Ataste Of History



The last Delmonico's restaurant closes

Prohibition, banning consumption and sale of alcohol, begins

Eating in Style

The first Delmonico's Restaurant opened in New York City in 1827. It was one of the first restaurants to offer a true fine-dining experience to Americans. It allowed customers to order items from a menu, instead of offering a fixed menu each day. It was also the first restaurant in the United States to offer customers a wine list. Chicken à la king and lobster Newberg were invented at Delmonico's.

At one time, Delmonico's opened as many as nine restaurants. The business that spanned nearly a century ended in 1923 when the last restaurant closed its doors, taking with it a little bit of New York history.

History Application

The table settings at fine restaurants such as Delmonico's differ from those at more casual establishments. Draw a detailed diagram of what a place setting and tables in an upscale restaurant like Delmonico's might look like. Show how upscale decor might appear.

NCSS IV E Individual Development and Identity Examine the interaction of ethnic, natural, or cultural influences in specific situations or events.

Some restaurants promote, or advertise, themes and special events, such as special birthday dinners, holiday buffets, or seasonal specialties. Themes and events like these can bring in a strong customer base.

Fine-Dining Restaurants

A fine-dining restaurant has an environment with excellent food, elegant decor, and superior service. Customers are willing to pay top prices for a meal in fine-dining establishments. Some of these restaurants are famous for their chef's exceptional culinary skills. Others are known for their specific location.

Theme Restaurants

A theme restaurant often tries to recreate another place or time. Customers enjoy seeing sports memorabilia or an indoor waterfall in the middle of a simulated rain forest. They are attracted to the fun and unique atmosphere. The food can often be less important than the decor. Or, the food may be related to the theme, as in a table-top grill restaurant. Most theme restaurants have a moderately priced menu.

Casual-Dining Establishments

A casual-dining establishment attracts people who like to eat out, but are not interested in a formal atmosphere or high prices. Instead, they enjoy the relaxed environment and mid-range prices of casual dining.

Sometimes casual-dining restaurants have a theme. The Hard Rock Cafe® has a music theme, for example. Other common casual-dining establishments include family-style restaurants, neighborhood restaurants, grills and buffets, and vending machines.

Family-Style Restaurants

The menu is more limited in a casual, family-style restaurant. Traditional, child-friendly favorites, such as fried chicken and macaroni and cheese, are served. Family-style restaurants have mid-range prices.

Neighborhood Establishments

Two popular types of casual neighborhood establishments are lunch counters and coffee shops. The food is usually simple, inexpensive, and comes in generous portions. Coffee houses are a popular type of neighborhood establishment. Customers like neighborhood establishments because they are convenient and friendly.

Grills and Buffets

Casual grills and buffet restaurants offer self-service meals at budget prices. Buffet restaurants often offer all-you-can-eat specials that appeal to families and senior citizens. Many buffets and cafeterias offer trayline and counter service. Trayline service consists of customers going through a food line and placing items on their own trays. Counter service consistes of customers sitting at a counter, rather than at a booth, banquette, or table.

Vending Machines

Vending machines offer a wide variety of foods and beverages. Vending machines operate 24 hours a day. They are popular with college students and factory workers. Many companies save money by using vending machines rather than running a full-service dining room or cafeteria.

Quick-Service Re^aurants

Quick-service restaurants, also known as fast food, make up the largest section of the foodservice industry. A quick-service restaurant has limited menus, low prices, and speedy service. Food is prepared using exact standards and factory-like production.

Malls and shopping centers often place many quick-service restaurants into a single area. This area is called a food court. Food courts give shoppers convenient access to a variety of quick meals, snacks and beverages. Small food courts that offer three or four options can also be found in many hospitals, colleges, and supermarkets.

^ Keep Buffet Foods Safe

Buffets can include both hot and cold foods. All foods must be held at the proper temperatures. (See Chapter 2 for more information on the temperature danger zone.) Maintain the temperature of hot foods by placing them in chafing dishes. The temperature of cold food should be maintained by setting the platters of food in beds of ice.

CRITICAL THINKING What will happen to food if the temperature is not maintained?

Catering Services

Catering is a growing segment of the foodservice industry. A caterer purchases, receives stores, prepares, cooks, delivers, and serves food to a customer in another location. Catered meals vary in size.

In an attempt to increase sales, many institutions have begun to provide catering services. For example, some supermarkets, schools, and hospitals use their kitchens to cater to outside customers.

Contract Foodservice

For a management fee, a foodservice contractor will provide food and beverage service for organizations such as schools, businesses, hospitals, and nursing homes. This can save money for an organization. Meals may still be prepared on-site. However, management of the foodservice is not run by the organization.

Airline Meals

Food catered for airlines is limited by storage needs and transportation. Airline customers may be offered one or more full meals, or just snacks and beverages. Meals for travelers are prepared in a commissary ('ka-m9-,ser-e), or a place where food is purchased and prepared. Then, it is delivered to airplanes and loaded onboard for people to eat. Special meals, such as vegetarian or low-fat requests, can be ordered in advance.

^J School Meals Foodservice in schools may be provided by a foodservice contractor. How would this save money for a school?

Hotel and Motel Restaurants

Hotel and motel restaurants offer longer service hours. Most of these restaurants serve three meals a day, seven days a week. Labor costs are high, especially with room service. Room service involves having servers bring specially ordered meals to a customer's room.

Cruise Ship Dining

For many people, one of the highlights of taking a cruise is the excellent food. There is no limit on the amount of food, and the cost is included in the price of the cruise. Food on a cruise ship is usually offered in different settings. Special dietary needs can also be met.

I Apply Why are vending machines popular with college students and factory workers?

There is a style of serving meals to match every dining establishment's customers and goals. Different elements of each style can also be mixed. These include modern American plated, booth, family style, banquette, classical French, Russian/English, butler, and buffet service.

Modern American Plated Service

Modern American plated service began in the United States. It is now used worldwide. It is popular because it requires fewer and less extensively trained service staff than other types of meal service. It also gives the chef complete control over the preparation, portioning, and presentation of the food.

In modern American plated service, the food is completely prepared, portioned, plated, and garnished in the kitchen. The servers carry the plated food from the kitchen and place the prepared dishes in front of the customer. The server must be able to serve from both the left and the right side of each customer.

Follow these general guidelines for modern American plated service:

• Serve beverages and soup from the customer's right side, with your right hand and right foot forward. Move clockwise to the next customer.

• Serve solid foods from the customer's left side, with your left hand and left foot forward. Move counterclockwise to the next customer.

• Clear dishes from the customer's right side, with your right hand and right foot forward. You may clear some items that are on the customer's left from the left side, such as forks or bread plates.

• Completely serve and clear one guest before moving on to the next.

• Never break the order of service.

This type of service is more efficient than many other styles of service. The savings can be passed on to the customer through reasonable menu prices.

Booth Service

Booth service has different service guidelines because the server cannot go to the customer's left or right side. A booth table rests against, or is attached to, a wall. All customers must be served from a single focal point. A focal point is a service point. (See Figure 6.1.) The customers on the right side of the booth will be served from the left with the server's left hand. The customers on the left side will be served from the right with the server's right hand.

Use these general service guidelines to serve at a booth:

j Serve the customers in the back of the booth first.

• Using the correct hand procedures, clear soiled tableware first from the customers seated closest to the back.

• For beverage service, do not switch hands. Keep the tray in your left hand and serve beverages with the right. Try not to get in the way of the guest.

• Always keep your hands as close to table level as possible.

• Avoid handing items to customers whenever possible. Instead, place the item on the table.

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