can use the meaning you already know to help you understand what it means in another subject area. For example:

Math Each digit represents a different place value.

Health Your values can guide you in making healthful decisions.

Economics The value of a product is measured in its cost.

^ Understanding What You Read

Reading comprehension means understanding—deriving meaning from— what you have read. Using a variety of strategies can help you improve your comprehension and make reading more interesting and more fun.

Read for a Reason

To get the greatest benefit from your reading, establish a purpose for reading. In school, you have many reasons for reading, such as:

• to learn and understand new information.

• to find specific information.

• to complete an assignment.

• to prepare (research) before you write.

As your reading skills improve, you will notice that you apply different strategies to fit the different purposes for reading. For example, if you are reading for entertainment, you might read quickly, but if you read to gather information or follow directions, you might read more slowly, take notes, construct a graphic organizer, or reread sections of text.

Draw on Personal Background

Drawing on personal background may also be called activating prior knowledge. Before you start reading a text, ask yourself questions like these:

• What have I heard or read about this topic?

• Do I have any personal experience relating to this topic?

Using a K-W-L Chart A K-W-L chart is a good device for organizing information you gather before, during, and after reading. In the first column, list what you already know, then list what you want to know in the middle column. Use the third column when you review and assess what you learned. You can also add more columns to record places where you found information and places where you can look for more information.

(What I already know)

(What I want to know)

(What I have learned)

Adjust Your Reading Speed Your reading speed is a key factor in how well you understand what you are reading. You will need to adjust your speed depending on your reading purpose.

Scanning means running your eyes quickly over the material to look for words or phrases. Scan when you need a specific piece of information. Skimming means reading a passage quickly to find its main idea or to get an overview. Skim a text when you preview to determine what the material is about.

Reading for detail involves careful reading while paying attention to text structure and monitoring your understanding. Read for detail when you are learning concepts, following complicated directions, or preparing to analyze a text.

^"Techniques to Understand and Remember What You Read

Preview

Before beginning a selection, it is helpful to preview what you are about to read.

Previewing Strategies

♦ Read the title, headings, and subheadings of the selection.

♦ Look at the illustrations and notice how the text is organized.

♦ Skim the selection: Take a glance at the whole thing.

♦ Decide what the main idea might be.

♦ Predict what a selection will be about.

Predict

Have you ever read a mystery, decided who committed the crime, and then changed your mind as more clues were revealed? You were adjusting your predictions. Did you smile when you found out that you guessed who committed the crime? You were verifying your predictions.

As you read, take educated guesses about story events and outcomes; that is, make predictions before and during reading. This will help you focus your attention on the text and it will improve your understanding.

Determine the Main Idea

When you look for the main idea, you are looking for the most important statement in a text. Depending on what kind of text you are reading, the main idea can be located at the very beginning (news stories in newspaper or a magazine) or at the end (scientific research document). Ask yourself the following questions:

• What is each sentence about?

• Is there one sentence that is more important than all the others?

• What idea do details support or point out?

Taking Notes

Cornell Note-Taking System There are many methods for note taking. The Cornell Note-Taking System is a well-known method that can help you organize what you read. To the right is a note-taking activity based on the Cornell Note-Taking System.

Graphic Organizers Using a graphic organizer to retell content in a visual representation will help you remember and retain content. You might make a chart or diagram, organizing what you have read. Here are some examples of graphic organizers:

Venn diagrams When mapping out a compare-and-contrast text structure, you can use a Venn diagram. The outer portions of the circles will show how two characters, ideas, or items contrast, or are different, and the overlapping part will compare two things, or show how they are similar.

Flow charts To help you track the sequence of events, or cause and effect, use a flow chart. Arrange ideas or events in their logical, sequential order. Then, draw arrows between your ideas to indicate how one idea or event flows into another.

Cues

Note Taking

Summary

gather information

create outline

write essay

Visualize

Try to form a mental picture of scenes, characters, and events as you read. Use the details and descriptions the author gives you. If you can visualize what you read, it will be more interesting and you will remember it better.

Question

Ask yourself questions about the text while you read. Ask yourself about the importance of the sentences, how they relate to one another, if you understand what you just read, and what you think is going to come next.

Clarify

If you feel you do not understand meaning (through questioning), try these techniques:

What to Do When You Do Not Understand

♦ Reread confusing parts of the text.

♦ Diagram (chart) relationships between chunks of text, ideas, and sentences.

♦ Look up unfamiliar words.

♦ Talk out the text to yourself.

♦ Read the passage once more.

Review

Take time to stop and review what you have read. Use your note-taking tools (graphic organizers or Cornell notes charts). Also, review and consider your K-W-L chart.

Monitor Your Comprehension

Continue to check your understanding by using the following two strategies:

Summarize Pause and tell yourself the main ideas of the text and the key supporting details. Try to answer the following questions: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?

Paraphrase Pause, close the book, and try to retell what you have just read in your own words. It might help to pretend you are explaining the text to someone who has not read it and does not know the material.

► Understanding Text Structure

Good writers do not just put together sentences and paragraphs, they organize their writing with a specific purpose in mind. That organization is called text structure. When you understand and follow the structure of a text, it is easier to remember the information you are reading. There are many ways text may be structured. Watch for signal words. They will help you follow the text's organization (also, remember to use these techniques when you write).

Compare and Contrast

This structure shows similarities and differences between people, things, and ideas. This is often used to demonstrate that things that seem alike are really different, or vice versa.

Signal words: similarly, more, less, on the one hand / on the other hand, in contrast, but, however

Cause and Effect

Writers use the cause-and-effect structure to explore the reasons for something happening and to examine the results or consequences of events.

Signal words: so, because, as a result, therefore, for the following reasons

Problem and Solution

When they organize text around the question "how?" writers state a problem and suggest solutions.

Signal words: how, help, problem, obstruction, overcome, difficulty, need, attempt, have to, must

Sequence

Sequencing tells you in which order to consider thoughts or facts. Examples of sequencing are:

Chronological order refers to the order in which events take place.

Signal words: first, next, then, finally

Spatial order describes the organization of things in space (to describe a room, for example).

Signal words: above, below, behind, next to

Order of importance lists things or thoughts from the most important to the least important (or the other way around).

Signal words: principal, central, main, important, fundamental

^ Reading for Meaning

It is important to think about what you are reading to get the most information out of a text, to understand the consequences of what the text says, to remember the content, and to form your own opinion about what the content means.

Interpret

Interpreting is asking yourself, "What is the writer really saying?" and then using what you already know to answer that question.

Infer

Writers do not always state exactly everything they want you to understand. By providing clues and details, they sometimes imply certain information. An inference involves using your reason and experience to develop the idea on your own, based on what an author implies or suggests. What is most important when drawing inferences is to be sure that you have accurately based your guesses on supporting details from the text. If you cannot point to a place in the selection to help back up your inference, you may need to rethink your guess.

Draw Conclusions

A conclusion is a general statement you can make and explain with reasoning, or with supporting details from a text. If you read a story describing a sport where five players bounce a ball and throw it through a high hoop, you may conclude that the sport is basketball.

Analyze

To understand persuasive nonfiction (a text that discusses facts and opinions to arrive at a conclusion), you need to analyze statements and examples to see if they support the main idea. To understand an informational text (a text, such as a textbook, that gives you information, not opinions), you need to keep track of how the ideas are organized to find the main points.

Hint: Use your graphic organizers and notes charts.

Distinguish Facts from Opinions

This is one of the most important reading skills you can learn. A fact is a statement that can be proven. An opinion is what the writer believes. A writer may support opinions with facts, but an opinion cannot be proven. For example:

Fact: California produces fruit and other agricultural products.

Opinion: California produces the best fruit and other agricultural products.

Evaluate

Would you take seriously an article on nuclear fission if you knew it was written by a comedic actor? If you need to rely on accurate information, you need to find out who wrote what you are reading and why. Where did the writer get information? Is the information one-sided? Can you verify the information?

^ Reading for Research

You will need to read actively in order to research a topic. You might also need to generate an interesting, relevant, and researchable question on your own and locate appropriate print and nonprint information from a wide variety of sources. Then, you will need to categorize that information, evaluate it, and organize it in a new way in order to produce a research project for a specific audience. Finally, draw conclusions about your original research question. These conclusions may lead you to other areas for further inquiry.

Locate Appropriate Print and Nonprint Information

In your research, try to use a variety of sources. Because different sources present information in different ways, your research project will be more interesting and balanced when you read a variety of sources.

Literature and Textbooks These texts include any book used as a basis for instruction or a source of information.

Book Indices A book index, or a bibliography, is an alphabetical listing of books. Some book indices list books on specific subjects; others are more general. Other indices list a variety of topics or resources.

Periodicals Magazines and journals are issued at regular intervals, such as weekly or monthly. One way to locate information in magazines is to use the Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature. This guide is available in print form in most libraries.

Technical Manuals A manual is a guide or handbook intended to give instruction on how to perform a task or operate something. A vehicle owner's manual might give information on how to operate and service a car.

Reference Books Reference books include encyclopedias and almanacs, and are used to locate specific pieces of information.

Electronic Encyclopedias, Databases, and the Internet There are many ways to locate extensive information using your computer. Infotrac, for instance, acts as an online reader's guide. CD encyclopedias can provide easy access to all subjects.

Organize and Convert Information

As you gather information from different sources, taking careful notes, you will need to think about how to synthesize the information, that is, convert it into a unified whole, as well as how to change it into a form your audience will easily understand and that will meet your assignment guidelines.

1. First, ask yourself what you want your audience to know.

2. Then, think about a pattern of organization, a structure that will best show your main ideas. You might ask yourself the following questions:

• When comparing items or ideas, what graphic aids can I use?

• When showing the reasons something happened and the effects of certain actions, what text structure would be best?

• How can I briefly and clearly show important information to my audience?

• Would an illustration or even a cartoon help to make a certain point?

Introduction

Computers are a path to the libraries of the world. You can find the answers to many of your questions on the Internet, often as quickly as the click of your mouse. However, they can also be misused. Knowing some simple guidelines will help you use technology in a safe and secure way.

Practice Safe Surfing!

Before you sign on to any site or visit a chat room, there are several things to consider:

11111

^ Know to whom you are giving the information. Check that the URL in your browser matches the domain you intended to visit.

^ Never give personal information of any sort to someone you meet on a Web site or in a chat room, including your name, gender, age, or contact information.

^ Think about why you are giving the information. If a parent orders something online to be delivered, he or she will need to give an address. But you should never give out your Social Security number, your birth date, or your mother's maiden name without adult consent.

^ Check with a parent or other trusted adult if you are still unsure whether it is safe to give the information.

Tips for Using the Internet for Research

Here are some ways to get better search results:

^ Place quotes around your topic, for example, "sports medicine." This will allow you to find the sites where that exact phrase appears.

^ Use NEAR. Typing "sports NEAR medicine" will return sites that contain both words and have the two words close to each other.

^ Exclude unwanted results. Simply use a minus sign to indicate the words you do not want, for example, "sports medicine" - baseball.

^ Watch out for advertisements. Know which links are paid links. They may or may not be worth exploring.

^ Check for relevance. Google displays few lines of text from each page and shows your search phrase in bold. Check to see if it is appropriate for your work.

^ Look for news. After you have entered your search phrase and have looked at the results, click on a News link on the page. This will show you recent stories about your topic.

^ Try again! If you have made an extensive search and not found what you want, start a new search with a different set of words.

^ Check other sources. Combine your Internet search with traditional research methods.

^ Place quotes around your topic, for example, "sports medicine." This will allow you to find the sites where that exact phrase appears.

How to Evaluate Web Sites

Learning to evaluate Web sites will make you a more savvy surfer and enable you to gather the information you need quickly and easily. When you are trying to decide whether a Web site provides trustworthy information, consider the following:

^ First, ask, "Who is the author?" Do a quick Web search to see what else the author has written. Search online for books he or she has written and consider whether the person is credible.

^ Look at the group offering the information. Be wary if they are trying to sell a product or service. Look for impartial organizations to provide unbiased information.

^ Look for Web sites that provide sources for each fact, just as you do when you write a term paper. Look for clues that the information was written by someone knowledgeable. Spelling and grammatical errors are signs that the information may not be accurate.

^ Check for the date the article was written and when it was last updated. The more recent the article, the more likely it will be accurate.

^ Finally, when using information from a Web site, treat it as you would treat print information. Anyone can post information on a Web site. Never use information that you cannot verify with another source.

Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the act of taking someone else's ideas and passing them off as your own. It does not matter if it is just one or two phrases or an entire paper. Be on guard against falling into the trap of cutting and pasting. This makes plagiarism all too easy.

If you quote sources in your work, identify those sources and give them proper credit.

Copyright

A copyright protects someone who creates an original work. This can be a single sentence, a book, a play, a piece of music. If you create it, you are the owner. Copyright protection is provided by the Copyright Act of 1976, a federal statute.

Once a work's copyright has expired, it is considered to be in the public domain and anyone can reprint it as he or she pleases. Remember the following tips:

^ What is copyrighted? All forms of original expression published in the U.S. since 1923.

^ Can I copy from the Internet? Copying information from the Internet is a serious breach of copyright. Check the site's Terms of Use to see what you can and cannot do.

^ Can I edit copyrighted work? You cannot change copyrighted material, that is, make "derivative works" based on existing material, without permission from the copyright holder.

^ What is copyrighted? All forms of original expression published in the U.S. since 1923.

Student Organizations

What Is a Student Organization?

A student organization is a group or association of students that is formed around activities, such as:

• Family and Consumer Sciences

• Student government

• Community service

• Social clubs

• Honor societies

• Multicultural alliances

A student organization is usually required to follow a set of rules and regulations that apply equally to all student organizations at a particular school.

Technology education Artists and performers Politics Sports teams

Professional career development

What's in It for You?

Participation in student organizations can contribute to a more enriching learning experience. Here are some ways you can benefit:

• Gain leadership qualities and skills that make you more marketable to employers and universities.

• Demonstrate the ability to appreciate someone else's point of view.

• Interact with professionals to learn about their different industries.

• Explore your creative interests, share ideas, and collaborate with others.

• Take risks, build confidence, and grow creatively.

• Learn valuable skills while speaking or performing in front of an audience.

• Make a difference in your life and the lives of those around you.

• Learn the importance of civic responsibility and involvement.

• Build relationships with instructors, advisors, students, and other members of the community who share similar backgrounds/world views.

Find and Join a Student Organization!

Take a close look at the organizations offered at your school or within your community. Are there any organizations that interest you? Talk to your teachers, guidance counselors, or a parent or guardian. Usually posters or flyers for a variety of clubs and groups can be found on your school's Message Board or Web site. Try to locate more information about the organizations that meet your needs. Then think about how these organizations can help you gain valuable skills you can use at school, at work, and in your community.

Student Organizations

SkillsUSA

SkillsUSA is a national organization serving teachers and students who are preparing for careers in technical, skilled, and service occupations. More than 285,000 students and instructors join SkillsUSA annually.

One of the most visible programs of SkillsUSA is the annual SkillsUSA Championships. You can compete in over 70 occupational and leadership skill areas. This competition also serves as a showcase for some of the best culinary students in the nation. Competing against the clock and each other, participants can prove their expertise in foodservice-related areas.

The championships are planned by technical committees made up of industry representatives from around the country. Along with technical skills, you must demonstrate your knowledge of kitchen safety practices and procedures. You may participate in the SkillsUSA Championships in the following skill areas:

• Culinary Arts

• Food and Beverage Service

• Commercial Baking

• Customer Service

• Total Quality Management

• Community Service

• Job Skill Demonstration

No matter how you place in these competitions, participating allows you to learn more about these skill areas and often make future job contacts.

SkilsUSV

FCCLA

Family, Career and Community Leaders of America is a nonprofit national career and technical student organization for young men and women in Family and Consumer Sciences education in public and private schools through grade 12. Everyone is part of a family, and FCCLA is the only national Career and Technical Student Organization with the family as its central focus. Since 1945, FCCLA members have been making a difference in their families, careers, and communities by addressing important personal, work, and societal issues through Family and Consumer Sciences education.

is Ultimata Leadership is Ultimata Leadership

STAR Events Program

STAR Events (Students Taking Action with Recognition) are competitive events in which members are recognized for proficiency and achievement in chapter and individual proj- , ects, leadership skills, and career preparation. FCCLA pro- V_|

vides opportunities for you to participate at local, state, and national levels.

STAR

National High School Chef of the Year

JOHNSON & WALES

UNIVERSITY

semors can

National High School Chef of the Year Contest

Have you created your own recipes? Are you considering a culinary arts career?

In the fall of each year since 1989, Johnson & Wales University, the world's largest foodservice educator, has invited high school seniors to submit their own original recipes into competition for thousands of dollars in Johnson & Wales tuition scholarships.

• Regional experts and celebrity judges from all areas of food service evaluate contest entries and bring excitement to the competition.

• Scholarships are awarded in amounts up to full tuition in the College of Culinary Arts at Johnson & Wales University. All scholarships apply to full-time, day-school study and are renewable for up to four years. Actual receipt of a scholarship is subject to the student being otherwise qualified and accepted for admission to Johnson & Wales University.

• The National Competition will be held at one of Johnson & Wales University's four campuses. The University arranges free transportation and accommodations for each student finalist whose entry is selected for national competition.

GENERAL JUDGING CRITERIA

CRITERIA

MAXIMUM POINTS

Overall Quality, Flavor, Taste, Texture, Doneness

40

Presentation

20

Creativity

20

Nutritional Value

100

Kitchen Score: Mise en Place; Sanitation/Cooking Techniques

100

TOTAL SCORE

280

For the current year's contest details, entry form, deadlines, judging criteria, contest guidelines, and competition dates, log on to: www.jwu.edu/culinarycompetitions.aspx

xlvi National High School Chef of the Year Contest

The Johnson & Wales University National High School Chef of the Year Contest is held in cooperation with the American Cancer Society and the American Heart Association. Because it is important to develop good dietary habits early in life to reduce cancer risks and heart disease, the American Cancer Society and the American Heart Association have published the following nutritional and dietary guidelines based on scientific research. You are encouraged to make healthful menu choices and take these guidelines into consideration when planning your entry to the Johnson & Wales University National High School Chef of the Year Contest.

American Heart Association®

• Some vegetables and fruits, such as mushrooms, tomatoes, chili peppers, cherries, cranberries and currants, have a more intense flavor when dried than when fresh. Use them when you want a burst of flavor. Plus, there is an added bonus: When they are soaked in water and reconstituted, you can use the flavored water in cooking.

• Shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish and most other shellfish are very low in fat. But ounce for ounce, some varieties contain more sodium and cholesterol than do poultry, meat, or other fish.

• Some fish have omega-3 fatty acids, which may help lower the level of lipids (blood fats). Some fish high in omega-3 fatty acids are: Atlantic and Coho salmon, albacore tuna, mackerel, carp, lake whitefish, sweet smelt, and lake and brook trout.

• Some wild game, such as venison, rabbit, squirrel, and pheasant are very lean; duck and goose are not.

• Oils that stay liquid at room temperature are high in unsaturated fats. They include corn, safflower, soybean, sunflower, olive, and canola (rapeseed) oils. All are low in saturated fatty acids and can be used to help lower blood cholesterol in a diet low in saturated fatty acids.

• Use egg whites in place of whole eggs. In most recipes, one egg white and a little acceptable vegetable oil will substitute nicely for a whole egg.

American Cancer Society®

• Add fresh or dried fruits such as chopped apples, raisins, prunes, kiwi or orange sections to green leafy salads.

• Substitute applesauce for oil in muffins, quick breads and cakes. Use puréed prunes or baby food prunes instead of oil in brownies or chocolate cake.

• Substitute whole-wheat flour for up to half of the white flour called for in a recipe.

• Use evaporated skim milk instead of whole milk or cream in baked goods, sauces and soups.

• Use low-fat or nonfat yogurt to replace all or part of the sour cream or mayonnaise in a recipe. Replace all or part of the ricotta cheese with low-fat cottage cheese. Use a purée of cooked potatoes, onions, and celery as a creamy base for soups instead of dairy cream or half-and-half.

• Use low-fat cooking methods such as roasting, baking, broiling, steaming or poaching. Use either a cooking spray, broth, water, or a well-seasoned cast iron pan to sauté meats. If you must use oil or margarine, cut the amount in half.

Chapter

1 Safety and Sanitation Principles

2 HACCP Applications

EXPLORE THE PHOTO

Safety and sanitai followed in the ki Can you list some kitchen safe and (

ion rules should be tchen at all times. ways to help keep a lean?

C wiifîiin Pfd/tYi TivviL-ii'

Restaurant Inspections

After completing the unit, you will know how to keep a professional foodservice business safe and sanitary. In your unit culinary project, you will research restaurant inspection sheets. Then, you will create your own inspection sheet and present it to your class.

My Journal

Write a journal entry about any complaints that you have ever had against a restaurant's or cafeteria's cleanliness.

• What areas needed to be cleaned?

• How did the lack of cleanliness make you

• Did you say anything to the restaurant or cafeteria?

• Did you say anything to the restaurant or cafeteria?

Justin Skribner Chef de Commis Per Se

JOHNSON & WALES

UNIVERSITY

"A chef learns new things every day. The more developed a chef's knowledge becomes, the greater his or her creations become."

JOHNSON & WALES

UNIVERSITY

"A chef learns new things every day. The more developed a chef's knowledge becomes, the greater his or her creations become."

Justin Skribner Chef de Commis Per Se

CHAPTER 1

U

Continue reading here: Sanitation Principles

Was this article helpful?

0 0