Foodservice at a Glance

The foodservice industry is about people. This, of course, includes the customers who eat. However, it also includes the employees who cook and serve, and the managers who run the foodservice facilities. Foodservice continues to change and grow to meet the needs of its customers. This growth means that there are exciting job opportunities. Before you choose a career, you should explore all the job opportunities that are available to you. According to the National Restaurant Association, there...

Reading Guide

Use Diagrams As you read through this section, write down the main idea. Write down any facts, explanations, or examples you find in the text. Start at the main idea and draw arrows to the information that directly supports it. Then, draw arrows from these examples to any information that supports them. Learn the fundamentals of sandwich making. Identify different types of sandwiches. Distinguish between various breads and spreads for sandwiches. Select appropriate sandwich fillings. A sandwich...

Wheat Grains

Cracked Wheat The whole wheat berry is cracked into irregular pieces. These pieces cook more quickly than whole berries. Cracked wheat has a brown exterior and a white interior. This unmilled grain is high in nutrients. Cook it in twice as much water as wheat. It is best used in side dishes, and as a hot cereal. Semolina Semolina is made when the bran and germ are removed from Durum wheat. It comes in cream-colored pellets that are partially cooked. To cook semolina, soak it briefly in water,...

Nutrition Facts

Serving Size 1 2 cup (114 g) Servings Per Container 4 * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs Total Fat Sat Fat Cholesterol Sodium Less than Less than Less than Less than The FDA also recommends foodservice standards in the Food Code. The Food Code gives guidelines for handling food safely. It is updated every two years. It is not a law, so states can choose to use it or write their own code, using the...

Measuring Equipment

Portion Scale A portion scale is a type of spring scale used to determine the weight of an ingredient or portion of food. It can be reset to zero so that you can measure individual ingredients. Electronic Scale An electronic, or digital, scale weighs an item when it is placed on its tray. The weight is displayed in numbers on a digital readout rather than by a needle. This readout is more accurate than a portion scale. Balance Scale A balance scale is used to measure most baking ingredients....

Section 27i nmmmit

Describe the function of a starter. 2. List products that can be made from a soft medium dough. 3. Summarize the characteristics of a quality croissant. Practice Culinary Academics l j Science 4. Procedure Make a yeast balloon. Take a balloon and stretch it out by blowing it up a few times. Add a packet of yeast and 2 tablespoons of sugar to 1 cup of very warm water. Once the yeast and sugar have dissolved, pour the mixture into a bottle and stretch the balloon over the mouth of the bottle....

Hand Tools

Surfaces of a butter curler produce garnishes ranging from curls to grooves to marble-sized balls. Make sure the butter is cold and the blade has been warmed in hot water. Egg Slicer An egg slicer works by placing a peeled, hard-cooked egg in the hollow of the slicer. Push the tool down and the wires will slice the egg or cut it into wedges. There are two kinds of egg slicers. One makes round shapes and the other makes wedge shapes. Zester A zester is used to remove tiny strips from the outer...

What Is the Chapter All About

Use the information in the chapter opener to help you connect what you already know to chapter topics. Think about the culinary experiences you have had in your own life. Are there any similarities with those in your textbook Review the Section Titles to preview the key ideas you will learn. Keep these in mind as you read the chapter. Use These Writing Tips to improve your writing and express your ideas. Review the Section Titles to preview the key ideas you will learn. Keep these in mind as...

Yeast Dough Preparation

The production of quality yeast breads and rolls requires good technique, patience, and creativity. To produce a good yeast product, you will need to learn dough mixing methods. The steps involved in making yeast breads vary depending on the type of dough that is used and the item that is being produced. However, the same general stages apply to all yeast dough products Keep these quality guidelines in mind Maintain personal cleanliness at all times. Keep utensils, materials, and machinery...

Section 163

Describe pickles, and name the foods that are most commonly pickled. 2. Identify the nutritional benefits of nuts and seeds. Practice Culinary Academics Mathematics A bag of mixed nuts has 20 peanuts, 14 almonds, 8 Brazil nuts, and 6 cashews. What is the probability of randomly selecting a Brazil nut from the bag What are the odds of selecting a Brazil nut SH ffltt Probability vs. Odds Probability is the ratio of the number of chances an event can occur to the total number of possible outcomes....

Spices

Cayenne Cayenne ((,)kT-'an) comes from hot red peppers that are ground into powder. It has a strong flavor that gives food a kick. It is dried and ground. Cayenne is used with meat, fish, eggs, and poultry. It is also used in soups, sauces, and salads. Cumin Cumin ('ka-man) seeds are the dried, ripened fruit of an herb in the parsley family. It looks like caraway seed, but has a much different flavor and aroma. Cumin is available whole or ground. It is the spice that lends chili its distinctive...

Data Analysis and Probability

Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them A histogram displays numerical data that have been organized into equal intervals using bars that have the same width and no space between them. While a histogram does not give exact data points, its shape shows the distribution of the data. Histograms also can be used to compare data. A box-and-whisker plot displays the measures of central tendency and variation. A box is drawn...

Foodservice Trends

Prior Knowledge Look over the Key Concepts below. Write down what you already know about each concept and what you want to find out by reading the lesson. As you read, find examples for both categories. Analyze how foodservice trends affect service and food production operations. Identify commercial and noncommercial foodservice and food production operations. Foodservice operations track and analyze industry trends to serve their customers. Foodservice trends may be affected by society,...

V

The purpose of a piece of writing is the reason why it was written. The audience is the people the article was written for. Read several articles on the same topic, and then write a summary identifying the purpose and audience for each piece. Ask yourself what the author wants to happen. Common purposes are to express ideas or to inform. Imagine the kind of person that would use or enjoy the text.

Review and Applications

Design a Menu Imagine that you are in charge of planning the menu for a foodservice operation. You want to plan creative dishes using both fish and shellfish. Create a clear, descriptive menu that includes at least two items made with fish or shellfish in each category appetizers, soups, salads, sandwiches, and entr es. Be sure to describe the type of seafood used in each dish, as well as the cooking method. NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes. Fish Around the World...

The Hospitality Industry

To be successful, the foodservice industry must know how the people and communities it serves are changing. One way that foodservice operations can do this is to track and analyze, or study all the components of, industry trends. A trend is a general preference or dislike for something within an industry. These trends may be influenced by society, culture, ethnic diversity, population changes, or the economy. The foodservice industry has changed as the needs and wants of its customers have...

Graphic Organizer

As you read, use a web diagram like the one below to list the six actions you should take during an interview for a job. employment agency j job lead job portfolio j job interview Sharpen your skills to find the right foodservice job for you. NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes. NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes. Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com 11 Mathematics NCTM Number and Operations Understand numbers, ways of representing...

System Monitoring

Foodservice workers are responsible for monitoring the food safety systems that are in place. This helps workers ensure that proper procedures are followed in the flow of food. They can also help spot potential problems. For example, monitoring might include taking the temperature of turkey breast when it is received. You would make sure it is stored at 41 F (5 C) or below. You would also think about contamination that could happen when the turkey breast is stored. Raw turkey breast should be...

Leadership Skills

Besides basic skills and a strong work ethic, employers also look for employees who have leadership skills. Leadership is the ability to motivate others to cooperate in doing a common task. Leadership is a quality every employee should practice. You do not need to wait until you are employed to develop leadership skills. Many organizations and programs help students develop leadership skills. Two such organizations are FCCLA and SkillsUSA. (See Figure 4.2.) J j FIGURE 4.2 Leadership...

Vanilla Chiffon Genoise

CAKES) SERVINGS 70 This light and airy cake can be served simply or dressed up into something exotic. Choose one of these dishes or find your own unusual recipe and write it up in recipe form. 1. Gather the equipment and scale the ingredients. 2. Properly grease the cake pans. 3. Place the egg yolks and half of the granulated sugar in a 5-qt. mixing bowl whip to full volume. 4. Continue mixing on medium speed, and slowly incorporate the oil. 5. In another 5-qt....

Beverage Service

Good customer service includes offering a full range of well-prepared beverages. Whether it is juice, milk, coffee, tea, or soft drinks, customers expect a refreshing beverage that is safe to drink. To do this, each member of the service staff must know how to operate cold and hot beverage equipment. Cold beverages range from bottled water to soft drinks, milk, iced tea, and juice. Each is dispensed from a special machine. Dispensers for tea, milk, or juice should be taken apart, cleaned, and...

Becoming a Culinary Professional

Choose a job in the foodservice industry that you believe you are qualified for and write a cover letter as if you were applying for that job. Use proper grammar and punctuation, and explain why you are qualified for the position. Explain your employment goal clearly. Edit carefully for spelling and punctuation mistakes. Reflect your attitude and communication skills. Working in the foodservice industry requires many skills. What are some other skills a chef must have besides cooking skills...

Use Reading Strategies and Visuals to Study Effectively

In addition to the reading guide at the beginning of each section, there are a lot of reading strategies that can help you comprehend the text. help identify the main idea and supporting details. Breakfast foods are very popular. In the United States, many people eat breakfast foods at any meal. The standard breakfast menu includes eggs, meat, potatoes, breads, pancakes, waffles, cereals, fruit, and yogurt. Some restaurants offer customers more unusual choices, such as a special pizza or...

Academic Vocabulary

Use a sequence chart like this one to show the 10 steps in serving a customer. NCTE 9 Develop an understanding of diversity in language use across cultures. NCTM Number and Operations Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates. Analyze group and institutional influences on people, events, and elements of culture in both historical and contemporary settings. of English NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards NCSS National Council for the Social Studies Graphic Organizer Go...

Quick Service Breakfasts

In the United States, many people eat breakfast foods at any meal. The standard breakfast menu includes eggs, meat, potatoes, breads, pancakes, waffles, cereals, fruit, and yogurt. Some restaurants offer customers more unusual choices, such as a special pizza or breakfast burritos. In short, anything goes Most restaurants that serve breakfast offer a variety of similar options and combinations. Eggs are often served either scrambled, over-easy, hard, basted,...

Biscuits

Roll the prepared dough onto a pre-floured surface. The dough should be rolled out to about V2- to 1-inch in thickness. Check the dough's depth. Make sure the dough is uniform in thickness. Biscuits double in height during baking. Cut the dough into shapes using a round hand cutter or pastry knife. When using a hand cutter, be sure to cut straight into the dough. Do not twist the cutters. Twisting can prevent the dough from rising correctly. Q Place the raw biscuits on a sheet pan lightly...

Algebra

Understand patterns, relations, and functions A relation is a generalization comparing sets of ordered pairs for an equation or inequality such as x y + 1 or x > y. The first element in each pair, the x values, forms the domain. The second element in each pair, the y values, forms the range. A function is a special relation in which each member of the domain is paired with exactly one member in the range. Functions may be represented using ordered pairs, tables, or graphs. One way to...

Loaf Breads

Loaf breads are similar in preparation to muffins. Like other quick bread products, loaf breads are made from flour, leavening agents, eggs, fat, sugar, salt, and a liquid. Baking powder is the chemical leavening agent used in loaf breads. Loaf breads are made from a drop batter or a very thick pour batter. The baked product should have a uniform texture. The crust should be lightly browned, but not thick. The crumb should be tender and moist, not tough or dry. Loaf breads also should have...

Dry Cooking Techniques

Study with a Buddy It can be difficult to review your own notes and quiz yourself on what you have just read. According to research, studying with a partner for just 12 minutes can help you study better. Use a matrix like the one below to list the different dry cooking techniques, with a short description of each. Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com for a printable graphic organizer. NCTE5 Use different writing process elements to communicate effectively....

Table Setting

Restaurant management determines the type and style of table setting that is used. A table setting is the specific arrangement of tableware, glassware, and flatware for a meal. (See Figure 6.6.) Customer comfort, cleanliness, and consistency are important Place chairs around the table in front of the space for each place setting. Place centerpieces, salt and pepper shakers, and condiment holders at the same location on each table. To center each place setting, first place the napkin. If a place...

A Sponge Cake

Once all ingredients are at room temperature, melt the butter and set it aside. Heat sugar and eggs in a double boiler, stirring constantly, to about 110 F (43 C). Heat sugar and eggs in a double boiler, stirring constantly, to about 110 F (43 C). Beat the eggs at high speed for 10 to 15 minutes, until they are thick and light. When properly beaten, the foam will fall in a ribbon-like shape when you lift the beater. Q Sift all of the dry ingredients. Then, carefully fold them into the foam....

RolledIn Fat Yeast Doughs

Bakers use rolled-in fat yeast doughs to make rolls and pastries. Rolled-in fat doughs differ from regular yeast dough. When you make a rolled-in fat yeast dough, combine the fat into the dough through a rolling and folding action. This process yields a dough made of many thin, alternating l ayers of fat and dough. As the dough bakes, the heated fat layers release moisture in the form of steam. The steam becomes trapped between the layers of dough, pushing them apart and lifting them. The...

Equipment and Technology

9.2 Receiving and Storage Equipment 9.3 Preparation and Cooking Equipment 9.4 Holding and Service Equipment Atopic sentence states the main idea of a paragraph. The sentence should present only one topic. The sentence should not be general or vague. The sentence should give strong direction. A foodservice employee should know how all of the equipment works. What types of equipment might you find in a professional kitchen

A Loaf Bread

Grease the bottom of deep pans, such as loaf pans. Prepare the loaf bread batter using either the creaming or blending method. The choice will depend on the formula. Heat a conventional oven to 400 F (204 C). Scale the appropriate amount of loaf bread batter into the greased pans. Allow the batter to rest. However, if the leavening agents are not used within a short time, they will deteriorate, or go down in quality. This will result in low-quality baked products. The money saved buying bulk...

Making Biscuits

Images Types Batters

Create an Outline Use the section's heading titles to create an outline. Make the titles into Level 1 main ideas. Add supporting information to create Level 2, 3, and 4 details. Use the outline to predict what you are about to learn. biscuit method pour batter blending method drop batter creaming method deflate the biscuit, blending, and creaming methods of mixing. Deconstruct the steps required to make quality biscuits. Quick breads are products with a bread- or cake-like texture that do not...

American Grinder

Split the submarine roll, spread with mayonnaise, and fill with shredded lettuce and tomato slices. 2. Fill with meats, alternating ham, salami, and turkey. 3. Top with sliced cheeses, cut in half, and serve with a pickle. Serve with crosscut, seasoned French fries and cole slaw. In quantity food production, the mayonnaise should be served on the side. j To lower the fat, use low-fat or nonfat cheeses or vegetable slices, and lean cuts of meat. j Use mustard instead of mayonnaise to lower...

Management Structures

Each foodservice business has its own management structure. Some smaller businesses may have an owner who also acts as the restaurant manager and supervisor. Most foodservice operations have several managers who are responsible for different resources. Larger businesses may have many layers of management. Several managers or supervisors may oversee different segments of food production and service. Foodservice business structures usually have these layers Employees work at jobs such as cook,...

Sanitation Principles

Safety and sanitation items help keep you safe in the workplace. Why is an apron an importan t item Write the topic at the top of the paper to keep you focused. Do not worry about form or structure. Circle key ideas and phrases you can use later. Safety and sanitation items help keep you safe in the workplace. Why is an apron an importan t item Keep yourself and others safe in the kitchen.

Management and Supervision

Overseeing the operations of a foodservice business is vital. People in foodservice management are responsible for overseeing the proper handling of food in commercial kitchens, storerooms, hotels, and restaurants. These managers and supervisors have strong backgrounds in business math, accounting, and record-keeping, along with basic computer skills. Being multilingual is often an asset, as managers must be able to communicate effectively with diverse groups of employees and customers. Along...

Fruits

Citrus Fruits Citrus fruits have a thick, firm rind covered by a thin layer of colored skin, called the zest. The soft, white layer between the zest and the flesh of the fruit is called the pith. The pith is slightly bitter. The flesh of citrus fruits is segmented and acidic. They grow on trees and shrubs and are harvested when ripe. Quality citrus fruits are not blemished, or soft and puffy. Citrus fruits will not continue to ripen after they are picked. Melons Sweet melons are fruits with a...

Risk

Markup-on-Cost Pricing Method MODERATE RISK 1. Explain how location influences menu prices. 2. Describe how to find a selling price using the markup-on-cost method. Practice Culinary Academics English Language Arts 3. Imagine that you are a consultant who has been hired to help a restaurant set menu prices. The restaurant will be located in the area where your school is located. Create a business report for the restaurant that analyzes the customers and location for the purpose of determining a...

Stages of Making Yeast Dough

Because each step in the process of making yeast dough is critical, it is important that you complete each step in the proper order. Skipping any steps or being unprepared for a step can lead to the failure of your product. Accurate, or correct, measurement, or scaling, of all ingredients is critical, or necessary, in the preparation of yeast doughs. Successful formulas are based on proportional mixtures of ingredients. Too much or too little of an ingredient will affect yeast activity, gluten...

Combination Cooking

Sometimes, great things happen when you combine the best of two techniques. This is the case with combination cooking. As the term suggests, combination cooking combines two techniques you have already learned moist and dry. Two major combination techniques are braising and stewing. Braising and stewing involve both a dry and a moist cooking process. The first step for both cooking methods is usually to brown the food using dry heat. Then, the food is completely cooked by simmering the food in...

Stocks Sauces and Soups

Imagine that you work in a restaurant that is planning on adding a selection of pastas to the menu. Write a memo to the executive chef explaining what sauces you think might go well with pasta, and why. State the purpose of your memorandum. Organize the paragraphs in a logical way. The right herbs and spices add flavor to a stock. What do you think stock is used for The right herbs and spices add flavor to a stock. What do you think stock is used for A good stock is the basis for good sauces...

Peel and Devein Shrimp

P First, use your forefinger to remove the legs. Use your fingertips to gently peel and remove the shell. Leave the tall on If the shrimp will be broiled or deep-fried. Remove the tall for most other preparations. Cut down the back of the shrimp with a paring knife and remove the vein just below the surface. Make the cut deeper to butterfly the shrimp. Make the cut deeper to butterfly the shrimp. Shrimp may be purchased raw in the shell, either fresh or frozen. These are called green shrimp....

Sensory Evaluation

Cooked Lamb Plaiting Computation

Sensory evaluation is the science of judging and evaluating the quality of a food by use of the senses. Many foodservice businesses conduct consumer taste tests to find out what their customers like and dislike. This helps food companies to design products that the customers will find tasty. Customers test foods based on their likes and dislikes, but other food taste testers need to evaluate food objectively. Their job is to describe only the sensory characteristics. To increase the objectivity...

An Angel Food Cake

Whip the egg whites with half the sugar, salt, and cream of tartar to full volume. Whip the egg whites with half the sugar, salt, and cream of tartar to full volume. A sponge cake, which is also called a foam cake, has an airy, light texture because of large amounts of air whipped into the eggs. This type of cake does not rely on butter or modern types of fat such as allpurpose shortening or emulsified shortening. Emulsified shortening is a type of fat that helps create a smooth consistency...

Know and Understand the Concepts

Review what you learned in the chapter and see how this learning applies to your other subjects and real-world situations. to review the most important ideas that you should have learned in the chapter. There are three different cooking techniques dry, moist, and combination cooking. The cooking technique, temperature, and cooking time affect nutritive value, texture, color aroma, and flavor Dry techniques include baking, roasting, There are three different cooking techniques dry, moist, and...

Work Ethic

Hospitality

In addition to basic skills, employers look for certain key qualities, or distinguishing characteristics, in their employees. A person who has these qualities usually has a strong work ethic. A work ethic is a personal commitment to doing your very best as part of the team. Employees who have a good work ethic are often successful in their careers. With practice, you can develop the qualities that help create a strong work ethic. Being responsible is one of the most important qualities you can...

Small Bites

Special Certification Many foodservice businesses require that you earn the Certified Professional Food Manager certification. This test ensures that you know the basics in preventing foodborne illness, food allergies, and food contamination. It also teaches the basics of the HACCP system. Escoffier becomes head chef of the Savoy Hotel in London The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Spanish-American War Auguste Escoffier, one of the most innovative chefs in history, was born in France in...

Sanitation Check

Hepatitis A is a disease that causes inflammation, or swelling, of the liver. Foodservice workers with the disease can transmit the virus to food. It also can be transmitted by contact with contaminated water, or eating shellfish that has been raised in contaminated water. The symptoms of hepatitis A are similar to the flu. Hepatitis A can be prevented. You should wash your hands thoroughly after restroom use. In addition, a vaccination for hepatitis A can help protect you from infection....

Cooking Equipment

Deck Oven A deck oven is also known as a stack oven. Electric deck ovens have separate baking controls for the lower deck and for the upper deck. Deck ovens are used for baking, roasting, and braising. Convection Oven A convection oven has a fan that circulates the oven's heated air. This fan allows you to cook foods in about 30 less time and at temperatures approximately 50 lower than a conventional oven. Convection ovens are used for baking, roasting, and braising. Salamander A salamander is...

Baking and Pastry Tools

Pastry Bags Pastry bags can be made of nylon, plastic-lined cotton, canvas, polyester, or plastic. They are cone-shaped with two open ends. The smaller end is pointed and can be fitted with decorator tips of different sizes and shapes. The larger end can be filled with doughs, fillings, icing, or whipped cream. When the bag is squeezed, the contents are forced through the decorator tip. Bench Scraper Also called a dough cutter, this handheld rectangular tool has a stainless steel blade and a...

Cookies

Pace Yourself Short blocks of concentrated reading repeated frequently are more effective than one long session. Focus on reading for 10 minutes. Take a short break. Then, read for another 10 minutes. Distinguish between crisp, soft, and chewy cookies. Describe types of cookies, and the methods for mixing, baking and storing them. Cookies are small desserts that can be crisp, soft, or chewy and come in many shapes. Cookies are made using either a one-stage method, or a creaming method. Use a...

Number and Operations

Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems A percent is a ratio that compares a number to 100. To write a percent as a fraction, drop the percent sign, and use the number as the numerator in a fraction with a denominator of 100. Simplify, if possible. For example, 76 , or To write a fraction as a percent, convert it to an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 100. For example, -f , or 75 . A fraction can be expressed as a percent by...

Sanitation Challenges

Predict Before starting the section, read headings, bold terms, and photo captions to browse the content. Think about how they can help you predict the information in the section. Identify sources of chemical food Illustrate how to manage pests in Food becomes contaminated by exposure to harmful microorganisms or chemical substances. Insects and result transmit rodents can also physically contaminate food. There are three types of hazards that can cause contamination in a kitchen. Use this...

Positioning and Public Relations

Strong positioning for a foodservice establishment can help attract new customers. It also can keep current customers coming back again and again. Positioning affects what potential customers will think about your establishment, and whether they will decide to visit. It helps them to know what your restaurant will offer in service and in food. Without strong positioning, your restaurant may not succeed. These customers are celebrating a special event. What type of menu items would appeal to...

Create a Dining Environment

Every member of the service staff should make sure that customers dine in an inviting atmosphere. An inviting atmosphere that includes good customer service can help restaurants to be more profitable. In this section, you will learn about some of the elements, or parts, that help to make a pleasant dining experience. From folding napkins to choosing centerpieces, there are many things you can do to make customers feel welcome. The atmosphere of a restaurant refers to the textures, colors,...

Ataste Of History

The last Delmonico's restaurant closes Prohibition, banning consumption and sale of alcohol, begins The first Delmonico's Restaurant opened in New York City in 1827. It was one of the first restaurants to offer a true fine-dining experience to Americans. It allowed customers to order items from a menu, instead of offering a fixed menu each day. It was also the first restaurant in the United States to offer customers a wine list. Chicken la king and lobster Newberg were invented at Delmonico's....

In Culinary Which Salad Is Designed To Sharpen The Appetite

Stay Engaged One way to stay engaged when reading is to turn each of the headings into a question, then read the section to find the answers. For example, Edible Flowers might be, Which edible flowers are used in salads spinach vinaigrette List the main types of salads served during a meal. Outline the preparation techniques for salad greens. Describe the different types of salad dressings. A salad is a mixture of ingredients with a dressing. In addition to greens and vegetables, salads can be...

Shellfish Basics

Packed Under Federal Inspection

Think of an Example Look over the Key Concepts for this section. Think of an example of how or when you could use one of the skills from the Key Concepts. Thinking of how you might apply a skill can help motivate your learning by showing you why the skill is important. Shellfish is a tasty treat that can be used in many dishes. Explain the structure, composition, and grading of shellfish. Differentiate between types of mollusks. Distinguish between types of crustaceans. Identify other types of...

Pricing Menu Items

Self Care Wheel

Look It Up As you read this section, keep a dictionary nearby in addition to the glossary at the back of the book. If you hear or read a word that you do not know, look it up in the glossary or the dictionary. Before long, the practice will become a habit. You will be amazed at how many new words you learn. Identify the influences that impact menu prices. Compare and contrast various menu pricing methods. The final step in creating a menu is setting the prices. Choose the correct pricing to...

For Cakes

Blend the sifted flour, sugar, chemical leaveners, and other dry Ingredients for 30 seconds on medium speed. Add the emulsified shortening and half of the liquids. Add the emulsified shortening and half of the liquids. Mix on low speed until the ingredients are moistened. Then, Increase the speed to medium and mix for 5 minutes. Q Scrape the sides of the bowl and add the remaining liquid. Q Scrape the sides of the bowl and add the remaining liquid. The Right Mix Different cake recipes require...

Sharpen Your Basic Skills

Congratulations You have decided to pursue a career in foodservice Whether you see yourself as a pastry chef or a restaurant manager, your next step is to make your goal a reality. The skills you will need to have to find and keep a job in foodservice are the same skills that you need to find and keep a job in any other field. You may already have many of these basic skills. However, you may need to work on certain skills. This section will help you polish the abilities you have and develop the...

Loss Prevention Factors

A foodservice operation must focus on loss prevention to stay profitable. Loss prevention is the steps a business takes to eliminate waste and theft. If you make sure that each loss prevention factor, or issue, is covered, you will save a foodservice operation both time and money. All foodservice facilities must be safe places to work. Unfortunately, foodservice employees are at risk for on-the-job injuries. The most common kitchen injuries include slips and falls, burns, and cuts. Chapter 1...

Graphic Organizer About Cookery

Adjust Reading Speed Improve your comprehension by adjusting reading speed to match the difficulty of the text. Slow down and, if needed, reread each paragraph. Reading more slowly may take longer, but you will understand and remember more. Outline the steps in making and plating different types of hot sandwiches. Explain the procedure for making various types of cold sandwiches. Sandwiches can be either hot or cold. Many of the same type of ingredients As you read, use a web diagram like the...

Cooking in Liquid

Boil Cooking

There is more than one way to cook eggs. Some people like them to be boiled so that they are hard-cooked, while others prefer their eggs lightly poached so that they are softer in texture. Boiling and poaching are both moist cooking techniques. Cooking food using a moist technique involves heating food in a liquid other than oil. Moist cooking techniques include boiling, blanching, parboiling, simmering, poaching, and steaming. Sometimes, a moist cooking technique is applied to foods that have...

Breakfast Proteins

Several breakfast protein foods are from the pork family, including ham, bacon, and sausage. Eggs are another common breakfast protein food. These protein foods are often served together. Frequently, breakfast protein foods are served with a bread or potato choice to round out the meal. Typical breakfast meats that are found on foodservice menus include ham, bacon, Canadian bacon, sausage, hash, and steak, although there are many other protein-based breakfast possibilities, such as smoked...

Nutrition Basics

Discover the building blocks of good nutrition. Think of an Example Look over the Key Concepts for this section. Think of an example of how or when you could use one of the skills from the Key Concepts. Thinking of how you might apply a skill can help motivate your learning by showing you why the skill is important. Summarize the six categories of nutrients. List the types and uses of food additives. Foodservice employees must understand the basics of nutrition to help them create healthful...

Using Standardized Recipes

13.1 Standardized Recipe Basics 13.2 Recipe Measurement and Conversion Choose a simple dish with few ingredients that you know how to prepare. Write a recipe for the dish. Before you begin, look at existing recipes as a guide. List any ingredients in the order that they will be used. Include a list of the equipment and tools you will need. Make each instruction brief and easy to follow. Using a recipe helps ensure that the quality of your food is consistent. Why would consistency be important...

Dredge

Dredge the food product in seasoned, dry flour by dipping it into the flour and coating it evenly on all surfaces. Shake off any excess flour. Immediately dip the food into an egg wash or other liquid. An egg wash is a mixture of beaten eggs and a liquid such as milk or water. Coat the food completely. Shake off any excess. Q Quickly place the food into a container of dry crumbs and coat evenly. Crumbs can be made from bread, ground nuts, cereal, crackers, or shredded coconut. the food. The fat...

Science la Carte

Have you ever wondered what makes a soft drink fizz, or what makes a soft drink go flat The fizz in soft drinks is caused by carbonation. Carbon dioxide (CO2), a clear, colorless gas, is dissolved into the soda mixture under pressure. In a container of soda, there is CO2 in the soda and in the space between the soda and the top of the container. When the CO2 in that space is lower than the CO2 in the soda, more of the CO2 comes out of the soda than returns to the soda. In other words, the CO2...

Governmental Regulations

Usda Egg Grading Chart

The foodservice industry is governed by regulations. A regulation is a rule by which government agencies enforce minimum standards of quality. Federal, state, and local governments enforce these regulations. To enforce means to ensure that laws and regulations are followed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) grades and inspects poultry and poultry products, eggs and egg products, and meat and meat products. The USDA also controls food grading, processing plant inspections, and the use of...

Menu Planning and Design

Two-Column Notes Two-column notes are a useful way to study and organize what you have read. Divide a piece of paper into two columns. In the left column, write down main ideas. In the right column, list supporting details. menu board j spoken menu j extender Evaluate basic menu planning principles. Define menu styles and design guidelines. Explain different menu categories and how they are typically listed. Foodservice professionals have developed several principles to plan successful menus....

Rolled Cookies

Chill the dough for rolled cookies after mixing. Using as little flour as possible, roll out the dough to Va-inch thickness. Use cookie cutters to cut out the cookies. To minimize the amount of wasted dough, cut the cookies as close together as possible. The dough can be rolled and cut twice. The scrap left over after the second cutting should be discarded because it will make tough cookies. Place cookies on a parchment-lined baking sheet and bake. J FIGURE 29.1 Cookie Dough Troubleshooting '...

Prepare for Academic Success

By improving your academic skills, you improve your ability to learn and achieve success now and in the future. It also improves your chances of landing a high-skill, high-wage job. The features and assessments in Culinary Essentials provide many opportunities for you to strengthen your academic skills National English Language Arts Standards To help incorporate literacy skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) into Culinary Essentials, each section contains a listing of the language...

Common Pasta Shapes

Fettuccini (fe-ta-'che-ne) Fettuccini are flat, long, -inch-wide noodles. They are best boiled and served with rich cream sauces, such as alfredo, or meat sauces that adhere well to these ribbon-like noodles. Orzo ('6rd-(,)zo) Orzo are small, rice-shaped pasta. They are best in pilaf, salads, and soups. Fusilli (fyu-'si-le) Fusilli are corkscrew-shaped twists. They are boiled, and baked in dishes with medium or thick, creamy sauces. Manicotti (,ma-na-'ka-te) Manicotti are medium-size hollow...

Preparation and Cooking

Now you know how to safely receive and store food. But there are still several points in the flow of food at which food could become unsafe. One of those points is food preparation. Food preparation means cooking and preparing foods to be eaten. Remember that you need to cook certain foods, such as poultry and meat, to specific internal temperatures for them to be safe to eat. Another way to keep food safe is to prevent cross-contamination and microorganism growth. Salads with cold protein,...

Local and Seasonal Foods

Many restaurant customers want meals that include fresh, local ingredients and foods. Using local, seasonal ingredients can make your menu more attractive. If you completed the journal entry from page 373, refer to it to see if you have used any local or seasonal ingredients in your cooking. Add any additional notes about how you can use these ingredients to spice up your culinary creations. NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively. NCTE 7 Conduct research and gather, evaluate,...

Sensory Properties of Food

To use seasonings and flavorings successfully, foodservice professionals must understand sensory perception. Sensory perception is how a person's eyes, nose, ears, mouth, and skin detect and evaluate the environment. Sensory perception will help you improve your ability to taste. Improved taste will help you to increase your customers' enjoyment of food. Sensory properties of food affect how people perceive food. These sensory properties are color and appearance, flavor, and texture. Each one...

Opening Service

Customers have the most contact with servers when they dine out. From taking orders to presenting checks, the server plays a key role in how the customer rates his or her dining experience. In this section, you will learn about the role of servers and how their duties should be performed. The host or busser may serve bread and water before the server arrives at the table. However, the server is the main caretaker of customers' needs throughout the meal. The server's job is to greet customers,...

Yeast Dough Production

Think of an Example Look over the Key Concepts for this section. Think of an example of how or when you could use one of the skills from the Key Concepts. Thinking of how you might apply a skill can help motivate your learning by showing you why the skill is important. Demonstrate the baking of quality Illustrate how to cool, store, and proper mixing and careful preparation. causes of failure when preparing yeast Use this sequence chart to list the four stages of baking in sequence. Graphic...

Prostart Stock And Soup And Sauces Graphic Organizer

Preparing Roux Structure

( j Strain the stock through a china cap. Skim all of the impurities and fat from the stock. Cool the stock quickly, as discussed later in this section. 5. Place the browned bones in a stockpot and cover with water. Bring the water to a simmer. 6. Reserve, or keep, the excess fat from the roasting pan. 7. Deglaze the pan with water. To deglaze means to add a liquid and stir over heat until the drippings are dissolved. 8. Add the deglazed mixture to the stockpot. 9. Combine the mirepoix and...

Make

In a separate saucepan, heat the fat. When the fat is melted, add onions, garlic, and seasonings. Saute for two minutes. Q Add the grains to the melted fat and other ingredients in the saucepan. Stir the grains into the fat so they are evenly coated. Do not scorch the grains. Gradually add the simmering liquid to the grains in stages. Stir frequently to prevent scorching. Remove saucepan from heat source. Add butter, herbs, and cheese. Mix and serve. Add...

Holding and Service Equipment

Internal Proofing Equipment

Two-Column Notes Two-column notes are a useful way to study and organize what you have read. Divide a piece of paper into two columns. In the left column, write down main ideas. In the right column, list supporting ideas. Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com for a printable graphic organizer. NCTE 5 Use different writing process elements to communicate effectively. Identify the uses of hot food holding equipment. Evaluate the uses of service equipment....

Serve the Order

The technical aspects of service refer to the way items are physically placed before a customer. You should check to make sure that all dishes are complete and properly garnished before you serve them. More important to customers, however, is the manner in which they are served. Most customers care about the following When delivering dishes, did the server keep his or her fingers on the edge of the plate, away from the food Did the server use his or her left hand to serve the food products from...

Ou

When you cook fruits, take care not to overcook them. If you do, they will become mushy and lose their flavor. Add sugar or acid, such as lemon juice, to help prevent overcooking. The fruit takes the sugar or acid into its cells, which helps keep the fruit firm and retain its form. Before you prepare and cook fruit, you need to gather your ingredients, smallwares, and utensils. You also need to complete the mise en place for the fruit. Each type of fruit will require different pre-preparation....

Pancakes with Maple Syrup

YIELD 50 SERVINGS SERVING SIZE 4 EACH COOKING TECHNIQUE BAKE 1 qt. Pasteurized eggs 3 qt. Milk_ 6 lbs. All-purpose flour 8 oz. Sugar and kept warm at 135 F (57 C) or above Pancakes can be either savory or sweet, and made with different ingredients. Many different cultures have pancakes as part of their cuisines. Use the Internet or library to research these, and write a summary of each recipe's ingredients and cooking method. 1. In a mixing bowl, beat the eggs. 2. Add the milk and vanilla to...

Section 161 zxlhttml Review Key Concepts

Procedure Some cookbooks say that adding salt to water helps pasta cook faster, while others say it adds flavor. Cook two batches of pasta one with salt and one without salt. As the water boils, create a hypothesis of what you think will happen. Analysis Record how long it takes the water to boil and the pasta to cook. Compare the flavor of each. What are your conclusions Do they match your hypothesis Write a summary explaining your findings. NSES A Develop...

Principles of Cooking Meat

Principles Cooking

There are a variety of different ways to cook meat. Two-Column Notes Two-column notes are a useful way to study and organize what you have read. Divide a piece of paper into two columns. In the left column, write down main ideas. In the right column, list supporting ideas. NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively. Demonstrate different cooking methods used for meats. A foodservice employee must fully understand meat cooking techniques. Meat is expensive and the operation will lose...

Sensory Perception

People use all five senses to enjoy food. Create an Outline Use the section's heading titles to create an outline. Make the titles into Level 1 main ideas. Add supporting information to create Level 2, 3, and 4 details. Use the outline to predict what you are about to learn. sensory evaluation j blind taste test

Pasta

Prepare the pasta by cooking it in boiling, salted water. You can use either dry or fresh pasta. The cooking time will depend on the form of pasta used. It will also depend on whether you will fully or partially cook the pasta. Q Make the filling and chill in the refrigerator. Q Drain the pasta. Shock it in cold water to stop the cooking process. Drain before continuing. Remove the filling from the refrigerator. Ladle a small amount of sauce into the bottom of the baking dish or hotel pan....

Meat Basics

Veal Hindsaddle And Foresaddle

How Can You Improve Before starting this section, think about the last exam you took on material you had to read. What reading strategies helped you on the test Make a list of ways to improve your strategies to succeed on your next exam. Identify the structure and cuts of meat. Summarize the details of meat inspection, grading, handling, and storage. Meat is an essential part of most foodservice operations' menus. It is important to know how to purchase and safely store meat. Use a chart like...

Dish Glass and Utensil Choices

Foodservice establishments have a variety of dishes, glasses, and dining utensils in stock for customers to use during different dining situations. The types of dishware, glassware, and flatware you will choose for a table setting will depend on the types of foods and beverages you will serve during the meal. The choice will also depend on the type of restaurant in which you work. A fine-dining restaurant may have more types of dishes, glasses and utensils than a casual dining establishment....

Employment Laws

Use Diagrams As you read through this section, write down the main idea. Write down any facts, explanations, or examples you find in the text. Start at the main idea and draw arrows to the information that directly supports it. Then, draw arrows from these examples to any information that supports them. Identify laws related to equal employment. Describe laws meant to protect workers. Distinguish between management and employee responsibilities for the working environment. Employment laws...

Keep Food Nutritious

Use Color As you read this section, try using different colored pens to take notes. This can help you learn new material and study for tests. You could use red for vocabulary words, blue for explanations, and green for examples. Evaluate cooking methods to prevent nutrient loss. Outline ways to reduce the amount of fat, cholesterol, and sodium in recipes. Knowing what nutrients are contained in food is just one part of nutritional knowledge. A chef should also know the effect of cooking on the...

Preparation and Cooking Equipment

Create an Outline Use the section's heading titles to create an outline. Make the titles into Level 1 main ideas. Add supporting information to create Level 2, 3, and 4 details. Use the outline to predict what you are about to learn. j Explain the maintenance and sanitation for preparation equipment. J Compare the different heat sources used in cooking. j Categorize the uses of different types of clean-up equipment. Food preparation equipment is equipment used to process or prepare food. Food...

Russian Service

Russian Service

Use the Correct Hand A server always uses the hand that matches the side of the customer being served. Use the left hand for serving from the customer's left, and the right hand for serving from the customer's right. Family service is used in a casual-dining atmosphere. In family service, food is delivered on a large platter or dish to an individual table. Customers serve themselves and pass the food around the table. This type of service creates an atmosphere of eating dinner at home. Foods...

Preparation Equipment

Slicer A slicer has a 10-inch or 12-inch circular blade that rotates at high speed. It can be either automatic or manual. Slicers are used to slice foods into uniform sizes. Bench Mixer A bench mixer has a removable stainless steel bowl and dough hook, paddle, and whip attachments. Counter models are available in 5-, 12-, and 20-quart sizes. Floor models come in 30-, 40-, 60-, 80-, and 140-quart sizes. The bench mixer is used to mix or whip doughs and batters. It can be used to slice, chop,...

The Modified Straight Dough Method

I Combine the fat, sugar, salt, milk solids, and flavorings in the mixer. Mix well, but do not whip. Add eggs one at a time, as they are absorbed into the mixture. Add eggs one at a time, as they are absorbed into the mixture. Q Add the rest of the liquids and mix briefly. Q Add the flour and the yeast last.