Peel and Devein Shrimp

^P First, use your forefinger to remove the legs.

Use your fingertips to gently peel and remove the shell.

^^ Leave the tall on If the shrimp will be broiled or deep-fried. Remove the tall for most other preparations.

^ Cut down the back of the shrimp with a paring knife and remove the vein just below the surface.

^^ Make the cut deeper to butterfly the shrimp.

Market Forms

Shrimp may be purchased raw in the shell, either fresh or frozen. These are called green shrimp. They may also be purchased P/D. This is an abbreviation for peeled and deveined. The third form available is PDC. This is an abbreviation for peeled, deveined, and cooked. Both P/D and PDC shrimp are usually individually quick frozen and have a glaze of ice on them. Some shrimp may also be battered and breaded.

Handling and Storage

Keep frozen shrimp frozen until they need to be used. To thaw shrimp, place them in the refrigerator. Keep thawed or fresh shrimp wrapped and on crushed ice. Unwrapped shrimp will lose flavor and nutrients.

If serving shrimp cold, they can be peeled after they are cooked. If shrimp are to be served hot, they should be peeled and deveined before cooking. Shrimp can also be butterflied to reduce their thickness so that they cook faster.


Popular in casseroles, curries, and chowders, crab are plentiful along North America's coasts. Crab may be shipped canned, fresh, or frozen. The following types of crab are used in restaurants:

• Blue Crab A small, 4- to 6-ounce crab from the East Coast. Most frozen crabmeat comes from blue crabs.

• Soft-Shell Crab A blue crab that has just molted, or shed its shell. Because the shell has not had time to harden, it is eaten as well as the meat. Only the head and the gills must be removed before frying or sauteing the crab.

• Alaskan King Crab This is the largest type of crab. They can weigh between

6 and 20 pounds. Even though they are expensive, king crab are popular in restaurants because large chunks of meat can be easily removed.

• Alaskan Snow Crab Alaskan snow crabs are also called spider crabs. Snow crab can be used as a less expensive substitute for king crab.

• Dungeness (.dsn-js-.nes) Crab Found along the West Coast, they range from 1% to 4 pounds and have very sweet meat.

• Stone Crab The claws of stone crab are popular in the Southeast. To protect the species, people fishing can harvest only one claw per stone crab. They twist off the claw and put the crab back in the sea. The crab will grow a new claw within

18 months.

Market Forms

Although crab taste best fresh, picking the meat is an involved and lengthy process. Most crab are purchased in the shell, already cooked and frozen. Soft-shell crab are sold whole, while king crab legs are sold both split and whole. Snow and stone crab claws are also sold whole.

Handling and Storage

Frozen crabmeat spoils rapidly when it is defrosted. It should be kept frozen until it is ready to be used. Keep live crab cool and packed in damp seaweed until it is ready to be cooked.

Stone Crab

Soft-Shell Crab

Blue Crab

Soft-Shell Crab

Dungeness Crab
Alaskan King Crab

Types of Crab There are a variety of crabs available for cooking. What type of nutrients can be found in crab meat?


Crayfish are freshwater crustaceans that look like miniature lobsters. They generally range from 3% to 7 inches in length. Crayfish are sometimes called crawfish and crawdads in the southern United States. Their tail meat is lean, sweet, and tender. Whole crayfish and peeled tail meat are sold both live and frozen. They are available year-round.

As with lobsters and crabs, live crayfish should be kept in a cool location and wrapped in seaweed. If purchased live, keep them alive until ready to cook. Wash them several times in cool water before cooking. Frozen crayfish should be thawed in the refrigerator and cooked within a day.

Crayfish are served in French restaurants and used in Cajun and Creole cooking. Whole crayfish are often boiled and served on top of rice. Crayfish tail meat is usually deep-fried and used in soups and sauces.

What types of crabs are used in restaurants?

Other Seafood

Some types of seafood, such as frogs and snails, spend part of their lives on land, but are still classified as seafood. These seafood products are often sold smoked, pickled, or in brine to preserve the seafood and add flavor. These products need to be refrigerated.


On some menus, squid goes by its Italian name, calamari (,ka-l9-'mar-e). Squid have 10 tentacles and look somewhat like an octopus. It is the tentacles and the hollowed-out body that are eaten. Squid is cut into small pieces, which may be either simmered in a seasoned sauce or liquid, or quickly fried. Squid can be used as an appetizer, as a protein on salads, or as part of a main dish, such as pasta.

^ J Other Seafood These seafood products are often found smoked, brined, or pickled. Which of these seafood spend part of their lives out of the water?

Frog Legs

Frog legs are from frogs that are farm raised. Frog legs are only sold in pairs. Foodservice operations use only the rear legs. They can be served poached with a sauce, deep-fried, or sauteed.


Imported from France, where they are called escargot (1es-kar-'go), snails are generally served as appetizers in the shell, with garlic butter. Snails are usually removed from the shells, prepared, and cooked before being poured back into the shells to serve. It takes about 32 snails to equal 1 pound of meat. Commercial farming of snails in the United States is becoming more popular, since fresh snails taste better than canned snails.


Surimi (su-'re-me) is a combination of different kinds of white fish and flavoring, minced and formed into different shapes.

While many types of white fish are used to make surimi, Alaska pollock is the most common. Two of the most popular forms of surimi are imitation crab and lobster. To make these imitations seem more real, color is added. Surimi is a widely used substitute for lobster and crab in North America because of its lower cost. Surimi is often used to make a cold imitation crab salad, with a mayonnaise-based dressing.

Eels are long, thin fish that have a sweet, mild flavor. They are very popular in Europe and Asia and in some ethnic communities in the United States. They are usually sold fresh, smoked, and pickled. Eels should be frozen only if they are first gutted and cleaned, and then quick-frozen. Eels also make a popular sushi dish, although they are used cooked, not raw.

HName What are two popular forms of surimi?

SECTION 21.2 -^flmmTTri Review Key Concepts

1. Explain the meaning of the different grades of shellfish.

2. Differentiate between univalves, bivalves, and cephalopods.

3. Describe the characteristics of a crustacean.

4. Identify methods of cooking squid.

Practice Culinary Academics ^^ Mathematics

5. You need to purchase five king crabs for your restaurant, and would like the crabs' average weight to be 15 pounds. If you have already selected four crabs weighing 12, 14, 16 V2, and 17 pounds, how much should the fifth crab weigh?

^^^^^^^^ Calculating Mean A mean is an average of a set of terms. When you have a series of values, calculate the mean by finding the sum of all of the values, and dividing that sum by the number of values.

Starting Hint You know that the sum of five values, divided by 5, equals 15. Write an algebraic equation to find the missing value: (12 +14 + 16 V + 17 + x) ^ 5 = 15.

NCTM Problem Solving Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.

Bii Check your answers at this book's Online Learning Center at


Cook fish so that it retains its delicate flavor and texture.

Cooking Fish and Shellfish

Reading Guide

Before You Read

Be Organized A messy environment can be distracting. To lessen distractions, organize an area where you can read this section comfortably.

Content Vocabulary j sushi j en papillote

Academic Vocabulary

Read to Learn

Key Concepts

• Summarize the methods for cooking fish and shellfish.

Main Idea

There are several methods for cooking fish and shellfish. These can include moist cooking, deep-frying, baking, and sauteing.

Graphic Organizer

As you read, use a matrix like the one shown to record the guidelines for determining the doneness of fish and shellfish for each cooking method.

Determining the Doneness of Fish and Shellfish


Broiling & Grilling

Sauteing & Pan-Frying


t k Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at ' for a printable graphic organizer.

English Language Arts

NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively.

k Mathematics

NCTM Measurement

Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement.


NSESB Develop an understanding of chemical reactions.

Social Studies

NCSS VIII B Science, Technology, and Society

Make judgments about how science and technology have transformed human society.

NCTE National Council of Teachers of English

NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSES National Science Education Standards

NCSS National Council for the Social Studies

Fish and Shellfish Cookery

You have many methods from which to choose when you cook fish and shellfish. Dishes may be simple or elaborate, low-fat or rich. Moist cooking methods and deep-frying, baking, and sautéing, offer a number of ways to prepare seafood. Fish and shellfish are also sometimes served raw. Sushi ('su-she) is a Japanese dish of raw or cooked fresh fish or seafood and rice. There are many different forms of sushi, from rolled, to topped on rice, to served scattered over rice.

Fish has little connective tissue, so a long cooking time is not needed to tenderize it. When you cook fish, you must pay attention to time, temperature, and the cooking process. Cook fish until its internal temperature is 145°F (63°C) or above for 15 seconds.

Fish is also usually low in fat. This means it can quickly dry out when it is overcooked. To prevent this, chefs sometimes use moist cooking techniques, such as steaming or poaching. Fish flesh will flake, or break away in small layers, when it is done. Remember that fish retains heat, even when removed from a heat source. Therefore, it continues to cook, and can easily overcook.

Like fish, shellfish can easily be overcooked. Overcooking and excessively high heat will cause shellfish to dry up and shrink or become rubbery and tough. Clams or mussels cooked in the shell will open as they cook. Discard, or throw away, any shells that do not open, because the meat will not be safe to eat. To prevent dryness, moist cooking methods are most often used.

Bake Fish and Shellfish

Fish steaks and fillets, as well as small fish and shellfish, can be baked in an oven. Combination cooking methods are sometimes used to bake fish. For example, fish may be initially browned in a small amount of oil in a sauté pan to give it color and flavor, then baked to finish cooking. When you bake lean fish, you should baste it frequently with oil or butter to prevent the fish from drying out.

Fish or shellfish may also be baked in a sauce, such as curry or tomato. Baking in a sauce also helps prevent the meat from becoming dry.

Baking Guidelines

Fatty fish, such as pompano or salmon, are not as likely to dry out. These types of fish are the best fish for baking. Generally, fish and shellfish are baked between 350°F (177°C) and 400°F (204°C). Large fish will bake more evenly at the lower temperature. Cook fish until its internal temperature at its thickest part is 145°F (63°C) or above for 15 seconds.

Moist Baking Adding vegetables and liquid to a large piece of fish or a whole fish is called moist baking. Other moist cooking techniques used for fish and shellfish include simmering, poaching, and steaming. Liquids from moist cooking are often used for sauces that go with the fish or shellfish. Wrapping fish or shellfish in parchment paper with vegetables, herbs, and sauces or butters is a type of steaming called en papillote (sn ,pa-pe-'yo).

Sanitation Check v) Serve Raw Fish and Shellfish

Many restaurants offer raw fish or shellfish on the menu, such as sushi or raw oysters. Many health officials advise against serving raw fish or shellfish because of the danger of parasites and contamination from polluted water. However, if you do serve these items, follow these guidelines:

• Buy fish from reputable vendors.

• Choose only the highest quality fish because it will not be cooked.

• Handle the fish as little as possible.

• Follow state-mandated guidelines concerning the serving of raw fish and shellfish.

CRITICAL THINKING Why do you think you should handle the fish as little as possible?

Fish en Papillote

Fold the parchment paper In half and crease the folded edge. Cut the parchment paper into the desired shape and size to prepare the fish.

Q Butter the parchment paper on both sides.

These cooking methods add little or no fat, keep the meat from drying, and preserve nutrients and natural flavors.

Broil and Grill Fish and Shellfish

Because of the high heat used, broiled, grilled, and barbequed seafood dishes can be prepared quickly. Many diners view broiled and grilled dishes as more healthful than dishes cooked with other methods.

The appearance of broiled or grilled fish or shellfish may be enhanced by a relish or

^ Add the fish, vegetables, and butter to one side of the parchment paper. Fold the other side of the parchment over the fish.

Seal the edges of the paper by crimping, or pinching and pressing them together around the entire paper.

Bake until the package is puffy and lightly browned. Cut the package and fold back the top to serve.

top to serve.

side sauce. Grilled vegetables are also a natural accompaniment. Citrus garnishes, such as lemon, lime, or orange, are generally served with broiled or grilled seafood. Sometimes lemon and herb butters are served instead.

Broiling and Grilling Guidelines

The high heat of broiling or grilling gives fish and shellfish a smoky flavor. Brush butter or oil over the fish before broiling to keep the meat from sticking. This also keeps lean fish moist.

To cook a thicker cut of fish or shellfish evenly, turn it once during broiling. Thin pieces are broiled on one side only.

ataste of history



The state of Utah enters the Union

Oysters Rockefeller is created in New Orleans

Oysters Rockefeller

Oysters have been cultivated worldwide for more than 2,000 years. They have long been a popular food in the United States. Native Americans once considered oysters a staple in their diet. Early Colonial settlers ate oysters by the gross (144) instead of the dozen (12).

New Orleans, Louisiana, is the birthplace of several famous oyster dishes, including Oysters Rockefeller. Named after business tycoon John D. Rockefeller, the dish was created in 1899 when a shortage of snails from Europe prompted Jules Alciatore to substitute oysters as the main ingredient in a dish for Antoine's, his father's restaurant.

History Application

Research the history and problems of the oyster population in the United States. Write a short report about your findings.

NCSS VIII B Science, Technology, and Society Make judgments about how science and technology have transformed our understanding of human-environment interactions.

Fatty fish, such as swordfish or trout, are a good choice for broiling. Many types of shellfish are broiled on the half shell or on skewers to make them easier to handle.

Lean Versus Fat All varieties of fish may be broiled. However, fatty fish is the best choice. Lean fish can become dry very quickly. Before you broil either lean or fatty fish, you may wish to coat the fish with butter, oil, or a vegetable oil spray.

Use Fish Steaks or Fillets Fish steaks thicker than 1V2 inch and whole fish are not the best choices for broiling. The high heat used in broiling will finish cooking the outside of thick fish before the inside is done. When grilling thicker steaks and fillets you may have to start cooking them over high heat and move them to a cooler part of the grill to finish cooking.

Avoid Overcooking Broiling and grilling require high temperatures, which cook fish and shellfish quickly. Overcooking will make fish dry and shellfish tough.

Sauteing and Pan-Frying

Sauteing and pan-frying are often mistaken as the same thing. Sauteing will add flavor to the food because the food's surface is lightly browned. Pan-frying uses more fat

Grilled Fish Grilled salmon is a popular dish in many restaurants. Why is salmon a good choice for grilling?

Safety Check

Frying Fat

Always take special care when you work with hot fat. It can easily spatter and burn you. Drain and serve deep-fried foods immediately after cooking.

CRITICAL THINKING What are some potential consequences of leaving the food sitting in the fat after frying?

than sautéing does, and the food is coated with seasoned batters, flour, or breading before cooking. This creates a flavorful crust that protects the fish during cooking.

Be sure that the pan and the cooking fat are both hot before you add fish or shellfish. Because only a short cooking time is needed, use high heat to brown the surface when you sauté thin slices of fish or small pieces of shellfish. Thicker pieces may require lower heat so that they do not get too brown. Adding too much fish or shellfish to the pan at the same time causes the fat to cool. The food will then simmer in its own juices instead of sauté.

Sautéing and Pan-Frying Guidelines

Because both sautéing and pan-frying use oil or clarified butter, they work well for lean fish. Usually just enough fat to cover the bottom of the pan is sufficient, or enough, for sautéing. Pan-frying requires more fat.

To keep fish from sticking, use flour or breading to form a crust. For better appearance, brown the presentation side first. This is generally the thicker side of a fillet. Turn pan-fried fish or shellfish only once during cooking to help prevent fillets from breaking. Sautéed or panfried items will cook quickly over a high heat.

Dredging and Breading To dredge a food is to evenly coat it with a bit of flour or corn-meal. Make small batches if there are several pounds of fish to prepare. For a better crust, soak the fish in milk and drain it before breading. Dredge the fish or use large shakers with handles to sprinkle the breading onto the fish.


Deep-frying is the most common method used to fry fish in the United States. Although the foodservice industry often uses frozen, breaded fish for deep-frying, fresh fish or shellfish may also be deep-fried. To protect both the fat and the fish, coat the item with batter or breading before cooking. This will provide an attractive coating and a crispy texture. The best shellfish to deep-fry are scallops, oysters, shrimp, and clams. Lean fish, usually in sticks or small fillets, are also a good choice.

Deep-Frying Guidelines

When you prepare frozen breaded fish, cook the fish without first thawing it. If the portion thaws, the fish will be soggy. Review the guidelines for breading and frying in Chapter 15. Batter recipes for vegetables can also be used for fish or shellfish.

Determine Doneness

Because fish and shellfish are naturally tender, it is critical to avoid overcooking. Remember that overcooking results in dry fish and tough shellfish. Use the following guidelines to help you determine when fish and shellfish are done cooking:

• Fish starts flaking. Cooking fish causes the muscle fibers to begin separating from each other.

j Flesh pulls away from the bones or shell of the fish easily.

• Flesh springs back when pressed. Uncooked seafood is soft and mushy instead.

• Flesh becomes opaque. Light cannot be seen through the flesh.

Fat Quality To maintain the quality of frying fat, heat oil only to the temperature needed. Once a day, filter all the oil through a strainer and replace 20% of it with fresh oil.

Steamed Shellfish Shellfish such as clams will open when they are cooked in their shells. What should you do with clams or mussels that do not open during cooking?

In addition, use these guidelines with each specific cooking technique:

• Baking Bake fish until the internal temperature is 145°F (63°C) or above for 15 seconds. Also check that the flesh flakes, pulls away from the bones or shell, springs back when pressed, and is opaque.

• Broiling and Grilling When broiled or grilled, the outside of fish and shellfish should be slightly browned and crispy. The inside should be juicy and tender.

• Sauteing and Pan-Frying Sauteed and pan-fried fish and shellfish are done cooking when their surfaces are slightly browned or crispy. As in broiling and grilling, the insides should be juicy and tender.

• Deep-Frying If the oil has reached the proper temperature, deep-fried fish and shellfish are done when their batter is a rich golden brown. When you use prepackaged frozen items, follow the package guidelines. The package will generally give a range of times and temperatures for correctly cooking these items.

Plate Fish and Shellfish

Serving seafood attractively is an important part of preparation. Because seafood tends to be pale, adding colorful side dishes is a must. The contrasting color and texture make the overall meal appealing. For example:

• A mix of steamed carrots and broccoli brightens the plate and is low in fat.

• If shellfish is served chilled, a cocktail sauce and fresh lemon slices usually accompany it.

• Some seafood dishes are served on beds of sauteed leeks or seaweed.

• Colorful sauces can be plated underneath seafood to add color and flavor.

Garnish Fish and Shellfish

Tartar sauce may be the most familiar sauce that accompanies seafood. Tartar sauce is a sauce made of mayonnaise and chopped pickles. However, other sauces, such as hollandaise or a caper sauce, work just as well for steamed or poached items. A caper is a flower bud of a Mediterranean shrub, used for seasoning.

Citrus wedges, such as lemon or orange, often accompany grilled or broiled seafood items. If an item has been broiled with a seasoned butter, an additional serving of the butter may be used for garnish. Common garnishes such as parsley or chives may also be used.

I Determine What garnishes are commonly used with different types of fish and shellfish?

* Nutrition Notes *

Fish and Shellfish Nutrition

Both fish and shellfish are high in protein, as well as vitamins A, B, and D. Fish are also a good source of minerals such as iron, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus. Fatty varieties like salmon and mackerel are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which may help prevent some forms of heart disease. Most fish and shellfish are low in sodium, fat, and calories.

CRITICAL THINKING What types of people might consider eating fish to meet special dietary needs?


Review Key Concepts

1. Summarize the methods for sauteing or pan-frying fish and shellfish.

Practice Culinary Academics Science

2. Procedure Find a recipe for a shrimp marinade that contains a citrus such as lemon, orange, or lime juice. Divide shrimp into three groups. Marinate one group of shrimp for a long period of time, at least an hour. Marinate another group for around 10 minutes. Do not marinate the third group at all. Prepare all of the shrimp.

Analysis Compare the textures of the three groups. What do you observe about the textures of the different shrimp? Create a chart that shows the differences. Hypothesize what causes those differences.

NSES B Develop an understanding of chemical reactions.

English Language Arts

3. Follow your teacher's instructions to form into small groups. Each group should choose one method of cooking fish or shellfish and create a poster listing guidelines to remember when using that cooking method. Include artwork to illustrate each guideline. Share the posters with the class and display them in the foods lab.

NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively.

Social Studies

4. Study how the industry of fishing has changed in modern times. What types of equipment do commercial fishermen use to help them catch large quantities of fish and to save time? How has this changed from traditional methods of fishing? Create a five minute presentation of your findings.

NCSS VIII B Science, Technology, and Society Make judgments about how science and technology have transformed human society.

^^ Mathematics

5. To cook a red snapper en papillote, a restaurant uses a 24-inch-long sheet of parchment paper. If a roll of parchment paper is 40 yards long, how many sheets can the restaurant get from each roll?

^^^^^ Equivalent Lengths There are 3 feet in one yard, so multiply yards by 3 to convert to feet. There are 12 inches in one foot, so multiply feet by 12 to convert to inches.

Starting Hint The question asks you to divide 40 yards by 24 inches. To do so, convert the yards into inches by first multiplying by 3 to convert yards to feet, then multiplying by 12 to convert feet to inches.

NCTM Measurement Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement.

fit Check your answers at this book's Online Learning Center at


Continue reading here: Review and Applications

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