Common Legumes

r continued

Navy Beans Navy beans are small and oval in shape. They are white in color, have a powdery texture, and a mild flavor.

Peanuts Peanuts are oblong kernels. They are light brown in color, and have a firm texture.

Pinto Beans Pinto beans are medium-size, oval-shaped beans. They are beige and brown in color, and are typically mottled. They have a powdery texture and an earthy flavor.

Black Beans Black beans are medium-size and oval-shaped. They are also called turtle beans. Black beans have a creamy interior flesh with a black shell or skin, and a sweet flavor.

Red Kidney Beans As the name suggests, these are kidney-shaped beans. They are reddish-brown in color, and they have a soft texture and a robust flavor.

Soybeans Soybeans are a round bean. They are green, black, or yellow in color and have a bland flavor.

Yellow and Green Split Peas These whole peas have had the skin removed and are split in half. They are yellow and green in color. They have a soft, floury texture with a sweet taste.

Cooking Legumes

All legumes must be cooked to be digestible. Digestible means that the nutrients, such as protein, are more accessible, or available, to the body. Red kidney beans contain a natural toxin that is destroyed during cooking. The flavor of legumes varies with the product. Some are very flavorful by themselves. Others are quite bland and require seasoning. Great Northern beans and Navy beans are legumes that require seasoning. Soybeans can also be bland without seasoning.

Cooking legumes involves rehydration, the process of adding water back into the legume. Since the beans have been thoroughly dried, they need to become filled with water again. This usually is accomplished in two steps: soaking and simmering.

Check and Soak Legumes

Before you cook legumes, you must get everything ready for preparation. Dishes that use legumes must be carefully planned out to leave enough time for sorting, soaking, and cooking the legumes. Carefully sort through legumes before cooking. Remove any shriveled or discolored legumes. Also, check for objects such as pebbles or stems that might have slipped into the package. Items such as these can be a physical hazard to customers.

Next, rinse legumes in cold water repeatedly until the water is clear. Most legumes require soaking, but check the package to be sure. In general, the longer legumes soak, the less time they will take to cook. Remove any legumes that float. Insects may have eaten the insides of those legumes. The most efficient way to soak legumes is to leave them overnight in three times their volume of water in the refrigerator. An alternative method is to quick soak them. Put the beans in a pot and cover with water. Bring the water to a boil and cook for a few minutes. Turn off the heat, cover the beans, and let them sit for one hour. Discard the water.

Science ä la Carte

Moisture and Mold in Legumes

The USDA has procedures for detecting toxic, or mold-infected, legumes before the food is sold. Two types of fungi that cause the most concern are the aspergillus (,as-par-'ji-las) and fusarium (fyu-'zer-e-am) species of molds. Under certain conditions, each type of mold can produce a toxic substance called aflatoxin (,a-fla-'tak-san). Once the food is infected, the aflatoxin cannot be destroyed. There is no safe way to eat legumes that have mold.

The easiest method to prevent mold growth in legumes is to keep them too dry for mold to grow. Aspergillus and fusarium molds require moisture to reproduce. A moisture content of 10% or less is desirable.


To estimate the moisture content in your legumes, try the following experiment. J Remove some legumes from the middle of the container in which they are stored.

• Weigh out 20 ounces of legumes. Spread them in a large baking dish, not more than an inch deep.

• Preheat the oven to 180°F (82°C). Place the baking dish in the oven for two hours, stirring occasionally.

• After two hours, turn off the oven, but keep the dish in the oven until it has cooled.

J Reweigh the legumes.


Record the new total weight of the legumes. Then, assuming that every ounce less than the original 20 ounces indicates a five percent moisture content, decide whether your legumes are desirable to eat.

NSES C Develop an understanding of the interdependence of organisms.

All types of legumes are rich in iron, vitamins, protein, and starch. Legumes can also be made into substitute items. Soy milk, an emulsion made from ground soy beans and water, is used as a milk substitute. Legumes are sometimes ground into a flour and used as a substitute for wheat flour in baking recipes.

Simmer Legumes

After you prepare the legumes, you will simmer them. Simmering legumes allows the hard, dry legumes to slowly reabsorb water.

After soaking legumes, follow these general guidelines to cook legumes:

1. Simmer the legumes and cooking liquid for 30 minutes to three hours.

2. When legumes are tender, but not too soft, they are ready to be used.

3. Test for doneness by tasting a few beans. If their texture is not soft enough, they are not ready and must be simmered for longer. Legumes that will go into a hot dish can be added to the dish after simmering. Legumes that will be added to a cold dish must be properly cooled before they are added to the cold dish.

Cool Cooked Legumes

After legumes have been cooked, allow them to cool before using them. Keep the legumes in the cooking liquid while they cool. This will keep them moist. Use one of the following methods to cool legumes quickly:

• Divide the hot legumes into smaller quantities. Place them into pre-chilled shallow pans and refrigerate.

• Use an ice bath to bring down the temperature of the food. First, divide the food into small, shallow pans. Place the pans in ice water in a sink.

• Use cold paddles, such as Rapi-Kool®, that you fill with water and freeze. Stirring legumes with cold paddles will help cool them quickly. Sanitize the paddles every time you use them.

Rinsing Legumes
^J Sort and Soak Legumes should be sorted before use, and those below standards of quality should be discarded. Why should legumes also be rinsed prior to soaking and use?

Lentil Stuffed Zucchini


t li


13 c.

Brown lentils

12 c.


1 large

Carrot, finely chopped

1 rib

Celery, finely chopped

VS c.

Onion, finely chopped

14 ea.

Green bell pepper,

finely chopped

14 ea.

Red pepper, finely


2 clv.

Garlic, minced

1 ea.

Bay leaf

6 med.


Dash, + 14 tsp. Salt

2 dashes + V4 tsp. Pepper

14 c.

Tomato paste

14 c.

Walnuts, finely chopped

2 tbsp.

Flat-leaf parsley, fresh,

finely chopped

2 tsp.

Thyme, fresh, finely


1 tsp.

Dill, snipped, fresh

1 tsp.

Tarragon, fresh, finely


74 c.

Parmesan cheese

'/4 c.

Bread crumbs, dried


Vegetables are ideal for stuffing because they hold up well in the oven. Research these recipes, and make a chart of their similarities and differences. j Dolmades (Greece) • Basic Stuffed Zucchini (Italy)

International Flavor

Method of Preparation

1. Combine the lentils, water, carrot, celery, onion, bell pepper, red pepper, garlic, and bay leaf in a large saucepan. Cover and simmer over medium-high heat until the lentils are tender and the liquid is absorbed, about 30 minutes.

3. Meanwhile, preheat the oven to 350°F (177°C). Lightly oil a 10-inch by 8-inch baking dish. Bring a large pot of water to a boil over high heat, add the zucchini, and cook until just tender, about 15 minutes. Drain and cool slightly.

4. Trim the ends and slice each zucchini in half lengthwise. Use a spoon to scoop out about half of the inside of the zucchini and discard, leaving a Vi-inch-thick shell. Arrange the zucchini shells in the prepared pan and sprinkle with salt and pepper.

5. When the lentils are cooked, remove the bay leaf. Stir in the remaining Vi tsp. salt and Vi tsp. pepper, tomato paste, walnuts, parsley, thyme, dill, and tarragon. Taste and adjust the seasoning.

6. Stir together the Parmesan, bread crumbs and a dash of pepper in a small bowl.

7. Spread about 2 Tbsp. of the lentil mixture into each zucchini half. Sprinkle with the Parmesan mixture.

8. Bake for 30 minutes, or until the zucchini are completely tender and the cheese is melted. Hold at 135°F (57°C) or above.

Chef Notes

This vegetarian entrée offers a meaty texture from the lentils, and provides high quantities of fiber and protein.

Vegetables are ideal for stuffing because they hold up well in the oven. Research these recipes, and make a chart of their similarities and differences. j Dolmades (Greece) • Basic Stuffed Zucchini (Italy)

Cooking Technique


1. Preheat oven to desired temperature.

2. Place items to back on the correct rack in the oven.


Jalapeno a dark green chili pepper from Mexico


Hazardous Foods ^Ê Nutrition

Calories 160 Total Fat 5g Saturated Fat 1g Trans Fat 0g Cholesterol 5mg Sodium 300mg Total Carbohydrate Fiber 6g Sugars 8g Protein 92g

Calories from Fat 45

Vitamin C 90% Iron 20%

Legumes for Livestock Forage legumes are types of legumes that are often used to feed livestock. Alfalfa and clover are both types of forage legumes.

Cooked Legume Storage

Often, more legumes are prepared than will be used. In this case, cooked legumes can be labeled, dated, and stored in the refrigerator. Use them within three days. Legumes that will not be used within the three-day period can be frozen. Package the cooked legumes in an air-tight, moisture-proof container.

To keep them moist, add just enough cooking liquid to cover them. Label the container with the date and contents. Frozen legumes can be stored for six months.

Plate and Serve Legumes

Legumes can be used in salads, soups, stews, or casseroles. They also can be served alone or with rice. Legumes can also be used as a meat substitute in dishes such as lasagna or chili. For a change of pace, use legumes in place of common side dishes such as mashed potatoes.

\ Describe What is the mise en place for legumes?


Review Key Concepts

1. List the various types of legumes.

2. Describe the process of preparing and cooking legumes.

Practice Culinary Academics ^^ English Language Arts

3. Write an advertisement promoting legumes as a healthful protein alternative to meat. Describe the health benefits and the advantages of substituting legumes for some of the meat in your diet.

NCTE 6 Apply knowledge of language structure and conventions to discuss texts.

^j) Social Studies

4. Besides being nutritious and high in protein, legumes may also have the ability to fix nitrogen from the air. This means that they could help fertilize soil for growing. Research this process and create a visual presentation to evaluate how it can benefit farmers.

^^ Mathematics

5. Russell's restaurant serves a salad that requires 1.5 cups of cooked fava beans per serving. If a pound of dry fava beans is 2 cups by volume, and fava beans triple in volume when cooked, how many servings can he make from a 5-pound package of dry beans?

¿SUISSE Multi-step Problems Study the problem carefully and determine the individual calculations you will need to make. Determine the proper order for those calculations by identifying the steps that require answers from other steps. Starting Hint Start with the 5 pounds of dry beans, and determine how much volume (in cups) that weight represents. Then, determine the volume of those beans once cooked. How many 1.5-cup servings can you get from that total?

NCTM Problem Solving Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.

Bji Check your answers at this book's Online Learning Center at

NCSS VII A Production, Distribution, and Consumption

Examine how the scarcity of productive resources requires the development of economic systems to make decisions about how goods and services are to be produced and distributed.


Review and Applications

Chapter Summary f

There are eight categories of fruit. The quality characteristics of fruit vary with each type of fruit, its season, and its form. Fruits can be cooked using either dry or moist methods.

There are also eight classifications of vegetables. All vegetables are judged on their appearance and the condition they are in when they arrive on the market. By applying the appropriate cooking technique, tender vegetables that are packed with nutrition and taste can be served.

There are dozens of types of legumes. Legumes should be brightly colored and uniformly sized. They should not be marked, discolored, shriveled or broken.

Content and Academic Vocabulary Review

1. Label each of these vocabulary terms as a noun, verb, or adjective.

Content Vocabulary

tuber (p. 647) floret (p. 647) solanine (p. 650) mealy potato (p. 650) waxy potato (p. 650) net weight (p. 652) drained weight (p. 652) packing medium (p. 652) mandoline (p. 653) bouquetière (p. 658) legume (p. 660) pulse (p. 660)

• preprocessed legumes (p. 660)

Academic Vocabulary

Review Key Concepts

2. Distinguish between the different market forms of fruit.

3. Identify dry and moist methods of cooking fruit.

4. Identify the purchasing and storage for fresh, canned, frozen, and dried vegetables.

5. Describe dry and moist cooking methods for vegetables.

6. List the various types and quality characteristics of legumes.

7. Describe the process of preparing and cooking legumes.

Critical Thinking

8. Imagine that you are in charge of selecting and purchasing fruit for your foodservice operation. How do you determine which fruits to buy?

9. Evaluate holding procedures. You have made a mashed potato dish for a dinner party and the entrée is running late. How can you keep the potatoes hot?

10. Illustrate your knowledge of storage. You have just received a delivery of potatoes, bananas, oranges, tomatoes, leafy greens, frozen corn, and dried split peas. How will you store them?


Review and Applications

Academic Skills

^^ English Language Arts

11. Write a Memorandum Imagine that you are a pastry chef in a foodservice operation. Write a memorandum to the executive chef and manager of the operation persuading them to use more fruit in the dessert menu. Use information from the chapter, but write in your own words and an appropriate business format and tone. Explain why fruit desserts are both delicious and more nutritious than other desserts.

NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively.

Social Studies

12. Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Program The government encourages schools to offer fruits and vegetables as snacks by providing them free to participating schools as part of the USDA Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Program. Conduct research to learn more about this program. Find out if your school participates. If your class does not participate, consider writing letters to the administration to ask them to participate, if possible.

NCSS VI B Power, Authority, and Governance Explain the purpose of the government and analyze how its powers are acquired, used, and justified.


13. Make a Selection Peter is updating his restaurant's Web site, and would like to add some photographs to add visual appeal. At the moment, he is preparing to take a picture of some fruit. He has a bowl containing an apricot, peach, papaya, plum, orange, pear, mango, apple, and banana. Peter would like to select three of the fruits and line them up for a picture. What is the total number of possible ways he can line up three different fruits?

^^^^^^^^ Permutations A permutation is an ordered arrangement of a group of items. If there are n total items, and you select r of them, then the number of permutations is equal to n! / [(n - r)!]

Starting Hint There are nine total fruits, out of which Peter will select three. Use the permutation formula to determine the number of arrangements, which results in 9! / 6!. If you write out the numerator and denominator in longhand (e.g., 9 X 8 X 7 etc.), you will be able to cancel out many of the numbers, making your calculation easier.

NCTM Data Analysis and Probability Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.

Certification Prep

Directions Read the questions. Then, read the answer choices and choose the best possible answer for each.

14. What grade of fruit is purchased for fresh fruit salad?

a. U.S. Fancy c. U.S. Extra Standard b. U.S. Choice d. U.S. Standard

15. What type of potato is ideal for baking and deep frying?

a. russet c. yukon b. red d. sweet

Sharpen your test-taking skills to improve your kitchen certification program score.

Test-Taking Tip

When you evaluate choices, locate the words you know right away and determine whether they fit with the question. If not, you can dismiss them right away.


Review and Applications

Real-World Skills and Applications

Interpersonal and Collaborative Skills

16. Global Cuisine Follow your teacher's instructions to break into teams. Imagine that you are the staff of a new restaurant. As a team, create five dishes featuring fruit, vegetables, or legumes from other cultures. Share your dishes.

Self-Management Skills

17. Estimate Juice Needs Imagine that your foodservice operation serves freshly squeezed orange juice at breakfast. Each glass is 6 ounces and you expect about 25 customers for breakfast. Find out how to make fresh-squeezed juice and estimate how many oranges you will need for one day's breakfast.

Technology Applications

18. Use the Internet Use the Internet to find information about legumes. Learn five interesting pieces of information that you did not know before about legumes. Share what you have learned with the class. List the Web sites where you found the information.

Financial Literacy

19. Cost per Ounce Often, package sizes of food vary and it is difficult to comparison shop for the best value. Most packages are labeled in ounces, however, so to comparison shop you must determine the cost per ounce. Which is a better bargain on pre-prepared fruit salad: an 8-ounce package for $1.50, a 12-ounce container for $1.75, or a 16-ounce container for $2?

Culinary Lab

Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.

Cook Fruits or Vegetables

20. Compare Cooking Methods Working in teams, you will compare the results of cooking fruits or vegetables for different lengths of time.

A. Chooseyourfruit orvegetable. Choose a fruit orvegetable to useforthe lab Create a chart like the one shown below.

Use the culinary skills you have learned in this chapter.

Cooking Time

Texture of Fruit or Vegetable

Color of Fruit or Vegetable

Flavor of Fruit or Vegetable

5 Minutes

10 Minutes

20 Minutes

B. Begincooking. Preparethefruitorvegetablefor cooking, and then simmer for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes, remove one serving of the fruit or vegetable to a plate.

C. Taste test. Examine this serving ofyour fruit or vegetable and record your responses on the chart. Taste the fruit or vegetable and record the flavor changes.

D. Continue cooking. Repeat steps B and C twice more, filling in the chart with your observations each time.

Create Your Evaluation

Answer the following questions as you review the observations on your chart:

j What conclusions can you draw about cooking times? j Which stage of cooking did you prefer for the doneness of this fruit or vegetable?

j How does the length of cooking time and the cooking method impact a foodservice operation?



Chefs and Cooks

Chefs and cooks determine the fate of a restaurant's reputation.

hether a restaurant prides itself on home-style cooking or international dishes, it relies on the talent and expertise of its chefs and cooks. Depending upon the type and size of the establishment, chefs usually supervise the work of cooks.

Chefs and cooks rely on their judgment and experience as they constantly taste, smell, and season food being prepared in their kitchens. They must be able to work independently, as members of a team, under extreme pressure, and in crowded spaces. They make sure the food tastes good and is visually appealing.

Ryan Marcoux, Sous Chef

Describe your job.

I am sous chef for Sel de la Terre, but recently my job description has become a little confusing because I am helping Sel de la Terre open a new restaurant. So, right now, I cook 50% of the time, but once we open the new location, I will cook 80% of the time.

What is your typical work day like?

I go in at noon and work with the invoices, recipes, and menus. I meet with the head chef for the new location. I also meet with the wait staff to talk about our menu changes and prix fix for the day. During service, I do back expo and swing, which means I call the tickets to the hot line and help whoever is in the weeds.

Why did you choose your career?

First, I love food. Second, I think some people are born to be in the kitchen, and I am one of them. Being a chef is a lifestyle. It takes a certain breed to do what we do.

What education did you receive?

I earned a degree in Culinary Arts. This helped me with my fundamental knowledge of cooking but more importantly, it helped me understand how to manage a kitchen.

How did you find your current job?

The Nicas family, who owns The Castle Restaurant, gave me my start. I completed a four-year apprenticeship, working there 40-plus hours a week while in school. This enabled me to show my commitment to this industry and gave me a solid résumé and great recommendations.

What skills are most important to your job?

I think time management and organization are the most important skills because these help you focus on details, and details are what make the difference.

Career Ingredients

Education or Training

Most employers require a culinary degree, and restaurant experience is usually a necessity.

Academic Skills Required

English Language Arts, Mathematics

Aptitudes, Abilities, and Skills

In-depth knowledge of the food industry, good eye-hand coordination, strong interpersonal and leadership skills, planning and organizational skills, ability to work independently and as a team, and ability to handle pressure.

Workplace Safety

Basic kitchen safety, sanitation, and food handling rules must be followed.

Career Outlook

Openings will be plentiful for years to come as the foodservice industry expands.

Career Path

Advancement depends on skill, training, and work experience. Chefs with supervisory experience may advance to executive chef.

Career Pathways

Executive chefs

Highly-skilled chefs with years of experience. Their duties include hiring and supervising cooking staff, planning menus, and ordering food.

Sous chefs

Also known as area chefs, they are in charge of running the kitchen. They assist the executive chef and make sure that the staff is cooking, portioning, and garnishing food properly.

Sauce chefs

Prepare fish, stews, sauteed dishes, braised or roasted entrees, and sauces.

Garde manger chefs

Cold-food chefs who prepare appetizers, salads, ice carvings, buffets, and cold meat preparations.

Roast cooks

Specialize in oven-roasted, baked, fried, and grilled items.

Vegetable cooks

Cooks who specialize in pastas, vegetables, and soups.

Pastry chefs

Trained in the art of making hot, cold, and frozen pastries and breads.

Restaurant chefs

Known as line cooks, they are responsible for a la carte dishes.


Cooks who take the place of absent staff members.

In a very large foodservice operation, the following could also be present: soup cook, legume cook, fish cook, hors d'oeuvre cook, buffet cook, butcher, preserver cook, grill cook, fry cook, and staff cook.

Critical Thinking What classes have you taken in school that might help you prepare for a career as a chef or cook?

Culinary certification programs include cooking techniques. Develop a recipe for a pasta dish, making sure it is both creative and healthful. The dish should be visually appealing, taste good, and incorporate a variety of ingredients.



Imagine you have been hired as a new vegetable cook, and the executive chef has asked you to prepare a new pasta dish. Prepare the dish you developed for the Get Certified practice. All preparation must be done within a time period specified by your teacher. Evaluate your efforts based on the following rating scale: 1 = Poor; 2 = Fair; 3 = Good; 4 = Great Judge your menu on:

• Whether you finished your dish on time.

• The flavor of your dish and the ingredients you included.

• The visual appeal of your dish.

Culinary Project

Continue reading here: Local and Seasonal Foods

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  • berilac
    What are the four method of cooking legume?
    7 months ago