Discover the building blocks of good nutrition.
Think of an Example Look over the Key Concepts for this section. Think of an example of how or when you could use one of the skills from the Key Concepts. Thinking of how you might apply a skill can help motivate your learning by showing you why the skill is important.
Read to Learn
• Summarize the six categories of nutrients.
• List the types and uses of food additives.
Foodservice employees must understand the basics of nutrition to help them create healthful menus or make healthful ordering suggestions to diners.
• complete protein
• incomplete protein
• saturated fat
• monounsaturated fat
• polyunsaturated fat
k Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com for a printable graphic organizer.
As you read, use a fishbone like the one below to list the six categories of nutrients.
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NCTE 6 Apply knowledge of language structure and conventions to discuss texts.
Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement.
NSESB Develop an understanding of the structure and properties of matter.
NSES B Develop an understanding of chemical reactions.
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Imagine that your cafeteria does not offer enough healthful choices on its menu. How will you make suggestions? You must first understand the basics of nutrition. You can then make more healthful suggestions.
The human body needs food for growth and to maintain life. An important factor in meeting this need is a food's nutrient content. A nutrient is a chemical compound that helps the body to carry out its functions. There are more than 40 nutrients in food. They are grouped into six categories: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.
A carbohydrate is the nutrient that is the body's main source of energy. Simple carbohydrates, or sugars, include both natural sugars and refined sugars. Natural sugars are part of many foods like fruits, vegetables, and milk. Foods with natural sugars also have other impor tant nutrients. Refined sugars are processed. These sugars provide little more than calories.
Complex carbohydrates are starches, such as pasta, grains, cereals, and legumes. A legume is the seeds and pods from certain plants. Beans, lentils, and peas are examples of legumes. Foods that are high in complex carbohydrates contain many other nutrients your body needs, such as vitamins and minerals. Your body breaks down simple and complex carbohydrates into a usable energy source known as glucose. Glucose gives your body the energy it needs to work properly.
A unique form of a complex carbohydrate that does not provide energy is fiber. There are two types of fiber. Soluble fiber dissolves in water. Insoluble fiber absorbs water. Fiber helps the body's digestive system and waste elimination system function. Its main advantage is that it cannot be digested. As it passes through the body, fiber helps remove wastes.
Create dishes with a wide variety of nutrients. Do you see sources of carbohydrates present in this salad?
Simple Sugars Refined sugars are simple carbohydrates. What is the difference between natural sugar and refined sugar?
Insoluble fiber is found in the outer coating of whole grains. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oat bran and grains. Soluble fiber has been linked with the prevention of heart disease and some cancers.
Protein is a nutrient that builds, maintains, and repairs body tissues. It is essential for healthy muscles, skin, bones, eyes, and hair. It also plays an important role in fighting disease. If a person does not eat enough carbohydrate and fat, the body will use protein for energy.
Through digestion, protein is broken down into small units that can be combined in certain ways to produce complete proteins. These units are called amino acids. There are 22 amino acids. Some amino acids can be created by the body, while others cannot and must be gotten from food.
Animal foods, such as fish, meats, poultry, eggs, milk and milk products, provide all of the essential amino acids. A protein source that provides all of the amino acids is called a complete protein. Most plant foods lack some of the essential amino acids. A protein source that does not provide all of the amino acids is called an incomplete protein. However, by combining nuts or dry beans and grains, a person can eat all of the essential amino acids. This is especially important for those who do not eat animal products.
Complete Combinations These are some food combinations that provide complete proteins: • Rice and red beans j Refried beans and corn tortillas j Split pea soup and whole-wheat bread
Fat and cholesterol play an essential role, or function performed, in keeping the body healthy. Fat regulates bodily functions and helps carry some vitamins through the system. It is a source of stored energy and a cushion for body organs. Fat adds flavor to foods. Popular types of cooking fat are lard and shortening, which are 100% fat. Butter and margarine are about 80% fat. There is strong evidence that shows that a diet higher than 30% in fat and cholesterol can put you at risk for heart disease and cancer.
Many fats, such as those in margarine and shortening, have gone through a hydrogenation process. Hydrogenation (hl-ldra-j9-'na-shsn) is a process in which hydrogen is added under pressure to polyunsaturated fats, such as soybean oil. Hydrogenation changes liquid oil into a solid fat. An unsaturated fat that goes through the hydrogenation process becomes a trans fatty acid, or trans fat. Stick margarine and vegetable shortening are examples of hydrogenated fat.
Cholesterol (ks-'les-ts-irol) is a fatlike substance that is found in all body cells and in all animal foods, such as meat, egg yolks, and dairy products. The body makes its own cholesterol to produce cell membranes, hormones, vitamin D, and bile acids, which help digest fats. Some cholesterol circulates through the bloodstream in a chemical package called a lipoprotein (ilJ-p9-'pro-|ten). There are two types of lipoproteins. They are low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).
Too much LDL, or bad cholesterol, can contribute to cardiovascular (|kar-de-o-'vas-kys-lsr), or heart-related, problems. LDL can build up on artery walls. This buildup slows or prevents the flow of blood to the heart and other vital organs. Higher HDL, or good cholesterol, helps lower the amount of total cholesterol in the blood. Make wise food choices to help reduce the amount of harmful cholesterol in the blood.
Science à la Carte
What Is Fat?
Fat is a compound that contains a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms. All carbon atoms have four bonds, or links, to other atoms. Some of the bonds are single bonds and some are double bonds. Single bonds are formed when two atoms share one pair of electrons. Double bonds are formed when hydrogen bonds are missing. Without hydrogen, carbon cannot form single bonds. To make up for a missing hydrogen atom, a carbon atom will form a double bond with another carbon atom.
Fats are characterized by their chemical structure. All saturated fats have single bonds. Unsaturated fats are classified by the number of double bonds that form. For example, mono-unsaturated fat is missing two hydrogen atoms, and so has one double bond. Polyunsaturated fat has more than one double bond.
Continue reading here: Meal Planning Guidelines
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