The last stop in the flow of food is the disposal point. The disposal point is the point at which food remaining after being eaten is disposed of properly. Cleaning and sanitizing are the key actions to take at the disposal point.
Dishes, glasses, cups, utensils, and equipment must be cleaned and sanitized.
The first step is to scrape leftover food from dishes, equipment, tools, and glasses into the garbage can. Then, the dish or tool should be rinsed over the sink's garbage disposal unit before it is washed. Most foodservice operations use a combination of commercial sinks and dishwashers to clean and sanitize dishes, cookware, and utensils. Chemical sanitizers are used in both sinks and dishwashers to keep bacteria from growing. (See Figure 2.9.)
It is very important to throw away waste properly. Harmful bacteria can easily grow in garbage, and pests are attracted to it. Garbage should be disposed of in proper containers. It should never be left on counters. Garbage containers should be cleaned and sanitized every day. A fresh liner should be used every time garbage is taken out. Garbage should be taken out as soon as the container is full, and at the end of the day. Always wash your hands properly after taking out the garbage.
A recycling program can help improve the environment. To recycle is to take a product at the end of its use and turn it into a raw material to make a different product. Some products that can be recycled include paper, glass, aluminum, steel, and some forms of plastic.
To start a recycling program at a foodservice establishment, you must first decide what you will recycle. Then, set aside storage containers for different types of recyclable items, and separate items (glass, plastic, and aluminum, for example). Rinse all items to be recycled so they do not attract pests.
A three-compartment commercial sink is used for manual dishwashing. (See Figure 2.10.) Manual dishwashing is washing dishes, glasses, cookware, and utensils by hand. You must first scrape and prerinse dishes. Next, wash them in at least 110°F (43°C) water and detergent. Hold glasses upside down over the center brush in a dishwashing sink, and rotate the glass back and forth. Then, rinse the dishes with clear water at 110°F (43°C). Change the water as needed to keep it clear and hot. Sanitize items in at least 171°F (77°C) water for 30 seconds. Some health codes require 180°F (82°C) water for sanitizing. When sanitizing with chemical solutions, follow the manufacturer's directions for proper concentration and water temperature. Remove the items and allow them to air dry. Store the items in a clean, dry area.
r Jfigure 2.10 Three-Compartment Sinks
Wash, Rinse, Sanitize A three-compartment sink is used to wash, rinse, and sanitize dishes. What factors should you consider when you use a three-compartment sink?
Scrubbing and Scouring
To clean pots, pans, cooking tools, forks, knives, and spoons, follow the manual dishwashing procedures described above. Never use steel wool or metal scouring pads on small tools. This can cause nicks and scratches. Bacteria can hide and multiply in these scratches. In addition, steel wool fragments may remain on pots or pans, creating a physical hazard if they make their way into food. Sponges should not be used because they are great hiding places for harmful bacteria.
Commercial Dishwasher Use
Foodservice operations clean and sanitize a lot of dishes during a single day. Dishes can be cleaned by hand. However, this can take a large amount of time and resources. It is much more efficient for restaurants to use commercial dishwashers.
There are many types of commercial dishwashers:
• Single-compartment dishwashers have one compartment for all dishes and utensils.
• Multi-compartment dishwashers have more than one compartment.
• Recirculating dishwashers recycle pre-wash water through the dishes to save water and energy.
• Conveyor dishwashers clean dishes in racks on a belt that moves through the machine.
• Door-model, or stationary rack, dishwashers have a large front door to load dishes, and can wash many dishes at one time.
These general guidelines should be followed when using a commercial dishwasher:
• Scrape and rinse soiled dishes and presoak utensils and tools.
• Prerinse dishes to remove food and soil.
• Rack dishes, glasses, and utensils so that water will spray all of the surfaces. Glasses should be placed upside-down.
Dry and Store Items
How you dry and store dishes and glasses will determine whether they will stay clean and sanitary. You must follow a procedure to keep from contaminating the sanitized dishes and glasses.
Allow clean, sanitized dishes to air dry. Do not touch dish surfaces that will come in contact with food once they have been cleaned, sanitized, and dried. Wash your hands before you store items in a clean, dry area. All dishes should be completely dry before they are stacked and stored. Water that is left on dishes can become a breeding ground for bacteria, mold, and other disease-causing microorganisms. Do not stack dishes or glasses too high on storage shelves. This can create a safety hazard if they become unbalanced and fall.
should garbage be taken out? ' instead of dried with a towel?
Doing Dishes Dishes should be thoroughly washed and sanitized each time they are used. Why do you think that dishes should be air-dried
SECTION 2.3 r^flmmim Review Key Concepts
1. Explain how to receive and store dry and canned goods.
2. Describe how to reheat foods safely.
3. Identify the steps that must be taken before running a dishwasher.
Practice Culinary Academics Science
4. Procedure Follow your teacher's instructions to form small groups. Prepare two servings of a cooked vegetable dish. Carefully follow the chapter's advice for storing one serving. Store the other serving in a way that would be unsafe. The next day, compare the two dishes by sight and smell, but do not eat them.
Analysis Record your observations and make conclusions storing cooked vegetables.
NSES F Develop an understanding of personal and community health.
5. You are holding a pot of gravy for service. At 6:00 p.m., its temperature measures 143.2°F. At 7:00 p.m., its temperature reads 136.1 °F. At 8:00 p.m., its temperature reaches 141.6°F. What is the gravy's range of temperatures?
^^^^^^^^ Calculating Range Range is a statistical measure indicating the distance between the greatest and least numbers in a set of numbers. To calculate range, subtract the lowest value from the highest value.
Starting Hint Determine which of the three recorded temperatures is the highest, and which of the three is the lowest. Subtract the lowest temperature from the highest temperature to find the gravy's range of temperatures.
NCTM Data Analysis and Probability Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data.
/¡5| Check your answers at this book's
Online Learning Center at / glencoe.com.
Chapter Summary f
To ensure food safety and quality, foodhan-dlers must follow procedures that promote a clean and healthy workplace. This starts when they get ready for work and lasts until their work shift is over. Foodhandlers must be in good physical health to work. They must prac tice good grooming habits. The HACCP system helps minimize hazards and ensure food safety in a professional kitchen. All food products must be inspected carefully, stored quickly and properly, monitored while in storage, prepared carefully, and disposed of properly.
Content and Academic Vocabulary Review
1. Create a fill-in-the-blank sentence for each term, with enough information to determine the missing word.
Content Vocabulary foodhandler (p. 26)
protective clothing (p. 26)
hair restraint (p. 26)
hand sanitizer (p. 27)
critical control point (p. 32)
minimum internal temperature (p. 33)
food thermometer (p. 34)
Review Key Concepts calibrate (p. 35) record-keeping system (p. 35) log (p. 36) receiving (p. 38) storage (p. 38) shelf life (p. 38) first in, first out (p. 38) shucked (p. 39) processing (p. 40) pasteurize (p. 40) produce (p. 41) perishable (p. 41) food preparation (p. 42)
2. Demonstrate appropriate personal hygiene for the workplace.
3. Illustrate proper personal health practices to avoid the spread of foodborne illness.
4. Explain the purpose of the HACCP system.
5. Outline the processes of monitoring, corrective action, record keeping, and verification.
6. Summarize the steps in safely receiving and storing food.
7. Identify safe holding, serving, cooling, and reheating guidelines.
8. Explain how to properly clean, sanitize, and store dishes and glassware.
9. Explain what you should do if you are preparing a sauce and you find that someone's hair has fallen in the sauce. 10. Evaluate record keeping. Why is detailed and accurate record keeping an important part of the HACCP system?
English Language Arts
11. Develop a Disposal Procedure An effective workplace procedure must be clear enough for employees to understand so that they follow it correctly. Create a procedure for disposing of food and washing dishes, and write it out in a step-by-step or checklist form that employees could use to follow the procedure.
NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes.
^'jj Social Studies
12. Hygiene History Research the history and development of an aspect of food safety, for example, hand-washing, foodborne illness, or food storage. Write a report that details the development of your topic and that answers the following questions: How were the hazards discovered and solutions developed? How has human health improved as a result of these changes, both in the workplace and at home?
NCSS VIII B Science, Technology, and Society Make judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society and our understanding of human-environment interactions.
13. Calculate Volume You have cooked a pot of soup for tomorrow's lunch. Following proper cooling guidelines, you would like to transfer the contents of the full 12-quart (693-cubic-inch) pot of hot soup into smaller containers for cooling. Each rectangular-shaped container is 12 inches long, 10 inches wide, and 2 inches deep. How many smaller containers will you need to hold all of the soup?
¿SUISSE Calculating the Volume of a Box Volume is the amount of space inside a solid object. The volume of a box (or a rectangular three-dimensional shape) is obtained by multiplying its length times its width times its height (or depth). Starting Hint Calculate the volume in cubic inches of one container by multiplying its length (12 inches) by its width (10 inches) by its height (2 inches). Then, divide this number into the volume of soup (693 cubic inches) to determine the number of containers needed. Round up to the next whole number.
NCTM Geometry Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems.
Directions Read the questions. Then, read the answer choices and choose the best possible answer for each.
14. The temperature danger zone is:
15. Food safety begins during:
Sharpen your test-taking skills to improve your kitchen certification program score.
a. receiving b. storage c. preparation d. holding for service
Come up with the answer in your head before looking at the possible answers. You will be more confident in your answer, and avoid being tricked.
Real-World Skills and Applications
Time Management Skills
16. Get Ready for Work Imagine that you are a line cook in a restaurant. Your job requires you to be ready to begin work exactly at the start of your shift. You have one hour between school and work to get ready. Create a schedule to help you prepare for work. Include all activities for getting ready on your schedule.
17. Customer Service Imagine that you are the manager of a restaurant that has had a recent outbreak of foodborne illness. One of your regular customers who has not been ill is concerned. Assume you have an HACCP system set up in your restaurant. How would you speak to the customer? Role-play your responses in class.
Cu) ftiary Lab
Your HACCP System
20. Create an HACCP System
Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.
18. Make a Spreadsheet Create a spreadsheet that could serve as a checklist for kitchen employees to check tasks as they work. Identify the critical control points, and underneath each create a list of the critical actions that will minimize the risk of food contamination.
19. Dishwashing Options Commercial dishwashers cost $4,000 and take one person to run. Dishwashing by hand requires three employees. Employee dishwashers earn a wage of $7.25 per hour. If employee dishwashers work 8 hours per day, how long will it take for a commercial dishwasher to become more cost-effective than manual dishwashing?
Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.
In this lab, you will follow your teacher's instructions for forming teams. Working in teams, you will create an HACCP system for the commercial kitchen pictured on page 33, using the HACCP critical control points on page 31 as your guide.
A. Find the problems. As a team, determine the potential control point problems in each of the following areas on the diagram: receiving food, storing food, preparing and cooking food, holding food, and serving food. Create standard operating procedures for this kitchen.
B. Create a poster. Develop a poster that explains your team's solutions to the problems you have identified. Have your teacher approve the team's poster.
C. Check your foods lab. Inspect your foods lab using your team's HACCP inspection system poster. Note any areas that might need improvement.
D. Report to the class. Report your team's findings to the class.
E. Lead a discussion. Discuss each team's food lab inspection and poster recommendations. Analyze what they illustrated about the role of the HACCP system in keeping food safe.
Create Your Evaluation
Compare and contrast the systems and procedures of each team. Which systems and procedures were most effective? Thinking about each team's system and results, answer the following questions:
1. If you were designing a new system, would you change the way you look for critical control points? Why?
2. How can you be a better foodservice employee after this experience?
Continue reading here: Research and Development
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