Nutrition Facts

Serving Size 1 cup (228 g) Servings Per Container 2

Amount Per Serving

Calories 260 Calories from Fat 120

Total Fat 13 g

% Daily Value*

Saturated Fat 3 g

Trans Fat 2g

Cholesterol 30 mg

Total Carbohydrate 31 g

Dietary Fiber 0 g

Sugars 5 g

Protein 5 g

Vitamin A

Vitamin C

Calcium

Iron

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs: _Calories 2,000 2,500

Total Fat Less than 65 g 80 g

Sat Fat Less than 20 g 25g

Cholesterol Less than 300 mg 300 mg

Sodium Less than 2,400 mg 2,400 mg

Total Carbohydrate 300 g 375 g

Dietary Fiber 25 g 30 g

Quick Guide to % Daily Values

5% or less is Low

20% or more is High nutrition labels. A nutrition label gives information on serving size, calories, and nutrients in the food. Nutrients are measured in grams and in daily value percentages.

The daily value of a nutrient is the amount of that nutrient that a person needs every day. This value is based on a 2,000-calorie diet. This number is only a guide, because each person's calorie needs are different. These daily values would be higher or lower if you eat more or less than 2,000 calories a day.

The nutrients that are listed first on a nutrition label are the ones that most people eat in adequate amounts. The nutrients at the bottom of the label are the nutrients that many people lack in their diets.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are published by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans were first published in 1980. They are updated periodically.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans offer information on proper eating habits for healthy Americans who are two years of age and older. The guidelines are based on scientific knowledge about diet, nutrition, and physical activity. They cover nine general topics: getting enough nutrients within calorie needs; maintaining a healthy weight; being physically active every day; choosing whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and milk; limiting fats and cholesterol; being choosy about carbohydrates; reducing sodium/ increasing potassium; avoiding alcohol; and keeping food safe.

Federal nutrition assistance programs, such as the USDA's School Meal and Food Stamp Programs and the Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are built off of the Dietary Guidelines. The Guidelines also form the basis for the MyPyramid food guidance system.

MyPyramid

The MyPyramid food guidance system was created in 2005, using the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. It was created to replace the original Food Guide Pyramid. MyPyramid is a visual tool that reminds people age two and older to eat nutritiously and exercise for better health. (See Figure 11.7.) The MyPyra-mid symbol shows the recommended proportion of foods from each food group. These groups are Grains, Vegetables, Fruits, Milk, and Meat & Beans. Oils are also represented in MyPyramid.

MyPyramid shows the importance of: j Personalization MyPyramid can give specific recommendations for individual people about the kinds and amounts of foods they eat every day.

• Gradual Improvement Small changes to behavior and eating habits can make a big difference in your health. The slogan, "Steps to a Healthier You" suggests this theme.

• Physical Activity The person climbing the steps in the MyPyramid diagram reminds you that everyday activity is important to good nutrition.

• Variety You need foods from all of the groups each day for good health. There are six different color bands to remind you about the importance of variety.

• Moderation The wide base of the pyramid stands for foods with little or no solid fats, added sugars or caloric sweeteners. These should be chosen more often for good health. The narrow top stands for foods with more solid fats, added sugars, or caloric sweeteners. These foods should be selected less often.

j The Right Proportions The different widths of the bands in MyPyramid stand for the amount of food from each food group you should choose. These widths are a general guide, not exact proportions.

the Dietary Guidelines, nutrition labels, and MyPyramid help you plan nutritious menus?

Meet Dietary Needs

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are a tool for foodservice professionals who want to plan balanced menus for healthy adults. However, foodservice professionals need to know that these guidelines do not apply evenly to everyone. Many factors can influence a person's dietary needs including age, activity level, lifestyle, and health. Religious and cultural factors can also influence dietary needs.

Nutritional needs will change over a person's entire life span. Diffrerent times in that life span, including infancy, childhood, adolescence, and pregnancy, are all periods of growth that require extra nutrients. As people become adults and become elderly, their dietary needs change again.

RHfigureiiI My Pyramid

Eating Plans MyPyramid offers personalized eating plans that are right for each individual. What other nutritional help can you get from MyPyramid?

At each stage of life, it is important to eat nutrient-dense foods, such as fruits and vegetables. A nutrient-dense food is a food that is low in calories, but rich in nutrients. Broccoli, carrots, sunflower seeds, and whole-wheat bread are examples of nutrient-dense foods.

Pregnant Women

A woman's eating habits before and during pregnancy influence her health and the health of her baby. Pregnant women and mothers of young infants should follow the dietary advice of MyPyramid for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. MyPyramid for Moms offers the nutritional advice new moms need to stay healthy and provide enough nutrients to their child.

Infants

Infants grow more during their first year than at any other time of their lives. They need enough nutrients to fuel that growth.

Generally, the only food babies need for the first four to six months of their lives is breast milk or formula. Infants then move to iron-fortified cereals, strained vegetables and fruits, and eventually cut-up table foods. New foods are introduced slowly.

Children

Children over the age of two need a wide variety of foods served in small portions. Because their stomachs cannot hold much food at once, they need frequent snacks and meals to supply all the nutrients their growing bodies need. Nutritious snacks may include fresh fruit, half of a sandwich, or yogurt. It is normal for a child's appetite to vary, and for children to be picky about what they want to eat. Children may eat more than usual during growth spurts. They may eat less than usual during periods of low growth.

Teenagers

There are many psychological and physical changes that happen during adolescence. Teens grow more quickly than at any other time of life except infancy. This means that teens need an increase in almost all nutrients.

Teenagers are more susceptible to eating disorders, emotional, complex illnesses that are dangerous to a person's health. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder are examples.

Adults and the Elderly

People lose muscle and bone mass as they age. The function of body organs also drops, and the metabolism moves more slowly. This influences the amount of food and individual nutrients an elderly person needs.

Other factors that can influence the nutritional needs of the elderly include health problems, loss of teeth, a decreased appetite, and an inability to prepare nutritious meals.

Activity Level

Physical activity requires energy. The type of activity and its duration, or the amount of time it lasts, its frequency, and its intensity affect how much energy is needed.

^ J Life Stages Nutritional needs change many times over the course of a person's life. What nutritional changes are needed for each of the stages of life shown here?

Dietary Details To maintain a generally healthy diet, remember these tips: • Aim for Fitness Be physically active every day, but aim for a healthy weight. j Choose Sensibly Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat, salt, and cholesterol and moderate in total fat. Limit your intake of sugars.

The nutrition that an athlete needs is different from the nutrition that a less-active person needs. Each person uses a different amount of energy to fuel his or her body. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose for energy. It changes extra carbohydrates into glycogen ('gil-ks-jsn), a storage form of glucose. When you exercise for long periods of time, your body uses part of its glycogen supply for energy. If you eat plenty of complex carbohydrates, your body will have a steady supply of glycogen when it needs it.

It is also important to drink plenty of water before, during, and after exercise. A large amount of water is lost from the body through perspiration. If you do not replace this water, it can lead to dehydration. Dehydration (ide-ihl-'dra-shsn) is a serious fluid imbalance in the body. Dehydration can cause heat stroke or heat exhaustion.

Lifestyle

Many Americans are trying a vegetarian lifestyle, both as a social statement and for nutrition. Generally, a vegetarian (ive-js-'ter-e-sn) does not eat meat or other animal-based foods. Vegetarians eat plant-based foods, such as vegetables, grains, fruits, and beans. Vegetarian diets are generally lower in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than typical American diets. Most vegetarian diets have enough nutrients if they include a variety of foods. Vegetarians must be careful to combine foods so that they get enough protein.

There are several types of vegetarians:

• A lacto-vegetarian eats or drinks some dairy products, such as cheese and milk, but does not eat eggs.

• An ovo-vegetarian eats eggs in addition to foods from plant sources.

• A lacto-ovo-vegetarian eats both dairy products (lacto) and eggs (ovo).

• A vegan ('ve-gsn) does not eat any meat or animal products.

• A raw vegan eats only unprocessed vegan foods that have not been heated above 115°F (46°C).

• Macrobiotics is a diet that includes unprocessed foods, and organically grown fruits and vegetables. Some macrobiotics occasionally consume small amounts of fish. There are many religions and cultures that have special dietary needs as well. For example, Buddhists tend to eat vegetarian diets, while some Jewish people eat only kosher foods.

Health

Proper nutrition is vital for good health. The right diet can help prevent and treat many health conditions. Some of these conditions include cardiovascular disease, food allergies, diabetes, and cancer.

Cardiovascular Disease

Over time, cholesterol in the system can block arteries that carry blood. This can cause a stroke or a heart attack. High blood pressure can also impact, or have a direct effect upon, the development of cardiovascular disease. Large amounts of salt or sodium over time can increase blood pressure.

The first step in treating high cholesterol or high blood pressure is to modify the person's diet and increase the amount of exercise the person gets. People who have high cholesterol should reduce their fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol intake, and increase their soluble fiber intake. People with high blood pressure need to limit the salt and the number of processed foods they eat. Processed foods tend to be very high in salt.

ATASTE OF HISTORY

1929

Christiaan Eijkman wins the Nobel Prize in Medicine

1931

Fiberglass is introduced

Nutrition Pioneers

The connection between diet and health has been studied for many years. In 1757, Scottish physician James Lind found that eating citrus fruit helped prevent scurvy, a disease commonly contracted by sailors. Scurvy was later discovered to be a lack of vitamin C in the sailors' diets. The vitamin C in the citrus fruit prevented the disease.

In the early 1900s, Dutch scientist Christiaan Eijkman found that the inflammatory disease beriberi is also caused by poor diet. He discovered that vitamin B (thiamine) helped prevent and treat beriberi.

Historical Application

Visit a pharmacy and look at the label on any brand of multivitamin. Research the individual nutrients that are included in one of the multivitamins. Create a three-column chart listing at least five of the nutrients, the nutritional attributes for which they are known, and in which foods they can be found.

NCSS VIII B Science, Technology, and Society Make judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society.

There are many ways a foodservice operation can help people with high cholesterol and high blood pressure meet their dietary goals. For example, you might plan meals around dishes rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber, such as dry beans and whole grains.

There are other ways to plan nutritious, tasty menu items as well. Use many different types of fruits and vegetables that are cooked with little or no fat or salt in your dishes. Offer moderate portions of lean meats and fish on your menu. Limit the use of fats, especially saturated fats, in your cooking. Use more healthful fat and oil alternatives such as olive oil instead of butter and skim milk instead of whole milk to reduce fat and cholesterol in your dishes. Use seasonings other than salt, such as herbs and spices, that are rich in flavor but low in sodium.

Food Allergies and Food Intolerances

Foodservice operations need to give information to customers about foods that may cause allergic reactions. A food allergy is an allergic reaction triggered by the immune system in response to a particular food. The immune system mistakenly believes that the food is harmful. It produces antibodies to protect itself against the food. The next time a person with a food allergy eats a specific food, the immune system releases the antibodies, and allergic symptoms will occur.

Food allergies can be mild or severe. Severe food allergies can even cause death. The only way to prevent an allergic reaction to a food is to avoid the allergy-causing food.

Symptoms of an allergic reaction can include headaches, hives, difficulty breathing, nasal congestion, facial swelling and/or numbness, and gastrointestinal problems. Symptoms usually show up within minutes to a few hours after the food has been eaten. The most common foods that people are allergic to include fish, shellfish, milk products, eggs, wheat, soy products, tree nuts (such as walnuts and pecans), and peanuts.

A food intolerance is not the same thing as a food allergy. A food intolerance is a reaction to a particular food that does not involve the immune system. Lactose intolerance is an example of a food intolerance.

Diabetes

Almost 16 million Americans have diabetes. Diabetes is an illness that affects the body's ability to convert blood sugar into energy. There are two types of diabetes. Children and young adults usually have Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetics do not produce insulin in their bodies. Insulin is a hormone that converts blood sugar and starches into energy. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. Type 2 diabetics either do not produce enough insulin, or their bodies' cells ignore the insulin.

i 1FIGURE 118 I Phytochemicals

" Cancer-Fighting Chemicals Phytochemicals are thought to have anti-cancer properties. What phytochemicals are found in citrus fruits?

Phytochemical

Function in the Body

Food Sources

Flavonoids ('fla-vs-noids)

• May function as an antioxidant

• Lowers the risk of cancer

• Apples and grapefruit

Resveratrol (rez-'vir-9-,trol)

• Can prevent some types of cancer

• May lower cholesterol

Grapes

Limonene ('li-m9-,nen)

• Releases detoxification enzymes in the liver

• Citrus fruits such as oranges, limes, and lemons

Ellagic Acid (s-'la-jik)

• Triggers the production of enzymes that fight carcinogens

Blackberries, cranberries, and strawberries

Lycopene ('U-k9-,pen)

• Can function as an antioxidant

• May lower the risk of heart disease and cancer

• Tomatoes and watermelon

Capsaicin (kap-'sa-s-ssn)

• May prevent certain types of cancer

• Diminishes blood clotting

• Hot peppers

Allyl Sulfide ('a-lsl 'ssl-fTd)

• Facilitates the production of enzymes that combat carcinogens

• Onions, garlic, leeks, and shallots

Isothiocyanates and Indoles

('T-sô-1thT-5-'sT-9-1nâts) ('in-,dols)

• May increase the creation of enzymes that keep carcinogens from harming DNA

• Broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, and cabbage

Diabetes can cause long-term problems with healing, eyesight, and circulation. People with diabetes must balance food, portion sizes, exercise, and medication to avoid health problems and keep a healthful lifestyle.

Cancer

Cancer is the uncontrolled division and growth of cells that interferes with normal body functions. It is the second-leading cause of death in the United States.

Research shows that a low-fat diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, and fiber should be part of people's daily eating habits. This kind of diet may decrease the risk of cancer in some people. Eating too much fat and saturated fat can increase the risk of cancer. Some foods, such as alcohol, may actually increase the risk of cancer. Obesity is also linked to a higher cancer rate. Irradiated foods, however, have not been shown to increase cancer risk.

Phytochemicals Natural chemicals such as those found in plants, fruits, vegetables, grains, and dry beans are called phytochemicals (fT-to-'ke-mi-ksIs). Many phy-tochemicals seem to have anti-cancer properties. Each type of food seems to have a different mix of phytochemicals. These substances are not vitamins or minerals. Plants produce them to protect themselves against illness and harmful effects of the sun. They are also partially responsible for the color, aroma, and flavor of plant foods. Phytochemicals may help protect the body against some cancers, heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and other chronic health conditions. (See Figure 11.8.)

Dieting and Weight Issues

Part of good nutrition is maintaining a healthy weight.

• Being underweight means having too little body fat. Being underweight can cause a person to be tired, and possibly more open to infections.

j Being overweight means having too much body fat. Being overweight can cause health risks for diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer.

• Being obese means that a person is substantially overweight. Obesity can cause many serious health risks, including osteoarthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. As a foodservice professional, you can create menus that will help customers plan their dietary needs in a smart way.

Offering your customers healthful choices can help them maintain a healthy weight. Foodservice professionals should not plan menus by following the latest fad diets. A fad diet is a weight-loss plan that is based on misinformation. Fad diets, especially those that involve eating an excess of a single type of food, do not provide the nutrients and food energy most people need.

The best way to plan a menu is based on choosing cooking techniques and food products that will produce healthful, tasty dishes. It is a smart business plan to allow for substitutions in menu items for people who may have heatlh concerns. Doing this will allow more customers to eat at a foodservice business, and will keep customers coming back.

I Explain How can age, activity level, and lifestyle affect a person's dietary needs?

SECTION 11.2

Review Key Concepts

1. Summarize the contents of nutrition labels.

2. Distinguish between the types of vegetarians.

Practice Culinary Academics Social Studies

3. Research the history of the Food Guide Fyramid and MyPyramid. Gather information on when they were introduced, how they were developed, and what information they provide. Make a poster that points out differences between the two.

NCSS II F Time, Continuity, and Change Apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments.

English Language Arts

4. Choose a menu from a local foodservice establishment. Write a column for your school newspaper critiquing the menu based on MyPyramid and the Dietary Guidelines. Make recommendations for more nutritious choices.

Fat has 9 calories per gram. Wesley, a teen male, consumes 2,800 calories per day. If Wesley wants no more than 30% of his calories to come from fat, how many fat grams can he eat per day?

Finding the Percent of a Number To find a percent of a number, change the percent to a decimal by removing the percent sign and moving the decimal point two places to the left. Multiply this decimal by the number. Starting Hint This is a multi-step problem. First, determine Wesley's total fat calories per day by multiplying 2,800 by 30%. Then, divide that total by 9 to find the total number of fat grams Wesley can eat per day.

NCTM Problem Solving Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.

ffl Check your answers at this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com.

NCTE 5 Use different writing process elements to communicate effectively.

SECTION 11.3

Learn to cook foods so that they keep their nutritional value.

Continue reading here: Keep Food Nutritious

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