Crme Anglaise

^^ Heat heavy cream and vanilla to scalding, when bubbles form around the edges of the pan.

In a separate bowl, whisk together egg yolks and sugar.

^^ Slowly mix in V2 cup of the scalded milk mixture into the eggs, to warm, or temper, them so they do not scramble.

Gradually add the tempered egg yolk mixture to the remaining milk mixture on a double boiler. Whisk constantly while adding the egg yolk mixture.

Cook on the double boiler until the crème anglaise thickens, and can coat a spoon.

Cook on the double boiler until the crème anglaise thickens, and can coat a spoon.

Starch-Thickened Puddings Starch-thickened puddings, also called boiled puddings, require starch as the thickening agent to make them firm up. To cook the starch, the pudding is boiled in a saucepan. Pastry cream is a good example of starch-thickened pudding. The resulting mixture can be poured into molds and chilled. To serve these puddings, unmold them and garnish them with chocolate shavings, fresh mint, or fruit such as raspberries.

Baked Puddings Two popular styles of baked puddings are rice pudding and bread pudding. Both of these desserts are made by adding a large amount of either rice or bread to the custard. They may have nuts or fruits added. Baked puddings are often topped with rich sauces to enhance their appearance and make them more flavorful.

Bavarians, Chiffons, and Mousses

Bavarians, chiffons, and mousses are all based on ingredients and techniques discussed earlier. Custard, whipped cream, and thick fruit fillings make these airy desserts.

A Bavarian, or Bavarian cream, is made of whipped cream, gelatin, and a flavored custard sauce. The gelatin is softened in cold water or another liquid. Then, it is dissolved in a hot custard sauce and cooled until it is nearly set. Next, whipped cream is folded in, and the entire mixture is put in a mold to set.

The amount of gelatin is key in a good Bavarian cream. While too much gelatin makes the Bavarian rubbery and overly firm, too little gelatin makes the dessert too soft to hold its shape. Be sure to measure accurately.

Chiffons can be served as chilled desserts, not only as pie fillings. The process of making a chiffon is similar to the method described above for Bavarians except that meringue is substituted, or switched, for the whipped cream. Other chiffon bases may be fruit fillings and pastry cream. Serving chiffons with interesting garnishes can create contrasting flavors, colors, and textures. The final effect should be pleasing to the eye.

Mousse is a light and airy dessert made with both meringue and whipped cream to enhance the lightness. Fresh fruit or melted chocolate often serves as a base for mousse. Mousse is often served in eye-catching containers, such as hollowed fruits or special molds. Mousse may be served with whipped topping.

Storing and Serving Desserts

Any dessert with eggs or cream must be kept refrigerated or frozen until it is served. Ice cream and sherbet should be kept at 0°F (-18°C) or below. Before serving a frozen dessert, it should be held at 8°F to 15°F (-13°C to -9°C) for 24 hours, so that it will be soft enough to serve.

Parfaits (par-'fas) and sundaes are two popular desserts. A parfait is a frozen dessert flavored with heavy cream. A sundae contains one or more scoops of ice cream topped with garnishes, fruits, or syrups.

common ingredients in Bavarians, chiffons, and mousses?

SECTION 29.4 Review Key Concepts

1. Compare Bavarians, chiffons, and mousses.

Practice Culinary Academics Science

2. Procedure Some fruit can affect the way gelatin sets. Make two gelatin dessert mixes: one as per the directions, and one with raw pineapple added.

Analysis Observe the results. Research fruit enzymes, and create a hypothesis to explain any differences you observe.

NSES B Develop an understanding of the structure and properties of matter.

English Language Arts

3. Conduct research, and then write an essay on the special skills that are needed to become a pastry chef. Why are desserts usually made by these specialized chefs rather than a generally trained chef?

Describe the desserts, how they are made, and their country and culture of origin.

NCSS IX A Global Connections Explain how cultural elements can facilitate global understanding.

^^ Mathematics

5. On Tuesday, Mr. Kim sold 90 scoops of chocolate, 45 scoops of vanilla, 27 scoops of pistachio, 9 scoops of peach, and 9 scoops of blackberry at his ice cream shop. Display this information in a circle graph.

^^^^^^ Circle Graphs A circle graph (or pie chart) can be used to indicate percentages of a whole, which are shown as sections (wedges) of the circle. Because a full circle is 360 degrees, multiply each percent times 360 degrees to find the angles of each section. Starting Hint Convert each total into a percentage of all scoops sold, and multiply each percent by 360 degrees. Draw a circle, and use a protractor to divide the circle into sections with the correct angles. Label each section.

NCTE 7 Conduct research and gather, evaluate, and synthesize data to communicate discoveries.

NCTM Data Analysis and Probability Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them.

Social Studies

4. Conduct research to find three specialty desserts from other cultures that are not baked goods.

Qu Checkyour answers at this book's Online ^^ Learning Center at

Chapter Summary f

Desserts include cookies, cakes, pies, frozen desserts, and puddings. Cookies vary in mixing and panning methods and baking time. The five types of cakes have two basic categories of batter, with different mixing methods.

Flaky and mealy pie doughs are chosen for different types of end products. Fruit, custard, and cream are all varieties of pie fillings.

Frozen desserts offer a wide range of variety, from ice cream to sherbet.

Content and Academic Vocabulary Review

1. Write a letter explaining the appeal of different desserts. Use at least 12 of the following terms in your letter.

Content Vocabulary

• meringue (p. 756)

• sorbet (p. 771)

• crisp cookie (p. 748)

• high-ratio layer cake (p. 758)

• custard (p. 771)

• spread (p. 748)

• Italian meringue (p. 762)

• pudding (p. 771)

• soft cookie (p. 748)

• fondant (p. 762)

• stirred custard (p. 772)

• chewy cookie (p. 748)

• Swiss meringue (p. 762)

• Bavarian (p. 773)

• one-stage method (p. 749)

• simple syrup (p. 762)

• mousse (p. 774)

• drop cookie (p. 751)

• latticework (p. 765)

• parfait (p. 774)

• tuile (p. 751)

• basic pie dough (p. 765)

• sundae (p. 774)

• warped (p. 753)

• flaky dough (p. 766)

Academic Vocabulary

• double pan (p. 753)

• mealy dough (p. 766)

• high-fat cake (p. 755)

• dust (p. 766)

• turn (p. 748)

• low-fat cake (p. 755)

• fluting (p. 767)

• deal (p. 751)

• pound cake (p. 755)

• baking blind (p. 767)

• stabilize (p. 755)

• sponge cake (p. 756)

• modified starch (p. 767)

• collapsing (p. 756)

• emulsified shortening (p. 756)

• custard-style ice cream (p. 771)

• contrast (p. 765)

• genoise (p. 756)

• American-style ice cream (p. 771)

• slightly (p. 766)

• angel food cake (p. 756)

• frozen yogurt (p. 771)

• alternative (p. 771)

• chiffon cake (p. 756)

• sherbet (p. 771)

• substituted (p. 774)

Review Key Concepts

2. Distinguish between crisp, soft, and chewy cookies.

3. Describe types of cookies, and the methods for mixing, and baking them.

4. Differentiate between different types of cakes and their ingredients.

5. Summarize how to mix, prepare, bake, and ice cakes.

6. Identify pie dough ingredients and types.

7. Describe the process of making different types of pies.

8. Compare and contrast the methods for making and storing specialty desserts.

Critical Thinking

9. Determine ingredients. If you wanted to increase the spread of a cookie and you had used all your milk and eggs, what would you add?

10. Analyze baking formulas. Why do high-ratio cakes require a high amount of emulsified shortening to absorb the liquids?

Academic Skills

^^ English Language Arts

11. Find an Article Locate an in-depth cookbook or an instructional cooking magazine on making a dessert type that you have read about in this chapter. Read the text, and then write a short summary of what you have learned that has expanded on your knowledge from this chapter. Be sure to include any preparation or cooking techniques that are listed in your summary.

NCTE 1 Read texts to acquire new information.

Social Studies

12. Dessert History Choose one type of dessert that you have learned about in this chapter and research its history. Create a brief presentation on the history of your chosen dessert and present it to the class. Include any people who have contributed to the development of the dessert over time. Use illustrations or photos to show your dessert and its ingredients.

NCSS II D Time, Continuity, and Change Systematically employ processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and reinterpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility.


13. Frost a Layer Cake Debra is preparing a circular, three-layer yellow cake. Each layer of cake is inches tall and 8 inches in diameter. She would like to put a layer of chocolate frosting on top of each layer of cake, and would also like to cover the sides of the entire cake in the same chocolate frosting. For frosting that is ^-inch thick in each location, what is the total surface area (in square inches) that Debra must cover in frosting?

^^^^^ Area and Circumference of Circles Calculate circumference (Q as C = i\d, where d = the circle's diameter and n = 3.14. Calculate the area (A) of a circle as A = nr2, where the radius r = (%)d. Starting Hint Calculate the area on the top of one circular layer of cake, and then multiply by 3 (since there are three layers). Find the surface area of the sides of the cake by multiplying the circumference of the cake times the total height (three cake layers + three frosting layers) of the cake.

NCTM Geometry Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems.

Sharpen your test-taking skills to improve your kitchen certification program score.

Certification Prep

Directions Read the questions. Then, read the answer choices and choose the best possible answer for each.

14. Which types of cakes are leavened with baking soda?

a. high-fat cakes b. low-fat cakes c. chiffon cakes d. angel food cakes

15. Which dessert is often used as an intermezzo between courses at a formal meal?

a. sorbet b. ice cream c. Bavarian d. smooth custard

Test-Taking Tip

If you do not know the answer to a question, make a note and move on to the next question. Come back to it later after you have answered the others.

Real-World Skills and Applications

Interpersonal and Collaborative Skills

16. Create a Quiz Work together with a partner to create a quiz with five multiple-choice and five true/false questions about desserts. The questions should be based on information found in this chapter. Swap your test with another group and take each other's tests. Then, grade each other's work.

Decision Making Skills

17. Compare Nutritional Information Research the nutritional information for different types of cakes. Create a chart to compare the nutrition of these cakes. Write conclusions about each type of cake. Which are the healthiest in your opinion, and which are the least healthy?

Technology Applications

18. Dessert Blog Under your teacher's supervision, perform online research on a dessert. You may even try preparing the dessert, and taking pictures of your final product. Create a short blog entry with facts about the dessert.

Financial Literacy

19. Make Dessert Choices You are making desserts for a party of 50 people. The apple pie costs $0.84 per serving and the ice cream costs $0.75 per serving. You will need to buy a new ice cream scoop for $10. Or, you could make chocolate mousse with whipped cream. The mousse costs $1.39 per serving and the whipped cream costs $0.43 per serving. Which dessert is least expensive to serve?

Culinary Lab

Make Cream Puffs 20

Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.

Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.

Work in Teams During this lab, you will work in teams to prepare and serve a basic cream puff recipe, and then evaluate the results.

A. Form teams and bake. Divide into teams at your teacher's direction and prepare the Basic Cream Puffs formula below. Prepare either a custard filling, a pudding, a sweetened fruit, or an ice cream filling.

• Unsalted butter or shortening, 8 oz. • Bread flour, sifted, 10V2 oz.

• Granulated sugar, V4 oz. (Yield: 25 cream puffs; serving size: 2 oz.)

B. Add fillings. Split the cream puffs almost all the way around, or cut in halves almost down to the bottom crust. Fill one half of the puff with the filling and put the halves together.

C. Add toppings and serve. Choose one of the following toppings: confectioners' sugar, frosting, hot fudge sauce, fresh fruit, nuts, or ice cream. Add your topping and plate your dessert. Share desserts with other teams, and create an evaluation.

Create Your Evaluation

After tasting your cream puff, write a brief explanation of why you chose the filling and topping you did and why they go well together. Then, evaluate your dessert using the following rating scale: 1 = Poor; 2 = Fair; 3 = Good; 4 = Great. Explain the reasons for your rating.



Baking and Pastry

The art of baking and pastry appeals to both the palate and the eye.

Baking and pastry employees use a variety of doughs and batters to produce breads, cakes, muffins, pies, biscuits, scones, pastries, and other elegant desserts. Attention to detail, excellent eye-hand coordination, and an artistic flair are key skills for those interested in baking and pastry.

Baking and pastry workers must be skilled in basic bread and pastry techniques and have in-depth knowledge of how different ingredients function together. These individuals can find work in a variety places, from small neighborhood bakeries to large hotel catering operations.

Casey Shiller, Executive Pastry Chef

Describe your job.

I am the executive pastry chef for the Boeing® Leadership Center. I supervise the preparation of all cakes, pies, cookies, muffins, breakfast pastries, plated desserts, breads, and pastries. I am also a faculty member at St. Louis Community College, where I teach classes in baking, pastry, chocolates, wedding cakes, and confectionary art.

What kind education have you received?

I graduated with honors with a Bachelor of Science in Pastry Arts and Baking from Johnson & Wales University. That was the foundation for my career and a necessary experience for me to have followed my career path.

What has been your career path?

I have had a number of work experiences that have allowed me to continually develop my technical skills and gain valuable knowledge. Before coming to the Boeing® Leadership Center,

I worked at various hotels, including the Trump Plaza Hotel-Casino®, Trump Taj Mahal Hotel-Casino®, Trump Worlds Fair Hotel-Casino®, and The Ritz-Carlton® Amelia Island.

Q How do you maintain your enthusiasm for your work?

I find that it is very important to stay involved. I am an active member of the American Culinary Federation (ACF), the U.S. Pastry Alliance, and the St. Louis Chefs de Cuisine Association. I also coach the Missouri State Junior Culinary Team.

Q What have been your most rewarding professional achievements?

In the year 2000, I was named one of the Top 10 Rising Star Pastry Chefs 2000 by Chocolates a la Carte®. I have also earned several gold and silver medals for my chocolate sculptures and plated desserts at the New York Food Show.

Career Ingredients

Education or Training

Most employers require a culinary degree, plus at least two to four years of on-the-job training.

Academic Skills Required

English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science

Aptitudes, Abilities, and Skills

Creativity, artistic ability, good eye-hand coordination, a keen sense of taste and smell, good communication skills, ability to work under pressure, excellent organizational skills, and inventory control experience.

Workplace Safety

Basic kitchen safety, sanitations, and food handling rules must be followed.

Career Outlook

Openings will be plentiful for years to come as the foodservice industry continues to expand.

Career Path

Baking, pastry, and supervisory experience needed for advancement.

Career Pathways

Baker's helpers

Assist bakers in preparing non-dessert baked items, such as breads and rolls.

Baker and pastry apprentices

Work closely with the baker or pastry chef in preparing baked products and fancy desserts.

Pastry cooks

Work under a pastry chef. Prepare items, such as desserts and specialty cakes, for all occasions.

Pastry chefs

Responsible for the preparation of pastries and desserts. They supervise pastry cooks and bakers. May be responsible for creating new formulas.


Prepare breads and rolls. In some operations, they also bake cakes and pies. In large operations, each baker may focus on one type of baked product.

Production bakers

Must be familiar with large retail baking systems, product development, bakery management, and sales.

Confectionery food technologists

Work with developing bakery and confectionery products and establish specifications for raw materials used in food products.

Restaurant chefs

Known as line cooks, they are responsible for a la carte dishes.

Chef instructors

Experienced chefs who choose, after many years of experience, to become instructors.

In large bakery and pastry operations, you may also find: district sales managers, cake decorators, production supervisors, bakery/food scientists, executive pastry chefs, and flavorists.

Critical Thinking What classes have you taken in school that might help you prepare for a career in baking and pastry?

Most culinary certification programs incorporate baking techniques. Develop a new or modified recipe for a sweet or savory pie. Determine the type of filling, dough, crust, and final appearance of the pie. Be creative.



Imagine you have entered a pie-making competition. You will be timed, and you must complete the pie you developed in the Get Certified practice within that time. The finished product should be visually appealing, salable, and appetizing. Evaluate your efforts based on the following rating scale:

1 = Poor; 2 = Fair; 3 = Good; 4 = Great Judge your menu on:

• The visual presentation of your finished pie.

• Whether you finished your pie on time.

£1 Culinary

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