Cooking Poultry

Reading Guide

Before You Read

Preview Scan the section and choose a Key Concept that is new to you. Write it on a piece of paper. When you find it in the text, write one or two sentences explaining the concept.

Content Vocabulary

• crosshatch

• smoking point frying

Read To Learn

Key Concepts

• List various dry and moist poultry cooking techniques.

• Explain the problems that can occur when stuffing poultry.

• List side dishes commonly served with poultry.

Main Idea

You can use a variety of dry and moist techniques to cook tender, well-done poultry.

Graphic Organizer

As you read, check off whether each cooking technique is a dry or moist method. Use a chart like the one shown to help organize your information.

Academic Vocabulary

• principle process

Technique

Dry

Moist

Roasting/Baking

Broiling/Grilling

Frying

Sautéing

Simmering

Poaching

Braising

JjEtt Graphic Organizer

Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com for a printable graphic organizer.

English Language Arts

NCTE 8 Use information resources to gather information and create and communicate knowledge.

¿¡J Mathematics

NCTM Algebra Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols.

j i Social Studies

NCSSVB Individuals, Groups, and Institutions

Analyze group and institutional influences on people, events, and elements of culture.

NCTE National Council of Teachers of English NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

NSES National Science Education

Standards NCSS National Council for the Social Studies

Poultry Cooking Principles

A variety of moist and dry methods can be used to prepare poultry. This makes poultry one of the most versatile food products served. Most poultry products are low in fat and can quickly become dry and overcooked. Learning how to best apply proper cooking methods will help you create a moist final product.

Using lower temperatures and longer cooking times can produce moist results. Cooking with low heat, however, has disadvantages. It does not brown the surface of poultry well. Cooking at high temperatures causes the fat in skin to render, or melt. This creates a well-browned and crispy skin that seals in juices.

The presence or absence of bones affects moisture and flavor during the cooking process, or series of actions. Bones actually help the bird retain some of its moisture.

Roasting and Baking

Roasting and baking poultry are essentially the same process. Many chefs use the term "roasting" when cooking whole birds and "baking" when cooking parts of a bird. Roasted or baked poultry should be golden brown on the outside and tender and juicy on the inside. Using the proper cooking temperature makes all the difference. (See Figure 22.2.) The goal is to make the skin crispy and brown without drying out the meat.

* ) F1GÜRE22.2] Variable Heat Different kinds of

poultry require different roasting temperatures. Why do you think this is?

Poultry

Roasting Temperature

Chicken

375°F-400°F (191oC-204°C)

Turkey

Start at 400°F-425°F (204°C-218°C) to brown skin; reduce to 325°F (163°C) to finish.

Duck/Goose

375°F-425°F (191°C-218°C)

Squab

400°F (204°C)

Game Hen

375°F-400°F (191°C-204°C)

Cook Whole Birds Cooking whole birds using dry heat is called roasting. How can you make sure a bird comes out juicy and flavorful?

Often, a poultry recipe will direct you to start cooking using a high temperature. Then, you will be directed to lower the temperature to finish cooking. This technique promotes even cooking and seals in juices to prevent the meat from drying out.

To help whole poultry retain moisture during roasting, you should baste it during the last stage of the cooking process. To baste, spoon the fat drippings that have collected in the pan over the bird every 15 to 20 minutes. Baste only larger birds, like turkeys.

You do not have to baste a duck or a goose. Because these birds have a high fat content, basting will make them too juicy and may make them taste greasy. Roast them on a rack so the fat will drip into the pan, away from the bird. Some kinds of poultry, such as guineas and squabs, have very little fat. They can benefit from barding, or wrapping poultry in a layer of fat before cooking. This helps the bird retain moisture while it cooks.

Another way to keep poultry juicy during cooking is to oil the skin prior to the cooking process. This helps prevent the skin from drying out and locks in moisture.

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