A Chiffon Cake

^P Whip the egg yolks and half of the sugar to full volume. They will be pale yellow in color.

^P Whip the egg yolks and half of the sugar to full volume. They will be pale yellow in color.

Fold in sifted flour and other dry ingredients.

Whip the egg whites and the remaining half of the sugar until a meringue with medium to stiff peaks forms.

^ Gently fold the meringue into the yolk mixture a small amount at a time.

Small Bites

Gourmet Math

Altitude Adjustments For high altitude areas, use these alterations for recipes that include a leavening ingredient:

j For altitudes of about 2,000 feet, decrease the amount of baking powder or other leavening agent called for in the recipe by 15%.

• For altitudes of about 5,000 feet, decrease the level of baking powder or other leavening agent called for in the recipe by 40%.

j For altitudes at about 8,000 feet, decrease the amount of leavening agent by 60%.

• Above 3,000 feet, the baking temperature for cakes should be increased by 25 degrees. This temperature will help prevent liquid evaporation.

Pan Preparation

It is important to have the pans prepared before the batter is mixed. Pans should be filled as soon as possible after mixing is complete so that air cells in the batter do not collapse. Then the cakes can go directly into the oven. This will help create a high-quality baked product.

Most pans are either sprayed with an oil and flour mixture or greased and dusted with a bit of flour. Extra flour should always be tapped out of the pan so that the bottom of the cake does not become doughy. Some baked items can be placed on pans lined with parchment paper. Parchment paper is easily pulled off of the bottom of the cake after it has cooled, and will help keep the cake from sticking.

Scaling Cake Batters

Because it is important that cakes are consistently the same size, the batter is scaled before it is panned. (See Figure 29.3.) How a batter is scaled is based on the amount of liquid in the batter and the amount of handling a batter can withstand. Creaming method cakes should be scaled by weight. Blending method cakes can be scaled by weight or volume.

Adjust for Altitude

The higher the altitude, the lower the air pressure. This means that a higher percentage of liquid evaporates at high altitudes than it does at low altitudes. Because liquid evaporates from cakes as they bake, they may end up tasteless and tough.

You are catering a family reunion in Denver. You plan to make a large sheet cake for the party. The sheet cake formula calls for 5 ounces of baking powder. Denver is 5,280 feet above sea level. For altitudes of about 5,000 feet, you must decrease the baking powder by 40%. What is the percentage of baking powder in the formula after adjusting for altitude?

^^^^^^ Converting Fractions to Decimals A fraction can be converted to a decimal by moving over the decimal to the left by two places.

Starting Hint Move over the decimal place in 40% two spaces to the left. Then, multiply that number by the number of ounces of baking powder to find out how much the baking powder will decrease. Subtract that number from the original number of ounces to get the new ounce total of baking powder.

NCTM Number and Operations Understand the meanings of operations and how they relate to one another.

L !FIGURE 29 3 I Cake Pan Choices

Pan Choices You must choose the correct-size pan for the type of cake you plan to bake. What would happen if you were to choose the wrong-size cake pan?

Pan Type and Size

Scaling Weight

High-fat Cakes

• Round 8 in.

• 14-18 oz.

• Square 9 in. X 9 in.

• 24 oz.

• Loaf 2Va in. X 3% in. X 8 in.

• 16-18 oz.

Low-fat Cakes

• Sheet 18 in. X 26 in., %-in. thick (for jelly roll or sponge roll).

Baking Techniques

Preheat the oven to the correct temperature. If the oven is too hot, the cake may set before it has risen fully, or it may set unevenly, causing the crusts to be too dark. A temperature that is too low creates poor texture and volume because the cake will not set fast enough. Cakes also may collapse if oven temperatures are too low.

Ovens and the shelves in them should be level. When pans are placed in the oven, they should not touch each other. Air needs to flow between the pans for even baking.

It is important to keep the oven door closed while they bake. Cakes may fall if they are disturbed before they finish rising or become partially browned.

Determine Doneness

A cake is done if:

• A pick or cake tester comes out clean when it is inserted into the center.

• The center of the cake's top springs back when it is lightly pressed.

• The cake pulls slightly away from the sides of the pan.

Cooling Cakes

Cakes may break if they are removed from the pan too early. Always cool cakes for at least 15 minutes before you remove them from the pan. When you remove sheet cakes, lightly sprinkle the top with granulated sugar. Place an empty sheet pan with the bottom side down on top of the cake. Turn both pans upside down and remove the top pan from the cake. If parchment paper has been used to line the pan, peel it off the cake.

To remove a chiffon or angel food cake from the pan, loosen the cooled cake using a spatula or knife. Put a cooling rack or tray on top of the cake pan. Turn over the cake pan and rack carefully holding on to both. Carefully remove the pan from the cake.

Icing and Storage

Icing improves a cake by forming a protective layer around the cake that seals in moisture. Icing also adds richness and flavor. Fudge-type icings hold up well on cakes and last longer in storage.

Buttercream is usually used to make cakes, tortes, and desserts taste better and look more attractive. These are five different types of buttercream icing:

• Simple buttercream is made by combining butter, shortening, confectioners' sugar, egg whites, and vanilla.

• French buttercream is made with beaten egg yolks and butter.

• Italian buttercream is made with Italian meringue and butter. Italian meringue is meringue that is made with a boiling sugar syrup instead of granular sugar. It is very stable. It makes a light buttercream.

• German buttercream is made with butter, emulsified shortening, and fondant. Fondant is a mixture of sugar, water, and flavorings that serves as a base for icings.

• Swiss buttercream is made with Swiss meringue and butter. Swiss meringue is a meringue that is made by dissolving sugar and egg whites together over simmering water, and then beating them. Swiss buttercream is light.

Royal icing is another type of icing that is used to frost cakes and cookies, and to pipe decorations on cakes. It has a smooth, hard matte finish.

Icing Cakes

When you decide what type of icing to use, be sure that the icing is not too heavy for the type of cake. Dense cakes pair well with fudge-type icings and simple or German buttercreams. However, lighter buttercreams such as Swiss and Italian, whipped cream, and fruit fillings go well with sponge cakes. Simple syrups can also be used. A simple syrup is made of sugar dissolved into hot water.

Before you spread the icing on a cake, tap off any loose crumbs that would interfere with a smooth appearance. Do not spread too much on the first layer. The iced cake should have a uniform appearance, with an even amount of icing on all surfaces. Icing should not ooze out of the side after the layers have been placed.

Before you begin icing, you must have all fillings in place on the cake. This may include fruit or mousse fillings between layers of a cake. It may also include ice cream, either as the top layer of the cake, or between cake layers. Ice cream cakes must be frozen first, before they are iced. Icing used on ice cream cakes must stand up to being frozen without cracking. You may use many different types of frosting for this purpose.

To ice the top layer, start from the center and work out to the edges. Then, spread the icing down the sides. Smooth the surface of the icing before you add decorations. You can use a pastry bag to pipe icing into shapes.

Storing and Serving Cakes

Cakes should be wrapped in air-tight containers or plastic wrap and stored in the refrigerator until they are needed. Frosted cakes should be stored in the refrigerator until they are served. Because frosting easily absorbs refrigerator odors, decorated cakes should be boxed or covered first. Always bring cakes to room temperature before you serve them.

the process for icing a cake?

SECTION 29.2 Review Key Concepts

1. Differentiate between a pound cake and a sponge cake.

2. Summarize how to prepare a cake pan.

Practice Culinary Academics ^^ English Language Arts

3. Create a brochure about cakes for special diets. Research for information about cakes that meet special diet needs, such as low-fat or low-sugar diets. Create a brochure that has both nutritional information and recipes.

NCTE 5 Use different writing process elements to communicate effectively.

l^j1 Science

4. Procedure Bake four small cake layers. For the first one, follow the recipe exactly. For the second one, leave out the fat. For the third one, leave out the egg, and for the fourth one, leave out the baking powder.

Analysis What are the differences between the various cakes? Write a summary about the ingredients' roles.

NSES B Develop an understanding of chemical reactions.

^^ Mathematics

5. A rectangular sheet cake measures 18 inches by 9 inches. If the cake is cut in half to form two square cakes, each square will occupy half the area and half the volume of the original cake. Will each square also have half the perimeter of the original cake?

^^^^^^^^ Perimeter The distance around the outside of a closed shape is its perimeter. Calculate perimeter (P) by adding the lengths of all sides. For squares, P = 4s, where s is the length of one side.

Starting Hint Calculate the perimeter of the 18- by 9-inch original cake and the 9- by 9-inch square cake. Write a fraction of new perimeter to old perimeter in lowest terms.

NCTM Geometry Analyze characteristics of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships.

Bji Check your answers at this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com.



Reading Guide

Pies are a popular dessert in most restaurants.

Before You Read

Prepare with a Partner Before you read, work with a partner. Read the titles of the heads and ask each other questions about the topics that will be discussed. Write down the questions you both have about each section. As you read, answer the questions you have identified.

Read to Learn

Key Concepts

• Identify pie dough ingredients and types.

• Describe the process of making different types of pies.

Main Idea

Pie consists of a dough and a filling. Pie dough can be mealy or flaky. Once pies are prepared, they must be properly stored.

Content Vocabulary

• latticework • baking blind j basic pie dough • modified

• flaky dough starch

Academic Vocabulary

Graphic Organizer

As you read, use a line chart like this one to list the five different types of pie fillings.

Types of Pie Filling s

Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com for a printable graphic organizer.

3 English Language Arts

NCTE 8 Use information resources to gather information and create and communicate knowledge.

j" Mathematics

NCTM Geometry Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems. n*

j i Social Studies

NCSSII BTime, Continuity, and Change

Apply key concepts such as time, chronology, and change to explain patterns of historical change and continuity.

NCSS III H People, Places, and Environments

Examine, interpret, and analyze physical and cultural patterns and their interactions, such as cultural transmission of customs and ideas.

NCTE National Council of Teachers of English

NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSES National Science Education Standards

NCSS National Council for the Social Studies

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