Preview Understanding causes and effects can help clarify connections. A cause is an event or action that makes something happen. An effect is a result of a cause. Ask yourself, "Why does this happen?" to help you recognize cause-and-effect relationships in this section.
Read to Learn
• Identify the different categories of ingredients and their roles in the baking process.
• Compare and contrast different dough mixing methods.
The basic ingredients in baking are flour, liquids, fat, sugar and sweeteners, eggs, leavening agents, and flavorings. The ingredients determine the flavor, texture, and visual appeal of a baked good.
• hard wheat flour
• soft wheat flour
• dried milk solids
• shortening j oil
• leavening agent
• baking powder
Before you read, use a KWL chart to write down three things that you already know about bakeshop ingredients and three things you would like to learn. As you read, write what you have learned.
What I Want to Know
What I Learned
NCTE 4 Use written Ianguage to communicate effectively.
^ NCTM Algebra Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.
NSES F Develop an understanding of personal and community health.
NCSS II D Time, Continuity, and Change Employ processes to validate and weigh evidence for claims.
NCTE National Council of Teachers of English NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
NSES National Science Education
Standards NCSS National Council for the Social Studies
Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com for a printable graphic organizer.
From a simple list of ingredients such as flour, liquids, fat, sugar and sweeteners, eggs, leavening agents, and flavorings, you can make an endless variety of baked products. Ingredients are more than just parts of a baking formula. They add flavor, texture, and visual appeal to all types of baked products. In this section, you will learn about basic baking ingredients and mixing techniques.
Use Exact Ingredients
Baking, unlike cooking, leaves little margin for error. You cannot just substitute the same amount of cake flour for bread flour and expect to come up with the same end result. To become a successful baker, you must understand how key ingredients work together. Baking formulas have been developed using exact types of ingredients. If the formula is not followed precisely, the product's texture and taste will be affected.
Wheat flour is the main ingredient in many baked goods. The proteins and starch in flour give these products structure. The classification of flour is based on the type of wheat it comes from: soft or hard. Hard wheat flour comes from kernels that are firm, tough, and difficult to cut. Bread flour is one type of hard wheat flour.
Hard wheat has a high protein content. When wheat flour is mixed with water, certain proteins form gluten. Gluten is a firm, elastic substance that affects the texture of baked products. The higher a flour's protein content, the more potential it has to form gluten.
Gluten is the substance that makes bread dough strong and elastic. Without gluten, you could not stretch the dough and hold in the gases that make it rise. The dough would collapse, resulting in poor volume and a coarse crumb. Crumb is the internal texture of a baked product.
Soft wheat flour, such as cake flour and pastry flour, comes from a soft wheat kernel.
This type of flour has a low protein content, making it ideal for tender baked products such as cookies and pastries. Bread flour, cake flour, and pastry flour are all types of wheat flour.
Bread Flour Breadmakers use bread flour. It has a high gluten-forming protein content. These proteins allow the bread to rise fully and develop a fine crumb. They also give the bread a chewier, firmer texture. Bread flour is used to make yeast breads, pizza, and bagels.
Cake Flour Cake flour is lower in protein than bread flour and pastry flour. Cake flour produces a softer and more tender product than bread flour. Cake flour is bleached with chlorine (lkl6r-,en) to help produce a fine, white crumb in cakes.
Pastry Flour The protein content of pastry flour is between that of bread flour and cake flour. It is used in pie dough, cookies, muffins, and quick breads. It is used for cakes only if cake flour is unavailable.
Other types of flours used in the bakeshop are listed in Figure 26.1 on page 689.
Liquids are an essential part of baking. The most common liquids used in baking are water, milk, and cream. Liquids can also be found in eggs, sugar syrups, and butter, which contains about 15% water.
Accurate measurement of liquids is important because too much or too little can affect the outcome of the baked product. For example, adding too much water in pie dough will cause excess gluten formation, which may result in a tough texture.
Water Water is the most common liquid ingredient used in baking, especially for breads. It has many uses besides moistening dry ingredients. Water is necessary for gluten structure to form in flour. Also, water temperature is used to adjust temperatures in dough. This applies to bread dough in particular, where dough temperature is important. Because water is tasteless, odorless, and colorless, it does not affect the flavor or color of baked products. It also adds no fat or calories.
: ]FIGURE 26.1 | Flour Characteristics
' Flour Choices Different types of flour are used for different types of baked goods. Why might you want to choose a non-wheat flour for some baked goods?
Milk and Cream Milk is another important liquid ingredient. Its protein, fat, and sugar content make it a valuable addition to baked products, ice creams, and custards. Milk also improves the flavor and texture of bread and other baked goods.
Some of the improvements milk can make include:
• Creating a soft, rather than crispy, crust on items such as cream puffs or éclairs (a-'klers).
• Adding more color or flavor to crusts when it is applied to the surface of the baked product.
• Extending shelf life by delaying staling. Staling is the process by which moisture is lost, causing a change in the texture and aroma of food. Staling causes the crumb to be dry and the crust to become soft and moist.
Dried milk solids are also used in baked goods. Since milkfat can reduce milk's shelf life, dried milk solids are usually purchased as nonfat dry milk. Nonfat dry milk can be reconstituted with water or used dry. If kept dry, it is easier to use and can be stored without refrigeration. You can sift it with dry ingredients or mix it with shortening, before you add the water separately.
Dairy products such as buttermilk, yogurt, and sour cream are also used in the bakeshop. These products contain live bacteria that convert milk sugar into acid. The acid in buttermilk, for example, provides a whiter, more tender crumb in biscuits.
Another common dairy product, heavy cream, has a high fat content. This fat content allows it to tenderize baked goods. Cream is often whipped for toppings, chilled desserts, and fillings such as pastry cream. It is used as a liquid ingredient in custards, sauces, and ice creams. (You will learn more about desserts in Chapter 29.)
During the baking process, fats surround, or enclose, the flour particles and prevent long strands of gluten from forming. This tenderizes the baked good. Fats also add to the flavor, moistness, browning, flakiness, and leavening, depending on the type of fat. In baking, solid fats are referred to as shortening. Purified oils are made solid by a process called hydrogenation. In hydrogenation, the oils are made
solid by adding hydrogen to the oil. The most common types of fat used in the bakeshop include all-purpose shortening, emulsified shortening, oil, butter, and margarine.
Vegetable Shortening When most people hear the word shortening, they think of a solid, white, flavorless fat used for baking. This type of shortening, known as vegetable shortening, is made from purified oils that have been hydrogenated to make them solid and less likely to become rancid. Vegetable shortening has a fairly high melting point, which makes it ideal for forming flaky pie doughs. It is also a good choice for frying and for making cookies and cakes.
Emulsified Shortening Some shortenings contain emulsifiers. Emulsified shortenings are also called high-ratio shortenings because they allow the baker to add a high ratio of water and sugar to a cake or icing. Some high-ratio shortenings look like allpurpose shortenings.
High-ratio liquid shortenings look like creamy oils. Some cake formulas are designed to use high-ratio liquid shortenings. These cakes will be extra moist, airy, and tender and
Gluten Benefits Gluten gives dough its stretchiness, allowing it to be pulled and shaped. What other benefits does gluten give to dough?
will have a longer shelf life than cakes made with other fats. Other fats cannot replace high-ratio liquid shortenings because of their unique characteristics.
Trans fat-free shortenings are also widely available on the market. Hydrogenated fats are responsible for most of the trans fats that people consume. Trans fat-free shortenings can provide a more healthful alternative.
Oil An oil is a fat that is extracted from plants such as soybeans, corn, peanuts, and cottonseed. They are liquid at room temperature and neutral in flavor and color because they are highly refined. Because oil blends more easily throughout a mixture, it can coat more strands of gluten. Therefore, oil causes baked products to be more tender. Oil is used in quick breads, some pie crusts, deep-fried products like doughnuts, and rich sponge cakes like chiffon (shi-'fan).
Butter Have you ever tasted a frosting that seemed to melt in your mouth? That frosting was probably made with butter. Butter can be purchased with or without salt. Unsalted butter is used in baking because of its pleasant flavor. Because butter is soft at room temperature, however, doughs made with butter are sometimes hard to handle. Butter is only 80% fat, so it produces a less tender baked product than shortening.
Margarine Margarine is typically a hydro-genated vegetable oil that has color, flavor, and water added. Margarines have improved over the years. While they cannot match butter's superior flavor, they are less likely to spoil and are usually lower in saturated fat. Margarines can be purchased either salted or unsalted.
Sugars and Sweeteners
Sugars and sweeteners add a sweet, pleasant flavor to baked products. Flavor, however, is not their only contribution to, or role in, baking. The other functions of sugars and sweeteners include:
• Creating a golden-brown color.
• Stabilizing mixtures such as beaten egg whites for meringue (ms-'raq).
• Providing food for yeast in yeast breads.
• Retaining moisture for a longer shelf life.
• Tenderizing baked products by weakening the gluten strands and delaying the action of other structure builders such as egg protein.
• Serving as a base for making icings. Sugar is produced from sugarcane or sugar beets. The cane or beet is crushed to extract the juice. The juice is then filtered and gently heated to evaporate the water. Through a series of heat-induced steps, the sugar is crystallized ('kris-ts-JIzd), or turned into crystals, and separated from the dark, thick molasses that forms. It must be refined to produce sugar grains of different sizes. Various sugars and sweeteners are used in the bakeshop.
Oil for Shortening? In general, oil should never be substituted for a solid shortening in baking formulas. It will result in baked goods with lower volume and pie crusts that lack flakiness and crumble easily. It is better to make sure that you have the proper bakeshop ingredients on hand before you begin to bake.
Molasses Molasses is the thick, sweet, dark liquid made from sugarcane juice. There are many grades of molasses available. Premium grades have a golden-brown color and a mild, sweet flavor. Lower grades are typically darker in color with a less sweet, stronger flavor. This stronger color and flavor is often desirable in baked products.
Brown Sugar Brown sugar is a soft-textured mixture of white sugar and molasses. It can be light or dark in color. Store brown sugar in air-tight containers to prevent moisture absorption.
Turbinado Sugar Turbinado sugar is raw sugar that has been steam-cleaned. Its coarse crystals are blond colored and have a delicate molasses flavor. Turbinado sugar is used in some baked products and beverages.
Coarse Sugar Coarse sugar, also known as sanding sugar, consists of large, coarse crystals that do not dissolve easily. It is used to decorate items such as doughnuts or cakes.
Granulated Sugar Regular granulated sugar is often referred to as extrafine white sugar or table sugar. It is the most common sugar used in the bakeshop. Granulated sugar is used in cooked icings, candies, and other baked products.
Confectioners' Sugar Confectioners' sugar, also known as powdered sugar, is granulated sugar that has been crushed into a fine powder. Confectioners' sugar also contains about 3% cornstarch, which helps keep the sugar from clumping. It is often used in uncooked icings and glazes and as a decorative dusting on baked products.
Superfine Sugar Superfine sugar is more finely granulated than regular white sugar. As a result, it dissolves almost instantly. Superfine sugar is perfect for making sweetened cold liquids and egg white meringues less gritty. Meringues can be used for such items as toppings on pies.
Corn Syrup Corn syrup is produced from the starch in corn. The starch granules are removed from corn kernels and treated with acids or enzymes to create a thick, sweet syrup.
Apple Wheat Germ Cake
Method of Preparation
YIELD: 8 SERVINGS SERVING SIZE: 9 OZ.
Research the following recipes to discover what types of apples they use. Then, research the apples and write a paragraph on each type.
• Scandinavian Apple Cake (Scandinavia)
• Irish Potato Apple Cake (Ireland)
• Apfeltorte (Germany)
Antioxidant substance that works against the chemical reactions to oxygen Staple an item that is used or needed frequently
2. Sift together in a bowl the flour, milk solids, baking powder, salt, and cinnamon.
3. In another bowl, combine the wheat germ, honey, peanut oil, eggs, orange rind, and vanilla, and stir into the dry ingredients. The batter will be liquid.
4. Place V3 of the batter in an oiled, 3-qt. baking dish and spread V2 of the sliced apples over the batter.
5. To p with another V3 of the batter and spread remaining apples over batter.
6. To p with the remaining batter.
7. Bake 40 to 45 minutes. Cover with aluminum foil if the cake starts to brown before it is baked.
8. Cool slightly in the pan and serve warm.
1. Prepare the components to be combined.
2. Add one to the other, using the appropriate mixing method (if needed).
Wheat germ contains vitamin E, a powerful antioxidant. It is the fatty part of the wheat kernel.
• Although Macintosh apples are recommended for this recipe, any apple variety may be used in its place.
Hazardous Foods ^k Nutrition
Calories 540 Calories from Fat 160 Total Fat 19g Saturated Fat 3.5g Trans Fat 0g Cholesterol 120mg Sodium 590mg Total Carbohydrate 83g Fiber 9g Sugars 47g Protein 11g
Light corn syrup has no color, while dark corn syrup has a molasses-like flavor. Corn syrup does not crystallize easily, so it is a popular ingredient to use in frostings, candies, jams, and jellies.
Maple Syrup Maple syrup adds a unique flavor to baked products. It is made from the sap of a maple tree. Syrups are graded according to their color and flavor. The lighter and milder the syrup, the higher grade it will receive.
Honey Honey is a thick, sweet liquid made by bees from flower nectar ('nek-tsr). The type of flower affects the final flavor and color of the honey. Honey is widely used to give baked products a distinct, sweet flavor. It should be stored in a cool, dry place. Refrigerated honey will crystallize and form a gooey mass. If this happens, the honey can be heated in the microwave in small amounts or in a pan of hot water over low heat.
Eggs are the second most important ingredient in baked products. Eggs come in a variety of sizes. Formulas listing the amount of eggs by number instead of weight have based the formula on large eggs, which weigh about 2 ounces each.
Commercial bakeshops use egg yolks instead of whole eggs when they want a richer, more tender product. They also use egg whites in place of whole eggs when they bake low-fat products. Eggs serve these functions during baking.
• Structure Because of their protein content, eggs give structure to baked products such as cakes. They also help thicken some products such as custard sauces.
• Emulsification Egg yolks have natural emulsifiers that help blend ingredients smoothly.
• Aeration (,er-'a-sh9n) Beaten or whipped eggs assist in leavening because they trap air that expands when heated, causing baked products to rise.
ATASTE OF HISTORY
The first postage stamp is introduced in England
The first commercial chocolate bar is produced
Long before chocolate was a sweet candy, it was a spicy drink dating back to the ancient Mayans and Aztecs. Later, Christopher Columbus brought the seeds from the cacao tree back home to Spain, and eventually the drink's popularity spread throughout Europe. Since then, new technologies and innovations have changed the texture and taste of chocolate, but it still remains one of the world's favorite flavors.
Everyone has his or her favorite chocolate bar. Create a survey that will identify which chocolate bar is a favorite of your family and friends. In the survey, ask them why they prefer a particular type. Gather the results and discuss them as a class.
NCSS II D Time, Continuity, and Change Employ processes to validate and weigh evidence for claims.
• Flavor Eggs add a distinct flavor.
• Color Egg yolks add a rich, yellow color to baked products and crusts.
Shell eggs and egg products, such as liquid frozen eggs, dried eggs, and liquid refrigerated eggs, are used in baking.
Shell Eggs Shell eggs are eggs sold in their shells. They are often called fresh eggs. If stored properly at 41°F (5°C) or below, they will last up to four weeks beyond the packing date. Shell eggs are purchased in flats, each of which holds 2% dozen, or 30 eggs. There are 12 flats in a case, meaning that one case contains 30 dozen, or 360, eggs. Shell eggs can be separated into yolks and whites by carefully cracking the egg and pouring off the white while leaving the yolk in the shell. You may also use an egg separator.
Egg Products Egg products have been removed from the shell, and pasteurized.
The whites can be separated from the yolks, and additives included if necessary. For example, frozen egg yolks have 10% sugar added to prevent them from gelling. The egg products are then packaged and refrigerated, frozen, or dried and packed in pouches.
Egg products are popular because of their convenience. They can be substituted for shell eggs in many baked products. Frozen egg products must be thawed in the refrigerator, so plan ahead when using them. Do not let them sit at room temperature, as egg products are highly perishable. Dried eggs are often used in prepared mixes such as for cakes. High-quality, dried egg whites are often preferred for making meringues over liquid egg whites because they are more stable.
A leavening agent is a substance that causes a baked good to rise by introducing carbon dioxide (CO2) or other gases into the mixture. The gases expand from the heat of the oven, stretching the cell walls in the baked product. The end result is a light, tender texture and good volume. The main leavening agents are air, steam, baking soda, baking powder, and yeast.
Air Air is an important leavening agent in all baked products since air is added during the mixing process. Angel food cake is a good example of a baked product that relies on air as a leavening agent. You can add air to a mixture by whipping egg whites.
Steam Steam is another important leavening agent. It is created during the baking process when water evaporates to steam and expands. Because water in one form or another is in all baked products, steam is an important leavening gas. It is especially important to items such as puff pastries and croissants.
Baking Soda Baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate ('so-de-,9m bl-'kar-bs-net), is a chemical leavening agent that must be used with acid to give off CO2 gas. There are many sources of acid used in baking, such as buttermilk, sour cream, and yogurt; fruits and
Egg Freshness You can tell whether an egg is fresh by putting the whole egg in a glass of water. If it floats, the egg is old.
fruit juices; most syrups, including honey and molasses; and chocolate. The CO2 gas is what causes the baked products to rise. Mix baking soda thoroughly, or it will leave an unpleasant aftertaste.
Baking Powder Baking powder is made up of baking soda, an acid such as cream of tartar, and a moisture-absorber such as corn starch. When mixed with a liquid, baking powder releases CO2. The type used in the bakeshop is double-acting. This means that when it first comes in contact with moisture, it gives off CO2. When it comes into contact with heat, it gives off more CO2. Double-acting baking powder can be fast- or slow-acting. Fast-acting varieties react more quickly when mixed with liquids. The slow-acting varieties need more heat to release CO2. Baking powder is used as a leavening agent in cakes, cookies, muffins, and quick breads.
Yeast Yeast is a living organism. During a process called fermentation (fsr-msn-'ta-shsn), yeast breaks down sugars into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol, which are necessary for the rising process in products such as bread. Yeast products get their distinctive aroma and flavor from this process. The types of yeast most commonly used in bakeshops are compressed yeast, dry active yeast, and quick-rise dry yeast.
Sometimes called fresh or wet compressed yeast, compressed yeast is moist and must be refrigerated. Compressed yeast is available in 0.6-ounce cubes or 2-pound blocks. It should be creamy white, have a crumbly texture, and smell like freshly baked bread. To use compressed fresh yeast, crumble it into warm water. Do not use compressed yeast that looks brown, feels slimy, or smells sour.
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