# Data Analysis and Probability

Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them

### Histograms

A histogram displays numerical data that have been organized into equal intervals using bars that have the same width and no space between them. While a histogram does not give exact data points, its shape shows the distribution of the data. Histograms also can be used to compare data.

Box-and-Whisker Plot

A box-and-whisker plot displays the measures of central tendency and variation. A box is drawn around the quartile values, and whiskers extend from each quartile to the extreme data points. To make a box plot for a set of data, draw a number line that covers the range of data. Find the median, the extremes, and the upper and lower quartiles. Mark these points on the number line with bullets, then draw a box and the whiskers. The length of a whisker or box shows whether the values of the data in that part are concentrated or spread out.

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A scatter plot is a graph that shows the relationship between two sets of data. In a scatter plot, two sets of data are graphed as ordered pairs on a coordinate system. Two sets of data can have a positive correlation (as x increases, y increases), a negative correlation (as x increases, y decreases), or no correlation (no obvious pattern is shown). Scatter plots can be used to spot trends, draw conclusions, and make predictions about data.

Perfect Positive Correlation

12.5

12.5

### Randomization

The idea of randomization is a very important principle of statistics and the design of experiments. Data must be selected randomly to prevent bias from influencing the results. For example, you want to know the average income of people in your town but you can only use a sample of 100 individuals to make determinations about everyone. If you select 100 individuals who are all doctors, you will have a biased sample. However, if you chose a random sample of 100 people out of the phone book, you are much more likely to accurately represent average income in the town.

### Statistics and Parameters

Statistics is a science that involves collecting, analyzing, and presenting data. The data can be collected in various ways—for example through a census or by making physical measurements. The data can then be analyzed by creating summary statistics, which have to do with the distribution of the data sample, including the mean, range, and standard error. They can also be illustrated in tables and graphs, like box-plots, scatter plots, and histograms. The presentation of the data typically involves describing the strength or validity of the data and what they show. For example, an analysis of ancestry of people in a city might tell you something about immigration patterns, unless the data set is very small or biased in some way, in which case it is not likely to be very accurate or useful.

### Categorical and Measurement Data

When analyzing data, it is important to understand if the data is qualitative or quantitative. Categorical data is qualitative and measurement, or numerical, data is quantitative. Categorical data describes a quality of something and can be placed into different categories. For example, if you are analyzing the number of students in different grades in a school, each grade is a category. On the other hand, measurement data is continuous, like height, weight, or any other measurable variable. Measurement data can be converted into categorical data if you decide to group the data. Using height as an example, you can group the continuous data set into categories like under 5 feet, 5 feet to

5 feet 5 inches, over 5 feet five inches to

Univariate and Bivariate Data

In data analysis, a researcher can analyze one variable at a time or look at how multiple variables behave together. Univariate data involves only one variable, for example height in humans. You can measure the height in a population of people then plot the results in a histogram to look at how height is distributed in humans. To summarize univariate data, you can use statistics like the mean, mode, median, range, and standard deviation, which is a measure of variation. When looking at more than one variable at once, you use multivariate data. Bivariate data involves two variables. For example, you can look at height and age in humans together by gathering information on both variables from individuals in a population. You can then plot both variables in a scatter plot, look at how the variables behave in relation to each other, and create an equation that represents the relationship, also called a regression. These equations could help answer questions such as, for example, does height increase with age in humans?

Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data

### Measures of Central Tendency

When you have a list of numerical data, it is often helpful to use one or more numbers to represent the whole set. These numbers are called measures of central tendency. Three measures of central tendency are mean, median, and mode. The mean is the sum of the data divided by the number of items in the data set. The median is the middle number of the ordered data (or the mean of the two middle numbers). The mode is the number or numbers that occur most often. These measures of central tendency allow data to be analyzed and better understood.

In statistics, measures of spread or variation are used to describe how data are distributed. The range of a set of data is the difference between the greatest and the least values of the data set. The quar-tiles are the values that divide the data into four equal parts. The median of data separates the set in half. Similarly, the median of the lower half of a set of data is the lower quartile. The median of the upper half of a set of data is the upper quartile. The interquartile range is the difference between the upper quartile and the lower quartile.

### Line of Best Fit

When real-life data are collected, the points graphed usually do not form a straight line, but they may approximate a linear relationship. A line of best fit is a line that lies very close to most of the data points. It can be used to predict data. You also can use the equation of the best-fit line to make predictions.

Stem and Leaf Plots

In a stem and leaf plot, numerical data are listed in ascending or descending order. The greatest place value of the data is used for the stems. The next greatest place value forms the leaves. For example, if the least number in a set of data is 8 and the greatest number is 95, draw a vertical line and write the stems from 0 to 9 to the left of the line. Write the leaves from to the right of the line, with the corresponding stem. Next, rearrange the leaves so they are ordered from least to greatest. Then include a key or explanation, such as 1|3 = 13. Notice that the stem-and-leaf plot below is like a histogram turned on its side.

0|8 1|3 6 2|5 6 9 3|0 2 7 8 4|0 1 4 7 9 5|1 4 5 8 6|1 3 7 7|5 8 8|2 6 9|5

..■■- Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data

### Sampling Distribution

The sampling distribution of a population is the distribution that would result if you could take an infinite number of samples from the population, average each, and then average the averages. The more normal the distribution of the population, that is, how closely the distribution follows a bell curve, the more likely the sampling distribution will also follow a normal distribution. Furthermore, the larger the sample, the more likely it will accurately represent the entire population. For instance, you are more likely to gain more representative results from a population of 1,000 with a sample of 100 than with a sample of 2.

### Validity

In statistics, validity refers to acquiring results that accurately reflect that which is being measured. In other words, it is important when performing statistical analyses, to ensure that the data are valid in that the sample being analyzed represents the population to the best extent possible. Randomization of data and using appropriate sample sizes are two important aspects of making valid inferences about a population.

..■■- Understand and apply basic concepts of probability

Complementary, Mutually Exclusive Events

To understand probability theory, it is important to know if two events are mutually exclusive, or complementary: the occurrence of one event automatically implies the non-occurrence of the other. That is, two complementary events cannot both occur. If you roll a pair of dice, the event of rolling 6 and rolling doubles have an outcome in common (3, 3), so they are not mutually exclusive. If you roll (3, 3), you also roll doubles. However, the events of rolling a 9 and rolling doubles are mutually exclusive because they have no outcomes in common. If you roll a 9, you will not also roll doubles.

### Independent and Dependent Events

Determining the probability of a series of events requires that you know whether the events are independent or dependent. An independent event has no influence on the occurrence of subsequent events, whereas, a dependent event does influence subsequent events. The chances that a woman's first child will be a girl are y, and the chances that her second child will be a girl are also y because the two events are independent of each other. However, if there are 7 red marbles in a bag of 15 marbles, the chances that the first marble you pick will be red are ^ and if you indeed pick a red marble and remove it, you have reduced the chances of picking another red marble to ^.

### Sample Space

The sample space is the group of all possible outcomes for an event. For example, if you are tossing a single six-sided die, the sample space is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Similarly, you can determine the sample space for the possible outcomes of two events. If you are going to toss a coin twice, the sample space is {(heads, heads), (heads, tails), (tails, heads), (tails, tails)}.

### Computing the Probability of a Compound Event

If two events are independent, the outcome of one event does not influence the outcome of the second. For example, if a bag contains 2 blue and 3 red marbles, then the probability of selecting a blue marble, replacing it, and then selecting a red marble is P(A) x P(B) = f x f- or

If two events are dependent, the outcome of one event affects the outcome of the second. For example, if a bag contains 2 blue and 3 red marbles, then the probability of selecting a blue and then a red marble without replacing the first marble is P(A) x P(B following A) = y x y or ^. Two events that cannot happen at the same time are mutually exclusive. For example, when you roll two number cubes, you cannot roll a sum that is both 5 and even. So, P(A or B) = 4 + if or

Glossary

How to Use This Glossary

• Content vocabulary terms in this glossary are words that relate to this book's content. They are highlighted yellow in your text.

• Words in this glossary that have an asterisk (*) are academic vocabulary terms. They help you understand your school subjects and are used on tests. They are boldfaced blue in your text.

• Some of the vocabulary words in this book include pronunciation symbols to help you sound out the words. Use the pronunciation key to help you pronounce the words.

Pronunciation Key

 a . . . . at ô. . .fork, all {. • .sing a . . . . ape œ . .boeuf th . . thin a . . . .father oo . .wood, put ] . . this e . . . . end [. . . fool zh . .treasure # . . . . me oi . . oil a . . . .ago, taken, pencil, lemon, i . . . . it ou. . out circus ï . . . . ice u . . . . up = . indicates primary stress o. . . .hot u . . . use (symbol in front of and above letter) %. . ..hope . .saw u . . . rule . . . . indicates secondary stress o . . u . . .pull (symbol in front of and below letter)

à la carte (.a-la-'kart) menu A menu that offers each food and beverage item priced and served separately. (p. 310) abrasion A scrape or minor cut. (p. 11)

* abundant Plentiful. (p. 406)

* acceptable Of good quality. (p. 572)

* accessible Available. (p. 663)

accident report log Shows the details of any accident that happens in a business. (p. 201) accompaniment An item that comes with an entrée, such as a choice of potato, rice, or pasta and a choice of vegetable. (p. 312)

* accompaniment Something that goes well with another thing. (p. 416)

* accurate Correct and updated. (p. 78)

active listening The skill of paying attention and interacting with the speaker. (p. 85)

* adapting Positively changing. (p. 206)

a la cart menu-American-style ice cream additive Substance added to a food to improve it in some way. (p. 287)

affirmative action Programs to locate, hire, train, and promote women and minorities. (p. 205) aftertaste A secondary flavor that comes after the main flavor has subsided. (p. 742) al dente "To the bite," meaning that the pasta is tender, but still firm. (p. 620) albumin (al-'byu-msn) The clear white of an egg. (p. 433)

* alternative Substitute. (p. 435); Option. (p. 771) American-style ice cream Ice cream that has no eggs, is uncooked, and is made with milk, cream, sugar, and flavorings. (p. 771)

amino acid-batter amino acid Small units that can be combined in certain ways to produce complete proteins. (p. 281)

* analyze Study all the components of. (p. 68) angel food cake A type of foam cake that is made with egg whites, but not egg yolks. (p. 756)

* anticipate To predict. (p. 135)

antipasto (,an-te-,pas-(,)to) Italian for before the meal. A typical antipasto tray includes cold meats, such as Genoa salami and various hams, assorted cheeses, olives, marinated vegetables, and sometimes fruits. (p. 481) AP weight The weight of a product before trimming. (p. 351)

* appeal Attraction. (p. 314)

appetizer A small portion of hot or cold food meant to stimulate the appetite that is served as the first course of a meal. (p. 133) apprentice One who works under the guidance of a skilled worker to learn a particular trade or art. (p. 65)

* appropriate Correct. (p. 461)

aroma Distinctive pleasing smell. (p. 410)

* artistic creative. (p. 456)

* aspect Part of a problem or challenge. (p. 349) aspic (=as-pik) A savory jelly made from meat or vegetable stock and gelatin. (p. 480) as-purchased (AP) price The bulk price. (p. 349) as-served (AS) portion The actual weight of the food product that is served to customers. (p. 350)

* atmosphere Overall mood. (p. 71)

au jus (o-=zhu(s)) Accompanied by the juices obtained from roasting meat. (p. 499) autocratic A management style in which information and policies move from the top down. (p. 172) average check method Prices items near an average check that you would like each customer to spend. (p. 322) avulsion (^^vsl-shsn) An injury in which a portion of the skin is partially or completely torn off. (p. 11)

bacon Meat that comes from the side of a pig, and is cured and often smoked for flavor. (p. 432) bacteria (bak-'tir-e-s) Tiny, single-celled microorganisms. (p. 14) bag-in-the-box system A cardboard box with a bag of concentrated soda syrup inside. (p. 122) bain marie ^ban-ms-Ve) Water bath used to keep foods such as sauces and soups warm. (p. 242) bake Cook with dry heat in a closed environment, usually an oven. No fat or liquid is used. (p. 382)

baker 's percentage In a formula, includes the percentage of each ingredient in relation to the weight of flour in the final baked product. (p. 333) baking blind To prepare pie shells in advance. (p. 767)

baking cup A paper liner that keeps muffins from sticking to the muffin pan. (p. 738) baking powder A leavening agent made up of baking soda, an acid such as cream of tartar, and a moisture absorber such as cornstarch. (p. 694) baking soda A chemical leavening agent that must be used with acid to give off CO2 gas. (p. 694) balance Dividing space to meet customer and preparation staff needs. (p. 182) balance scale A scale with two platforms. One platform holds the item being weighed. The other platform holds weights. These weights are added or removed until the two platforms are balanced. (p. 335)

banquette (ban- ket) A type of seating arrangement in which customers are seated facing the server with their backs against the wall. (p. 146) bar code A series of bars, spaces, and sometimes numbers that contain coded information and are designed to be scanned into a computer system. (p. 365)

barding Wrapping a lean meat with fat, such as bacon, before roasting. A few minutes before doneness, you remove the meat from the oven, unwrap the fat, put the meat back in the oven, and allow the surface of the meat to brown. (p. 588) barley A hardy, adaptable grain that can grow in both warm and cold climates. (p. 626) barnacle (=bar-ni-k3l) A crustacean that attaches itself to rocks, boats, or other sea life. (p. 552) barquette (bar-ket) Dough formed into a small boat-shaped shell. (p. 502) base A stock that is purchased in a powdered or concentrated form. (p. 510) basic pie dough Sometimes called 3-2-1 dough. This ratio refers to the weight of three parts flour, two parts fat, and one part water. (p. 765) baste A process in which fat drippings are spooned over a large bird every 15-20 minutes. (p. 577) basting Moistening foods with melted fats, pan drippings, or another liquid during cooking. (p. 383)

batch cooking The process of preparing small amounts of food several times throughout a foodservice period. (p. 300) batonnet (, ba-to-,na) Matchstick-shaped cuts that are W-inch thick. (p. 259) batter A semiliquid mixture that contains ingredients such as flour, milk, eggs, and seasonings. (p. 384)

### Bavarian-calamari

Bavarian A dessert made of whipped cream, gelatin, and a flavored custard sauce. (p. 773) beat Agitate ingredients vigorously to add air or develop gluten. (p. 699) béchamel A basic French white sauce made with milk and a thickener. (p. 517) bench box A covered container in which dough can be placed before shaping. (p. 718) bench rest A time when rounded portions of dough are placed in bench boxes or left covered on the work bench. (p. 718) * beneficial Helpful. (p. 472) benefits Services or payments provided by an employer in addition to wages. (p. 110) bid A price quote. (p. 359) biscuit A small, round quick bread. (p. 445) biscuit method Requires cutting or rubbing the fat into the dry ingredients. This is done until the fat and dry ingredients resemble cornmeal. Then, the liquid ingredients are added. (p. 731) bisque ('bisk) Specialty soup that is usually made from shellfish and contain cream. (p. 531) bivalve ('bï-,valv) A mollusk that has two shells that are hinged together. (p. 550) blanching Using the boiling method to partially cook food. (p. 390) blend A combination of herbs, spices, and seeds. (p. 404)

blending Mixing or folding two or more ingredients together until they are evenly combined. (p. 699) blending method Combines the liquid, sugar, liquid fat, and eggs at the same time in baking. Then, the dry ingredients are added to the mixture. (p. 731) blind taste test A food test in which food samples are not labeled so that the testers will not know which product they are tasting. (p. 424) boiling A moist cooking technique in which you bring a liquid, such as water or stock, to the boiling point and keep it at that temperature while food cooks. (p. 389) boiling point Temperature at which a liquid boils. (p. 389)

bolster Helps keep out food particles from between the tang and the handle on a knife. (p. 253) boneless fish Fish that have cartilage instead of bones. Many boneless fish also have smooth skin instead of scales. (p. 542) booth A type of seating arrangement in which the table rests against, or is attached to, a wall. (p. 145) bouchée (bu-'sha) A shell made from puff pastry, used for appetizers or desserts. (p. 502) bouquet garni (bu-'ka gar-'ne) A combination of fresh herbs and vegetables tied in a bundle with butcher's twine. The bundle is dropped into the stock pot and allowed to simmer. (p. 410)

bouquetière (,bu-ka-'tyer) Bouquet of three or more vegetables. (p. 658) braising A long, slow cooking process; meat is first seared and the pan deglazed before the moist cooking technique is used. (p. 392) bread flour Flour that has a high gluten-forming protein content to allow bread to rise fully. (p. 688) breading A coating made of eggs and crumbs. (p. 384)

break even When costs equal income. (p. 175) breakfast meats Meats such as ham, bacon,

Canadian bacon, sausage, hash, and steak. (p. 432) brochette (bro-'shet) A combination of meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables served on a small skewer. (p. 502) broiling To cook food directly under a primary heat source. (p. 387) broth A liquid made from simmered meat and vegetables. (p. 527) brown rice Rice with a tan color, a chewy texture, and a slightly nutty taste. (p. 625) brown stock A stock that is made from either beef, veal, chicken, or game. It gets its color from roasting the ingredients without water, in a hot oven. (p. 511) brunoise (brun-'waz) 1/8-inch thick cubes. (p. 259) buffet A style of service in which all the food is attractively displayed on a table for the customers to see. (p. 148) bulk Large quantities of a single food product. (p. 349)

business plan A document that describes a new business and a strategy to launch that business. (p. 76)

busser A foodservice worker who helps maintain an inviting table and keeps the service station stocked with supplies. (p. 118) butler service The server carries the prepared food on a silver tray to standing or seated customers. Customers then serve themselves. (p. 148) butterflied When a fish is dressed, then cut so the two sides lie open, yet are attached by skin. (p. 545)

bypassing When people or materials must walk or be moved past unrelated stations during foodservice. (p. 183) by-products Usable leftover parts of food after prepreparation. (p. 351)

cafeteria A restaurant where customers serve themselves, or order at a counter. (p. 71) cake flour Flour that is lower in protein than bread flour and pastry flour and produces a softer and more tender product than bread flour. (p. 688) calamari The Italian name for squid. (p. 556)

calculate-clientele calculate To work with numbers. (p. 84) calibrate ('ka-la-brat) To adjust (as a thermometer) for accuracy. (p. 35) California menu All three meals are available all day; some restaurants list them on the same menu. (p. 310)

Canadian bacon A breakfast meat from boneless pork loin. It is smoked and brined, with a thin layer of fat on its surface. (p. 432) canapé ('ka-ne-,pa) An appetizer that is served on a small piece of bread or toast. (p. 456) cancer The division and growth of cells that interferes with normal body functions. (p. 295) caper A flower bud of a Mediterranean shrub, used for seasoning. (p. 563) cappuccino (,ka-p3-'che-(,)no) A beverage made from espresso and steamed and foamed milk. (p. 123) caramelization ('ker-a-mal-a-,za-shan) The process of cooking sugar to high temperatures to create aroma and flavor. (p. 379) carbohydrate The nutrient that is the body's main source of energy. (p. 280) carcass What is left of the whole animal after it has been slaughtered. (p. 589) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (,kar-de-o-'púl-ma-ner-e ri-,sa-sa-'ta-shan) Emergency care that is performed on people who are unresponsive. (p. 12) cardiovascular ^kar-de-o-'vas-kye-ler) Heart-

related. (p. 282) carryover cooking The cooking that takes place after you remove something from a heat source. (p. 382)

cashier The employee who correctly reads the amount of the bill, processes the payment, and makes change. (p. 118) casserole A mixed food dish baked and served in a casserole dish. (p. 619) casual-dining establishment Restaurant that features a relaxed environment and mid-range prices. (p. 142) catering director Coordinates the food for each function. (p. 60) cavity Hollow interior. (p. 582) centerpiece A decorative object placed on tables to add beauty and interest. (p. 158) cephalopod ('se-fa-la-,pad) A mollusk that has a thin internal shell. Cephalopods have tentacles, or false legs, attached to the head near the mouth. (p. 550)

certification Proof that you are an expert in a specific topic, such as culinary arts, baking, and pastry making. (p. 63)

chafing ('cha-fiq) dish A device that holds a large pan of food over a canned heat source. (p. 148)

chain restaurant A restaurant that has two or more locations that sell the same products and are operated by the same company. (p. 75) chapatti (cha-pa-te) An Indian whole-wheat flatbread. (p. 489)

* characteristic Feature. (p. 528) charcuterie The name of a guild that prepared and sold cooked items made from pigs. (p. 458) cheddaring A technique in which slabs of cheese are stacked and turned to squeeze out the whey; done for hard cheeses. (p. 471) cheesecloth A loose-woven cotton cloth used in cheesemaking and cooking. (p. 518) chef's coat A working coat that traditionally has two rows of buttons down the front, long sleeves, and turned-up cuffs. (p. 26) chemical dough conditioners Substances that are added to hard lean doughs to strengthen the glutens that give hard lean dough products their dense structure. (p. 708) chewy cookie A cookie with a high ratio of eggs, sugar, and liquid, but a low amount of fat. (p. 748) chiffon (shi-'fan) cake A variation of a genoise cake made by using whipped egg whites to lighten the batter. (p. 756) chiffonade (,shi-fa-'nad) To finely slice or shred leafy vegetables or herbs. (p. 255) cholesterol (k3-'les-t3-,rol) A fatlike substance that is found in all body cells and in all animal foods. (p. 282) chowder A specialty soup made from fish, seafood, or vegetables. (p. 531) chutney A condiment made of fruit, vinegar, sugar, and spices. (p. 642) clarified butter Purified butterfat. This means that the butter is melted with the water and milk solids are removed. (p. 521) clarify To remove particles as they float to the top of a liquid. (p. 528)

* clarity ('kler-a-te) How clear something is. (p. 518) classical French service The most elegant and elaborate style of service; involves presenting or preparing some foods tableside. (p. 146)

cleaning Removing food and other soil from a surface. (p. 18) clear soup Made from clear stock or broth. Clear soups are not thickened. (p. 527) client base The customers who come regularly to a business. (p. 119) clientele The people who will be a business's main customers. (p. 189)

clip-on-course clip -on A special list that is fastened directly to the menu. (p. 318) club sandwich A triple-decker sandwich that features cold, sliced cooked turkey and ham, or bacon. (p. 499) coagulate When proteins change from a liquid or semiliquid state to a drier, solid state. (p. 378) cobbler A deep-dish fruit dessert. (p. 644) colander A container with small holes in the bottom for rinsing and draining food. (p. 621) cold soup A specialty soup that may be cooked or uncooked and then chilled. (p. 531) cold-pack cheese Also known as club cheese; made from one or more varieties of cheese, finely ground and mixed until it is spreadable. (p. 474) collagen Soft, white tissue that breaks down into gelatin and water during slow, moist cooking processes. (p. 588)

* collapsing Falling. (p. 756) combination cooking Uses both moist and dry cooking techniques. (p. 376) commercial operation An operation that earns more than enough to cover daily expenses. (p. 70) commitment The dedication that you show to doing something. (p. 89)

* compensate Make up for the lack of something.

compensatory time Paid time off to reimburse workers for overtime. (p. 106) competitor Business that offers similar products or services to the ones you offer. (p. 189) competitors' pricing method Charges approximately what the competition charges for similar menu items. (p. 322)

* complement To go together well with another thing. (p. 416) complete protein A protein source that provides all of the amino acids. (p. 281)

* complex Involved and possibly difficult. (p. 309)

* composed Made up of. (p. 588) compote Fresh or dried fruits that have been cooked in a sugar syrup. (p. 642) compotier (1kam-pot-te-'ya) A deep, stemmed dish used to serve compotes, candies, and nuts. (p. 645)

compound butter Softened butter with seasonings added to it. (p. 521) condiment Mustard, pickle relish, and ketchup, etc., traditionally served as an accompaniment to food. (p. 152); Something served as an accompaniment. (p. 416)

conduction Heats food by direct contact between a hot surface and the food. (p. 234)

connective tissue Tissue that holds muscle fiber together. (p. 571)

* consistency Texture. (p. 731)

* consistent Free from variations. (p. 330) consommé (,kân(t)-S3-'mâ) A concentrated, clear soup made from a rich broth. (p. 528) contaminated Unfit to be eaten. (p. 14)

continental menu A breakfast menu that provides mostly a selection of juices, beverages, and baked goods. (p. 311) continuous breadmaking Also called commercial baking, mixing and kneading are done in a spiral mixer. (p. 715)

* contrast As a comparison. (p. 765)

* contribution Role. (p. 691)

contribution margin method A pricing method that uses a general contribution of customers to costs besides food for running a kitchen. You would add the average contribution margin per guest to the item's standard food cost. (p. 322) convection A process in which the liquid closest to the bottom of the pan is heated and rises to the top. (p. 234, 389) convection oven An oven that has a fan that circulates the oven's heated air. (p. 682) conversion factor The number that comes from dividing the yield you want by the existing yield in a recipe. (p. 338) convert To adjust ingredient quantities in a standardized recipe. (p. 335) cooking line The arrangement of kitchen equipment. (p. 221)

cookware Pots, pans, and baking dishes. (p. 262) corn A grain that can be eaten fresh or as a dried grain. (p. 627) corporation A business formed when a state grants an individual or a group of people a charter with legal rights to form a business. (p. 77)

* correspond To compare closely to. (p. 714) cost per portion The cost of a portion that you would serve to an individual customer. (p. 353) cottage fries French fried potatoes that are cut into '/2-inch thick circles, usually served during breakfast. (p. 443) coulis (ku-'lë) A sauce made from a fruit or vegetable purée. (p. 518) count The number of individual items used in a recipe. (p. 337) counter scale A scale with a platform small enough to be placed on a counter. (p. 225) counter service Customers sitting at a counter, rather than a booth, banquette, or table. (p. 143) course A part of a meal that is served at one time. (p. 118)

couscous-device couscous ('kus-,kus) A wheat product made from semolina that is milled from wheat. (p. 627) cover An individual place setting that includes utensils, glasses, and dishes. (p. 127) covers Individual meals served in a restaurant. (p. 322)

cream soup A velvety-smooth thick soup. It is made with cooked vegetables that are sometimes puréed. (p. 530) creaming Vigorously combining softened fat and sugar to add air. (p. 699) creaming method Sugar and pre-softened shortening are creamed together with a mixer on low speed until the mixture is light and fluffy. Eggs are then added one at a time. (p. 731) crêpe ('krap) A small, thin pancake made with egg batter. (p. 489) crisp cookie A cookie with very little moisture in the batter. It also has a high ratio of sugar. (p. 748) * critical Necessary. (p. 714) critical control point A step in the flow of food where contamination can be prevented or eliminated. (p. 32) croissant A flaky, crescent-shaped roll. (p. 488) cross-contamination The movement of harmful microorganisms from one place to another. (p. 14) crosshatch Grill mark set at a 90-degree angle. (p. 579)

cross-train Giving employees work experience in many different tasks. (p. 59) croutons ('kru-tanz) Small pieces of bread that have been grilled, toasted, or fried and sometimes seasoned, used as a garnish for salads. (p. 463) crudité (,kru-di-'ta) Raw sliced vegetables served with dips. (p. 479) crumb The internal texture of a baked product. (p. 688)

crust The outer surface of a bread or roll. (p. 708) crustacean (,kros-'ta-shens) A shellfish with a hard outer shell and a jointed skeleton. (p. 553) cuisine A style of cooking. (p. 69) culinary scientist Sets new standards in food technology by creating new food products and cooking methods. (p. 60) curdle ('kar-dal) To separate, as in egg yolks and whites that have been cooked at too high of a temperature. (p. 437) curing Preserving pork with salt, sugar, spices, flavoring, and nitrites. (p. 597) custard Dessert made of eggs, milk or cream, flavorings, and sweeteners. (p. 771) custard-style ice cream Ice cream made with cooked vanilla custard that consists of cream, milk, eggs, sugar, and flavorings. (p. 771)

cut in To mix solid fat with dry ingredients until lumps of the desired size remain. (p. 699) cycle menu A menu that is used for a set period of time, such as a week, a month, or even longer. At the end of this time period, the menu repeats daily dishes in the same order. (p. 310)

 Ul

Daily Production Report Shows how much food was used, sold, and left over each day. (p. 364) daily value The amount of a nutrient that a person needs every day, based on a 2,000-calorie diet. (p. 290)

Danish pastry dough Dough that is sweeter and richer than croissant dough. (p. 711) dark meat Parts of a bird that have more muscle and connective tissue. (p. 571)

debone To remove bones from meat, poultry, or fish. (p. 350)

deduction The money withheld from your gross pay for taxes, insurance, and other fees. (p. 109) deep-frying To cook foods by completely submerging them in heated fat or oil. (p. 385) deflate Cause dough to lose volume. (p. 734) deglaze To use a small amount of liquid or fat to remove any leftover scraps of food from sauté-ing or searing from the pan. (p. 392) dehydrated ((l)de-'hl-ldrat-3d) Water has been removed. (p. 434) dehydration (|de-|hl-'dra-sh3n) A serious fluid imbalance in the body. (p. 293) delegate To give responsibility to another person. (p. 172)

demi-glace ("de-me^glas) A sauce that is half espagnole sauce and half brown stock that has been reduced by half. (p. 519) demitasse ('de-mi-+tas) A half-size cup for espresso. (p. 124) democratic A management style in which everyone is involved in the decision-making process. (p. 172) design How the dining room, kitchen, and storage areas are laid out. (p. 182)

* deteriorate To go down in quality; to become worse in value. (p. 363, 740)

devein ((i)de-'van) To remove a shrimp's intestinal tract, located along the back. (p. 553)

* device An item that serves a specific purpose.

diabetes-emphasize diabetes An illness that affects the body's ability to convert blood sugar into energy. (p. 294) diagonal A cut that results in an oval or elongated slice of a cylindrical fruit or vegetable. (p. 255)

* dictate To determine through necessity. (p. 309) Dietary Guidelines for Americans Information on proper eating habits for healthy Americans ages two years and older. (p. 290) digestible The nutrients, such as protein, are more accessible to the body. (p. 663)

* diminish To decrease. (p. 638)

dining room supervisor Coordinates and assigns duties to the hosts, servers, and bussers. (p. 60) direct contamination Raw foods, or the plants or animals from which they come, are exposed to toxins. (p. 14) direct labor cost Wages paid to employees. (p. 173)

direct marketing A form of advertising in which materials, such as letters and advertisements, are mailed directly to customers. (p. 192) disability A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. (p. 206)

* discard To throw away. (p. 559) discrimination Unfair treatment based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, physical appearance, disability, or other factors. (p. 106) disposable income Money that people have left over for extras after paying bills. (p. 321) disposal point The point at which food remaining after being eaten is disposed of properly. (p. 44)

* distinct Separate. (p. 401)

distraction Something that turns your attention to something else. (p. 85) docking Process of making small holes in the surface of an item before baking. (p. 722)

* document To write down the details of what happened. (p. 12) dolly A small wheeled cart. (p. 225) double pan A sheet pan placed inside a second pan of the same size. (p. 753) double-entry bookkeeping Record-keeping in which transactions are recorded in at least two places so that records are balanced. (p. 173) dough Combination of dry and liquid ingredients for a baked product; contains less liquid than a batter. (p. 698) doughnut A sweetened, deep-fried pastry that often is ring-shaped. (p. 445) drained weight The weight of a food product without the packing medium. (p. 652) drawn Fish that have had their gills and entrails removed. (p. 544)

dredging Coating foods with flour; coating poultry parts with seasoned flour. (p. 384, 579) dressed Drawn fish that have had their fins, scales, and sometimes their head removed. (p. 544) dressing A sauce that is added to salads to give them flavor and to help hold the ingredients together. (p. 468) dried milk solids Milk product used in baked goods. (p. 689) drip loss The loss of moisture that occurs as a fish thaws. (p. 546) drop batter Batter thick enough it needs to be dropped from a portion scoop. (p. 731) drop cookie A cookie with soft batter or dough that uses the creaming process. (p. 751) drupe A fruit that has soft flesh, thin skin, and one pit, or stone. (p. 638) dry cooking technique Cooking technique that uses oil, fat, the radiation of hot air, or metal to transfer heat. (p. 376) dry cure Food is coated in salt, sweeteners, and flavorings, and then wrapped in paper or cheesecloth. (p. 457)

du jour menu A menu that lists dishes that are available on a particular day. (p. 310) * duration The amount of time something lasts. (p. 292)

dust To sprinkle very lightly with flour. (p. 766)

edible ('e-ds-bsl) portion (EP) After preparation, the consumable food product that remains. (p. 350)

* efficient Productive. (p. 222)

egg substitutes Substitutes for people with dietary concerns such as high cholesterol. (p. 434)

* elaborate Detailed. (p. 463)

elastic Stretchy and flexible. (p. 739)

elastin A hard, yellow tissue that does not break down during cooking. Also referred to as gristle. (p. 588)

electronic scale A scale that has a spring that is depressed when an item is placed on its platform. The weight is displayed on a digital readout. (p. 336)

emergency A potentially life-threatening situation that usually occurs suddenly and unexpectedly. (p. 9)

empathy The skill of thinking about what it would be like in another's place. (p. 107)

employee recruiter-flaky dough employee recruiter Helps businesses find the right employees. (p. 76) employment agency A business that put employers in touch with potential employees. (p. 96) emulsified shortening A type of fat that helps create a smooth consistency throughout the mixture. (p. 756) emulsifier An additive, such as egg yolk, that allows unmixable liquids, such as oil and water, to combine uniformly. (p. 474) en papillote (an .pa-pë-'yo) A method of steaming that involves wrapping fish or shellfish in parchment paper with vegetables, herbs, and sauces or butters. (p. 559)

English muffin Made from bread dough that is cut into rounds and then toasted. (p. 446)

* enhance Increase the quality of. (p. 379) enriched rice Rice that has a vitamin and mineral coating added to the grain. (p. 625)

entrée ("an-tra) Main dish. (p. 309) entrepreneur (,ann-tra-p(r)a-"n(y)ur) A self-motivated person who creates and runs a business. (p. 74)

entry-level Jobs for which you do not need to have training or experience. (p. 64) environmental impact statement Describes the impact of the proposed facility and any negative effects it might have on environment. (p. 200) ergonomics (,ar-ga-"na-miks) The science of efficient and safe interaction between people and the things in their environment. (p. 207) escargot (,es-kàr-"gô) The French word for snails. (p. 557) espresso (e-"spre-(,)sô) A beverage made by forcing hot water and steam through finely ground, dark-roasted coffee beans. (p. 122) ethics ("e-thiks) Your internal guidelines to distinguish right from wrong. (p. 108) ethnic menu A menu that represents food choices from a speicific country. (p. 312) ethylene ("e-tha-,len) gas An odorless, colorless gas that is emitted naturally as fruits ripen. (p. 639)

evaluation A report of how well you perform your duties, and what you can do to improve. (p. 105) evaporate To escape as vapor. (p. 376) executive chef Manages all kitchen operations. (p. 60)

expense Money that goes out of a business. (p. 174)

extender An item made from leftover, low-cost ingredients. (p. 319)

extract A concentrated flavor such as lemon and vanilla. (p. 401)

fabricated cut A smaller portion of meat taken from primal cuts. (p. 589)

factor method A common pricing method for restaurants with successful past performance records. You must first determine what the food cost percent should be. Then, take that food cost percent and divide it into 100%, which will give you your factor. Multiply the factor by the menu item cost. (p. 321) family service Meal service in which food is delivered on a large platter or dish to an individual table and customers serve themselves. (p. 145) fat Substance that regulates bodily functions and helps carry some vitamins through the system. (p. 282) fat cap The fat that surrounds muscle tissue. (p. 588)

fatty fish Fish that have a relatively large amount of fat. (p. 542) fermentation (,far-man-'ta-shan) A process in which yeast breaks down sugars into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. (p. 694) fermented ((,)far-'men-ted) Chemically changed in brines or vinegars flavored and seasoned with dill, garlic, sugar, peppers, or salt. (p. 416) fiber A unique form of a complex carbohydrate that does not provide energy. (p. 280)

* field Line of work. (p. 106) fillets The sides of fish. (p. 544)

fine-dining restaurant A restaurant that provides an environment featuring excellent food, elegant decor, and superior service. (p. 71, 142) finger food Hors d'oeuvres presented on platters from which each guest serves him- or herself. (p. 477)

first aid Assisting an injured person until professional medical help can be provided. (p. 9) first in, first out An inventory system in which food products that are oldest are used first, so that all products are fresh when used. (p. 38) fish stock A stock that is made by slowly cooking the bones of lean fish or shellfish. (p. 513) fixed menu A menu that offers the same dishes every day for a long period of time. (p. 310) flake Break away in small layers. (p. 559) flaky dough A pie dough in which flour is not completely blended with the fat. (p. 766)

flambé-garnish flambé (flam-'ba) To cook a food tableside using flames as part of the preparation. (p. 147) flammable Quick to burn. (p. 6) flat A shallow box or container used to hold foods. (p. 349)

flat fish Fish that have a backbone running horizontally through the center of the fish. They swim horizontally and have both eyes on the top of their heads. (p. 542) flatware Dining utensils, such as spoons, forks, and knives. (p. 155) flavor enhancer Increases the way you perceive the food's flavor without changing the actual flavor. (p. 400) flavored oil An oil that has been enhanced with ingredients such as herbs, spices, and garlic. (p. 416)

flavoring An ingredient that actually changes the natural flavor of the foods it is added to. (p. 400) flexibility The ability to adapt willingly to changing circumstances. (p. 89) floret A small flower that makes up the head of some plants. (p. 647) flow of food The path food takes from when it is received by an establishment to when it is disposed of as waste. (p. 31) fluting A manner of decorating crust by making uniform folds around the edge of the pie. (p. 767) focaccia An Italian bread that is flavored with olive oil and herbs. (p. 489) focal point A service point. (p. 145) fold To use a rubber spatula to carefully mix the egg whites and batter to not lose volume. (p. 446); Gently adding light, airy ingredients such as eggs to heavier ingredients by using a smooth circular movement. (p. 699) fondant A mixture of sugar, water, and flavorings that serves as a base for icings. (p. 762) fondue Dipping foods into a central heated pot. (p. 645)

food allergy An allergic reaction triggered by the immune system in response to a particular food. (p. 294) Food Code Guidelines for handling food safely. (p. 200)

food cost percentage The ratio of the cost of food served to the sales of food served. (p. 173) food court A single area in malls or shopping centers with many quick-service restaurants. (p. 143) food preparation Cooking and preparing foods to be eaten. (p. 42) food thermometer A device used to check the temperatures of foods. (p. 34) foodhandler A worker who is in direct contact with food. (p. 26)

foodservice consultant Offers advice and information to other foodservice business owners and managers. (p. 75) foodservice director Manages the banquet operations of hotels, banquet facilities, hospitals, and universities. (p. 60) forcemeat A mixture of ground, raw meat or seafood that is emulsified with fat. (p. 456) forecasting Anticipating future trends. (p. 175) formula A special type of recipe used in the bakeshop. (p. 331)

* foundation Starting point. (p. 488) franchise A company that sells a business owner the right to use its name, logo, concept, and products. In return, the business owner agrees to run the business as outlined by the franchise company. (p. 75) free enterprise A system in which businesses or individuals may buy, sell, and set prices with little government control. (p. 78) free-form loaf Bread loaves that are shaped by hand, then baked, seam side down, on flat pans or directly on a hearth. (p. 718) freezer burn Discoloration and dehydration caused by moisture loss as food freezes. (p. 546) French toast Bread that has been dipped in a batter and then sauteed. (p. 448) fresh cheese A soft cheese that is not ripened or aged after it is formed into a final shape. (p. 473) frittata (fre-'ta-ta) A flat, open-face omelet. Eggs are beaten and mixed with the precooked filling ingredients, and then cooked over low heat without stirring. (p. 439) frozen yogurt American ice cream with the addition of yogurt. (p. 771) frying Cooking foods in hot fat or oil. (p. 384) full -service restaurant A restaurant where servers take customer orders and then bring the food to the table. (p. 71) fumet (fyu-'ma) A fish stock with lemon juice or other acids are added to the water; stronger flavor than fish stock. (p. 513)

* function An event. (p. 242); Purpose. (p. 445) fungi ('fan-gf) Spore-producing organisms found in soil, plants, animals, water, and in the air. (p. 16)

garde manger (,gard ,man-'zha) The chef responsible for preparing cold food items. (p. 59) garde manger brigade A team of chefs under the garde manger chef who handle cold food preparation. (p. 457) garnish An edible food that is placed on or around food to add color or flavor. (p. 314)

gauge-hospitality industry

* gauge Type and thickness of the material. (p. 262) gelatinization (ja-.la-ta-na^za-shan) The process of starch granules absorbing moisture when placed in a liquid. (p. 517) general safety audit A review and inspection of all safety procedures and equipment. (p. 12) genetically (j3-=ne-ti-k(3-)le) engineered food Food that is made by recombining genes. (p. 199)

genoise (zha-=nwaz) European sponge cake. (p. 756)

giblets The edible internal organs of a bird. (p. 571) gipfels Tighter half circles made by Swiss and

German bakers in croissant dough. (p. 710) glassware Glasses used to hold beverages such as juice, water, iced tea. (p. 155) glaze A stock that is reduced and concentrated. (p. 513)

glucose A usable energy source for your body. (p. 280)

gluten A firm, elastic substance that affects the texture of baked products. (p. 688) glycogen ^gll-ks-jsn) A storage form of glucose. (p. 293)

grading Applying specific quality standards to food products. (p. 198) grain The direction of muscle fibers, or treads, in meat. (p. 607); A single, small, hard seed. (p. 624) granola (gra-=no-la) A blend of grains, nuts, and dried fruits. (p. 444) gravy A type of sauce made from meat or poultry juices; a liquid such as milk, cream, or broth; and a thickening agent such as a roux. (p. 521) griddle A flat, solid plate of metal with a gas or electric heat source. (p. 386) grilled sandwich A sandwich where the bread is browned on the outside on the griddle. (p. 496) grilling A cooking method that places food on a heated grill. (p. 386) gross pay The total amount of money you are paid for working. (p. 109)

* guide Something that provides information.

* guidelines Rules for doing things. (p. 75)

HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point; the system used to keep food safe from the kitchen to the table. (p. 31) hair restraint Any barrier that holds back head or facial hair to keep it from contaminating food. (p. 26) * hallmark Distinguishing feature. (p. 330)

hand sanitizer A special liquid that kills bacteria on your skin; it is often used without water. (p. 27) hand service Bringing dishes to the table without using a tray. (p. 131) hand tools Handheld items used to cook, serve, and prepare food. (p. 262) hard lean dough A basic yeast dough often made solely from flour, water, salt, and yeast. (p. 708) hard wheat flour Flour that comes from kernels that are firm, tough, and difficult to cut. (p. 688) hash Chopped meat that is mixed with potatoes and onions, and then browned. (p. 432) hash browns Potatoes that are shredded and may include onions and seasonings. (p. 443) * hasten Speed up. (p. 647) hazard A source of danger. (p. 14) heat lamp A lamp that uses light in the infrared spectrum to keep food warm during holding. (p. 384) heat transfer A measure of how efficiently heat passes from one object to another. (p. 262) heat treated Glass that is heated and then cooled rapidly. (p. 155) Heimlich maneuver A series of thrusts to the abdomen that can help dislodge something that is stuck in a person's airway. (p. 11) herb A plant that grows in temperate climates; used as flavoring that adds color and aroma to foods. (p. 406)

high-fat cake A cake that generally uses baking powder as its leavening agent. (p. 755) high-heat cooking Cooking methods such as broiling and grilling used for tender cuts of meat like tenderloins and strip steaks. (p. 605) highlighting Emphasizing a particular menu item. (p. 128)

high-ratio layer cake A cake that contains a high ratio of both liquids and sugar, giving the cake a very moist and tender texture. (p. 758) holding The process of keeping foods warm or cold before serving them. (p. 42) hollandaise (,hâ-l3n-'dâz) A sauce made from lemon juice, butter, and eggs. (p. 517) home fries French fries that are usually diced or sliced, served during breakfast. (p. 443) hominy Corn product made by soaking dried corn in lye so that the kernels become swollen. (p. 627) honesty When you are truthful and loyal in your words and actions. (p. 89) hors d'oeuvre (or-'darv) A very small portion of food served before a meal. (p. 148) hors d'oeuvre variés A combination of plated items with enough hors d'oeuvres for one person. (p. 477)

hospitality industry Provides food and lodging to customers. (p. 68)

host-kneading host The employee who greets the customers by smiling warmly and welcoming them. (p. 116) human resources Managing staff. (p. 172) hummus ('ha-mas) A Middle Eastern dish made from mashed chickpeas, lemon juice, garlic, and tahini. (p. 478) hydrogenation (hl-,dra-ja-'na-shan) A process in which hydrogen is added under pressure to polyunsaturated fats, such as soybean oil, and changes liquid oil into a solid fat. (p. 282) hygiene Using good grooming habits to maintain health. (p. 26)

* impact To have a direct effect upon. (p. 293)

* implement To put into practice. (p. 350)

* imprecise Inexact. (p. 678)

in season During a fruit's or vegetable's main growing season. (p. 638) income The money that comes into a business. (p. 174)

incomplete protein A protein source that does not provide all of the amino acids. (p. 281) independent restaurant Has one or more owners and is not part of a national business. (p. 75)

indirect labor cost An operation's costs for employee health insurance, taxes, and vacations. (p. 173)

induction A heating source that uses electricity to heat cookware by magnetic energy generated by coils under the stovetop. (p. 234) infuse To extract a substance's flavors by placing it in a hot liquid. (p. 124) ingredient list In a recipe, includes all ingredients that will be used in the dish. (p. 333) inhibitor (in-'hi-ba-tar) A substance that slows down the chemical breakdown of food. (p. 358) initiative (i-,ni-sha-tiv) The energy required to begin new tasks and see them through. (p. 105) inspection A test of a business's practices against standards. (p. 198) insurance A contract between a business and an insurance company. It provides financial protection against losses. (p. 78)

* interact To talk and work together. (p. 119) internship A program in which an advanced student works at a business to get hands-on training. (p. 66) interstate commerce Business that happens over two or more states. (p. 205)

* invaluable Very helpful. (p. 682) inventory The amount of supplies a business has on hand. (p. 175) invoice A bill from a supplier for providing goods or services. (p. 225) IQF (individually quick frozen) Fish or shellfish that have been quickly frozen piece by piece. Because the freezing happens so fast, few ice crystals form. (p. 553) irradiated (i-'ra-de-,at-ed) food Food that has been exposed to radiation to kill harmful bacteria. (p. 199) island A kitchen counter or equipment arrangement that can be approached from all sides. (p. 221) issuing The process of delivering foods from storage to the kitchen as needed for use. (p. 357) Italian meringue (ma-'raq) Meringue that is made with a boiling sugar syrup instead of granular sugar. (p. 762)

job application A form that employers use to collect personal information and previous work experience from job applicants. (p. 96) job description A list of specific duties and skills needed for a job. (p. 179) job interview A formal meeting between you and your potential employer. (p. 97) job lead Possible employment opportunity. (p. 96) job portfolio A collection of papers and samples that can be given to a potential employer. (p. 96) job rotation A system by which employees are rotated through a series of jobs, allowing them to learn a variety of skills. (p. 66) julienne (ju-le-'en) '/8-inch thick matchstick-shaped cuts. (p. 259)

kaiser ('ki-zar) roll A round, crusty roll. (p. 489) kale A cabbage with curly green or multicolored leaves. (p. 465) * keep To stay fresh. (p. 547) ketchup A tomato-based sauce used throughout the world as a flavoring. (p. 416) keyword A word that makes it easier for employers to search for important information. (p. 98) kind Species. (p. 570)

kitchen brigade A kitchen system where specific tasks are assigned to each member of the kitchen staff. (p. 59)

kitchen manager Orders ingredients and makes sure that they are prepared correctly. (p. 60) kneading Working a dough by hand or in a bench mixer with a dough hook to develop gluten and evenly distribute ingredients. (p. 700)

labor-masa harina

labor union An organization of workers in a similar field. (p. 106) laceration (,la-sa-'ra-shan) A cut or tear in the skin that can be quite deep. (p. 11) lacto-ovo-vegetarian (,ve-ja-'ter-e-an) Someone who eats both dairy products (lacto) and eggs (ovo). (p. 293) lacto-vegetarian Someone who eats or drinks some dairy products, such as cheese and milk, but does not eat eggs. (p. 293) lamb Meat that comes from sheep that are less than one year old. (p. 597)

* lapse Problem due to inattention. (p. 171) larding Inserting long, thin strips of fat or vegetables into the center of lean meat. (p. 588) latticework A grid pattern on a pie crust made with individual strips of crust. (p. 765) law An established rule. (p. 205) leach To dissolve. (p. 298) leadership The ability to motivate others to cooperate in doing a common task. (p. 90) lean fish Fish with little fat. (p. 542) leavening agent A substance that causes a baked good to rise by introducing carbon dioxide (CO2) or other gases into the mixture. (p. 694) leavens ('le-vans) Causes dough to rise. (p. 706) legume (=le-,gyum) The seeds and pods from certain plants. (p. 280); A plant that has double-seamed pods that contain a single row of seeds. (p. 660)

let down A condition in which the ingredients in a dough completely break down. (p. 715) license A written permission to participate in a business activity. (p. 78) light meat Lighter colored wing and breast meat found on birds that rarely fly. (p. 571) line cooks/station cooks Cooks that work the food production line. (p. 59) liner An ingredient that adds visual interest and texture in a canapé. (p. 477) lipoprotein (,lT-pa-'pro-,ten) A chemical package that circulates cholesterol through the bloodstream. (p. 282) lockout/tagout OSHA procedure; all necessary switches on malfunctioning electrical equipment are tagged and locked from use. (p. 7) log A written record of day-to-day activities and procedures. (p. 36)

loss prevention The steps a business takes to eliminate waste and theft. (p. 184) lowboy A half-size refrigerator that fits under the counter in a work station. (p. 226) low-fat cake A