Mixing Batters and Doughs

Batters and doughs are formed when the dry and liquid ingredients are combined to create baked products. Batters contain almost equal parts of dry and liquid ingredients. Batters are usually easy to pour. Cakes and muffins are baked products made from batters.

A dough contains less liquid than a batter, making it easy to work doughs with your hands. Doughs may even be stiff enough to be cut into shapes. Many types of breads are made from dough.

.Y FIGURE26.3 Dessert Additives

Helpful Additions Additives can help color, thicken, replace fat, and preserve moisture in baked goods and desserts. What additive would you choose if you wanted to keep a wedding cake's icing smooth and moist?


Food Items


Thiamin Niacin Riboflavin Iron

• Flours, breads

• Nutrients

Beta carotene

• Margarine

• Coloring agents

Red No. 3

• Candies

Green No. 3 Yellow No. 6

• Various baked products


• Chocolate, baked products, margarine

• Emulsifier

Carrageenan Pectin

Modified starches

• Ice cream, cream cheese, sherbets, fruit fillings, puddings, pie fillings

• Thickeners and stabilizers


• Cake icings

• Humectant (used to retain moisture and keep foods soft)


• Cake flour

• Bleaching and maturing agents

Potassium bromate

• Bread flour

Benzoyl peroxide

• All flour

Ascorbic acid

• Bread flour

Sodium bicarbonate

• Baking powder

• Acids, alkalis, and buffers (used to adjust and control acidity or alkalinity)

Potassium carbonate

• Dutch-processed cocoa powder

Gum and starch derivatives

Frozen desserts

Fat replacers


• Baked products, puddings

• Bulking agent (used to provide texture and body in reduced-fat goods)

Mixing Methods

There are many ways to mix batters and doughs. The mixing method that you choose will depend on the type of baked product you will make. Many baked goods require you to use more than one type of mixing method.

• Beating Agitating ('a-js-.tat-iq) ingredients vigorously to add air or develop gluten is called beating. You may use a spoon or a bench mixer with a paddle attachment for beating.

• Blending Mixing or folding two or more ingredients together until they are evenly combined is called blending. Use a spoon, whisk, rubber spatula, or bench mixer with a paddle attachment for blending.

• Creaming Vigorously combining softened fat and sugar to add air is called creaming. Use a bench mixer on medium speed with a paddle attachment.

• Cut in To cut in, mix solid fat with dry ingredients until lumps of the desired size remain. Use a pastry cutter, a bench mixer and paddle attachment, or two knives to cut in fat. You may also rub the fat and flour between your fingers.

• Folding Gently adding light, airy ingredients such as eggs to heavier ingredients by using a smooth circular movement is called folding. Folding is a good technique to use to keep mixtures from deflating.

L FIGURE 26.4 | Common Baking Nuts

' Flavorful Texture Nuts provide flavor and texture to baked goods. What nuts might you choose to bake into a banana bread?


Uses in Baking


Used in breads, cakes, pastries, marzipan, and as decorations; sweet almonds are eaten, bitter almonds are used as a source of flavorings and extracts; available whole, slivered, ground, sliced, and in flour or meal form


Used to flavor buttercreams and fillings, and as a decoration for cakes and cookies; sweet flavor; available dried, chopped, and canned as a paste


Used in cakes, cookies, pies, and desserts; available grated or flaked and may be sweetened or unsweetened; desiccated (,de-si-'kat-ad) coconut is dried, unsweetened coconut that has been ground to a fine meal


Also known as filberts; used in candies, baked goods, and desserts; can be made into a paste for flavoring buttercreams and fillings; available whole in the shell, whole shelled, or chopped

Macadamia Nuts

Used in cakes, cookies, and ice creams; smooth, buttery flavor; available roasted and salted; very expensive


Used in pastries and candies, such as peanut brittle; often combined with chocolate creations; available raw, dry roasted, in granules


Used in pies, breads, and desserts; mild and sweet flavor; available shelled in halves or pieces; expensive, but other nuts can easily be substituted

Pine Nuts

Used in breads, cookies, and pastry; available raw or toasted; resemble almonds in flavor


Used in cakes, pastries, and to flavor buttercreams and ice creams; mild flavor and fine texture; available shelled, roasted, and salted


Used in cookies, brownies, cakes, muffins, and ice creams; available in halves, which are mostly used for decoration, and pieces

Carryover Baking Baked products continue to bake for a short time after being removed from a hot oven. This process is called carryover baking. The chemical and physical changes that occur during the baking process do not stop immediately. The product continues to bake because of the heat contained in the product. If you do not take carryover baking into account, you will end up with overbaked products.

• Kneading Working a dough by hand or in a bench mixer with a dough hook to develop gluten and evenly distribute ingredients is called kneading.

• Sifting Passing dry ingredients such as flour through a wire mesh to remove lumps, blend, and add air is called sifting. Use a rotary sifter or a mesh strainer for sifting.

j Stirring Gently blending ingredients until they are combined is called stirring. Use a spoon, rubber spatula, or whisk for stirring.

• Whipping Vigorously beating ingredients to add air is called whipping. Use a whisk or a bench mixer with a whip attachment for whipping.

I Contrast What are the differences between batters and doughs?

SECTION 26.2 Review Key Concepts

1. Identify the most common types of fat used in a bakeshop.

2. Compare and contrast folding with kneading.

Practice Culinary Academics ^^ English Language Arts

3. Choose one of the ingredient types described in the chapter, and write a dialogue in which an instructor introduces that ingredient type to a student. You may give general information about that ingredient type or distinguish between the different kinds of that ingredient.

NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively.

l^j Science

4. Procedure In addition to flavor and texture, nutrition is also a consideration when you bake. Obtain nutrition labels for unsweetened chocolate, semisweet chocolate, white chocolate, cocoa powder, and Dutch-process cocoa powder. Analysis Compare the nutrition information for each. Graph the data.

^^ Mathematics

5. Erica needs 24 cups of 2% milk to prepare a cake formula. However, her kitchen only has reduced fat (1%) milk and whole (4%) milk available. How many cups of each type of milk should she use?

^^^^^ Writing Equivalent Equations Performing the same operation to both sides of an algebraic equation will result in an equivalent equation. For example, to remove decimals from the equation .06x + .2y = .54, you can multiply both sides by 100 to get 6x + 20y = 54.

Starting Hint Let x = cups of 1% milk and y = cups of 4% milk. You know that x + y = 24, and you also know that 0.01x + 0.04y = (0.02)(24), or 1x + 4y = 48. Rewrite the first equation as x = 24 - y, and substitute (24 - y) for x in the second equation.

NCTM Algebra Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.

Bji Check your answers at this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com.

NSES F Develop an understanding of personal and community health.

Chapter Summary f

Commercial bakers use formulas because their accuracy ensures a consistent final product. Commercial bakers prefer to use weight measurements for greater accuracy. Bakeshop equipment must be properly cared for.

Flour, liquids, fats, sugars and sweeteners, eggs, leavening agents, and flavorings are ingredients of baked goods. The main difference among baked products is the proportion of ingredients in the formulas.

Content and Academic Vocabulary Review

1. Write each of the terms below on an index card, with definitions on the back. Use them to review.

Content Vocabulary

• soft wheat flour (p. 688)

• blend (p. 699)

• scaling (p. 679)

• bread flour (p. 688)

• cream (p. 699)

• percentage (p. 680)

• cake flour (p. 688)

• cut in (p. 699)

• sheeter (p. 681)

• pastry flour (p. 688)

• fold (p. 699)

• stack oven (p. 682)

• staling (p. 689)

• knead (p. 700)

• convection oven (p. 682)

• dried milk solids (p. 689)

• sift (p. 700)

• reel oven (p. 684)

• shortening (p. 689)

• stir (p. 700)

• springform pan (p. 686)

• oil (p. 690)

• whip (p. 700)

• gluten (p. 688)

• dough (p. 698)

Academic Vocabulary

• contribution (p. 691)

• crumb (p. 688)

• beat (p. 699)

2. Explain baking formulas.

3. Describe the function of various bakeshop equipment.

4. Identify bakeshop tools.

5. Identify the different categories of ingredients and their roles in the baking process.

6. Compare and contrast different dough mixing methods.

Critical Thinking

7. Analyze measuring techniques. What might happen if a baker measured dry ingredients in measuring cups instead of weighing them on a scale?

8. Imagine you are looking at different ovens to purchase for a new bakery. What factors would you consider?

9. Explain Why is it important for a baker to know the protein content of different types of flour?

10. Evaluate baking methods. If 10 cherry pies all have dry crusts that are too dark after being baked according to a formula, what could have happened, and how could it have been prevented?

Academic Skills

^^ English Language Arts

11. Write Formula Procedures Find baking formulas for three different baked goods. Look at the formulas and see if you can figure out how to follow them. Write down the procedure you would follow in order to make the baked good. Make sure that each step of the procedure is easy to follow and clear, even to a new bakeshop employee.

NCTE 3 Apply strategies to comprehend texts.

ijj Science

12. Gluten The gluten in flour affects the texture of a baked good. Gluten makes bread dough strong and elastic. The amount of gluten in the flour you use will change the texture of the final product.

Procedure Follow your teacher's directions to form groups. Choose a bakeshop formula as a group. As a group, make the same product using flours with two different gluten levels. Analysis Compare the finished products. What are the differences? What can you conclude about the importance of gluten in baking? Write a summary of your answer.

NSES B Develop an understanding of chemical reactions.


13. Use Baker's Percentages Danielle needs to make 100 pounds of bread using the formula listed below. Calculate the exact weight (to the nearest ounce) of each ingredient that Danielle will need: Bread flour, 100%. Water, 65%. Salt, 2%. Yeast, 2%. Shortening, 5%. Sugar, 4%. Dry milk solids, 7%. Total, 185%. tMH^S^E Decimal Weights There are 16 ounces in 1 pound. To convert a decimal pound amount into pounds and ounces, take the amount to the right of the decimal point and multiply by 16, then round that product to the nearest whole number. The result becomes the ounce portion of the weight. For example, given a weight of 4.28 pounds, multiply 0.28 x 16 to get 4.48, which rounds to 4. The weight is thus 4 pounds, 4 ounces.

Starting Hint Divide the total pounds needed (100) by the total formula percentage (185%) to find the weight of the flour. To do so, first convert the percentage into a decimal by dividing by 100 (simply move the decimal point two places to the left). Multiply each ingredient's percentage by the weight of the flour to find the weight of each ingredient.

NCTM Number and Operations Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.

Certification Prep

Directions Read the questions. Then, read the answer choices and choose the best possible answer for each.

14. Which is an individual soufflé mold?

a. brioche pan b. ramekin c. tart pan d. springform pan

15. What is the process in which oils become solid?

a. staling b. hydrogenation c. leavening d. fermentation

Sharpen your test-taking skills to improve your kitchen certification program score.

If a new term is a compound phrase of two or more words, try to figure it out by looking at the meanings of the individual words before looking it up for yourself. This will help you remember the word's meaning.

Real-World Skills and Applications

Interpersonal and Collaborative Skills

16. Start a Bakeshop Follow your teacher's instructions to form a business team. Divide into chefs, marketers, and dieticians. Chefs will create five baked good product ideas. Marketers will create names and descriptions for the products. Dieticians will evaluate the nutrition content for each. Share your work with the class.

Information Literacy

17. Read Flour Labels Obtain and examine labels for different types of flours. What is their gluten content? What additives, if any, do they contain? How does the nutrition compare? Write your findings and conclusions in a chart and share it with the class.

Technology Applications

18. Baking Equipment PowerPoint Using the information in the chapter on different baking equipment, create a PowerPoint presentation that describes the various equipment used in a bakeshop. Use words, graphics, and/or photos. Share the presentation with the class.

Financial Literacy

19. Purchase Eggs You need to purchase egg products for use in your bakeshop. Shell eggs cost $7.50 per flat. Liquid egg products cost $6.00 per 32 ounces. There is the equivalent of half an egg per ounce in a package of liquid egg product. How much per egg does each option cost? Which option has the best price?

Culinary Lab

Measure Ingredient Yie 20

Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.

Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.

Practice Measuring Working in teams, you will practice converting and measuring ingredients for baking using the appropriate equipment.

A. Review ingredients. Working in teams, review the ingredients for the formula of Chocolate Applesauce Cake, shown below. The formula yields six 9-inch cakes, or 8 pounds, 9% ounces. You want to make 10 9-inch cakes, or 14 pounds, 5 ounces. Create a chart and determine the amount of ingredients needed to yield 10 9-inch cakes.

Cake flour, sifted, 1 lb., 11 oz., 100% Cocoa powder, sifted, 1V2 oz., 6% Baking soda, sifted, 3/4 oz., 3% Baking powder, sifted, % oz., 3% Salt, 3/4 oz., 3%

Brown sugar, 2 lbs., 4 oz., 133% Vegetable oil, 1 lb., 5 oz., 78% Eggs, whole, 13 oz., 48% Applesauce, 12 oz., 44% Buttermilk, 1 lb., 8 oz., 89% TOTAL 8 lbs., 912 oz., 510%

B. Use the baker's percentage. Add the baker's percentage and change the total to a decimal. Convert the new yield to ounces by multiplying pounds by 16. Divide the new yield by the decimal figure to determine the weight of the flour. Change each ingredient's baker's percentage to a decimal. Multiply each of these numbers by the weight of the flour to determine the new ingredient amount. If needed, round the results to the next highest number.

C. Measureingredients. After filling out your chart, practice measuring each ingredient with the appropriate tool: baker's or electronic scale, measuring cups or spoons, or volume measures.

Create Your Evaluation

Write out an evaluation of each ingredient and how difficult or easy it was to measure. What made some ingredients more difficult to measure? Discuss each ingredient as a class and share your observations with the other students. Compare your results. Did everyone have the same difficulties, or was it varied?


Continue reading here: Yeast Breads and Rolls

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