Ataste Of History



President Nixon signs the Occupational Safety and Health Act

A cease-fire is signed, ending the Vietnam War

Protecting Workers

Before 1970, there were no comprehensive programs to protect American workers against workplace safety problems and health hazards. In 1970, President Richard Nixon signed the Occupational Safetyand Health Act.This Act created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and a set of laws designed to protect workers on the job.

Since then, OSHA has cut the number of work-related deaths in half and reduced overall injury and illness rates in certain industries. Foodservice workers are at risk for some types of injuries. OSHA strives to protect workers by making frequent workplace inspections. It also issues and enforces rules that encourage continual improvement in workplace safety and health.

History Application

Research OSHA history, and create a time line that shows the development of OSHA rules. Write a paragraph that explains whether these rules have benefited the foodservice industry.

NCSS VI I Power, Authority, and Governance Evaluate the extent to which governments achieve their stated ideals and policies at home and abroad.

Turnover Rate

Another factor in facility design is the turnover rate. A turnover rate is the average number of times a seat will be occupied during a block of time. For example, if customers stay an average of 20 minutes for breakfast, the potential turnover rate is 2V2 times per hour. It may seem as if an average of 20 minutes for breakfast would equal a turnover rate of three customers per hour. But there must be enough time to set up between customers.

A facility's design can help create a certain turnover rate. If you want a high turnover rate, for example, tables can be placed closer together and more staff can be hired to provide quick and efficient service.

Traffic Paths

How people and materials move within a foodservice operation creates a certain traffic path. Managers must find the best way to allow movement along traffic paths. However, the space for traffic paths must be kept to a minimum. For example, if carts will be pushed or carried down a traffic path that contains a hot table, the path must be wide enough for both.


Work stations should be laid out in a logical sequence. This keeps bypassing to a minimum. Bypassing happens when people or materials must walk or be moved past unrelated stations during foodservice. For example, after vegetables have been cleaned and cut for grilling, they must be passed from the pantry station to the grill station. If the baking station is between the two areas, it will interrupt the workflow.

Production Space

The total amount of space to allow for food production depends upon the type and size of the facility. Managers must divide production space between all of the work areas, such as storage, food preparation, and dishwashing. (See Figure 7.2.)

J JFIGURE7.2 Restaurant Workspace Allocation

Enough Space Make sure that each kitchen work area has enough space. Why do you think creating space for traffic patterns is important?

Work Area


Receiving and



Food preparation




Traffic paths


Employee facilities




Layout of Work Areas

When laying out work areas, managers will try to limit the necessary movement of people and goods. This will save time and energy. The first step of layout is to arrange the pieces of equipment into a work area. Then, the work area must fit into the entire facility. An effective work area layout will:

• Allow for easy maintenance and inventory access.

• Provide a safe and productive environment for employees.

• Make the work process flexible.

• Protect equipment from damage.

Opening and Closing

Managers are usually responsible for opening and closing a restaurant on a daily basis. A good manager has standard procedures for both. Opening a restaurant at the beginning of the day might include:

• Unlocking the front door and any storage areas.

• Turning on the lights and equipment.

• Inspecting the facility for cleanliness.

• Making sure all work stations are manned.

Closing procedures are important for a restaurant. Closing a restaurant at the end of the day might include:

• Locking the door and storage areas.

• Supervising the cleaning of the restaurant.

• Filling out and filing daily paperwork, including guest checks, balancing the cash drawer, writing the bank deposit, and writing equipment and service records.

• Setting any security measures in place after all employees have left.

• Turning off lights and equipment before leaving for the day.

\ Define What are traffic paths in a foodservice operation?

Continue reading here: Loss Prevention Factors

Was this article helpful?

0 0