Cooking Techniques

Yeast Dough Production

Think of an Example Look over the Key Concepts for this section. Think of an example of how or when you could use one of the skills from the Key Concepts. Thinking of how you might apply a skill can help motivate your learning by showing you why the skill is important. Demonstrate the baking of quality Illustrate how to cool, store, and proper mixing and careful preparation. causes of failure when preparing yeast Use this sequence chart to list the four stages of baking in sequence. Graphic...

Sanitation Check

Never apply an egg wash to a product that has already been baked. The egg will remain uncooked, presenting the risk of salmonella bacteria. CRITICAL THINKING When should you apply an egg wash to the product and longer baking times generally yield a darker crust color than lower temperatures and shorter baking times. An egg wash can add color to a crust that must be baked at a low temperature or for a short time. Egg washes should never be added to baked goods after baking. This can create a...

Plate and Serve Hot Appetizers

Hot Appetizer

Appetizers should be presented in an attractive, functional way. Appetizers served at the table, in a buffet, or at a cocktail party provide a chance for creative plating. The art of serving hot appetizers to each individual at the table depends on the appetizer. For example, brochettes could be served on a small plate, with a garnish to the side. When you serve appetizers at the table, take the opportunity to make each plate or bowl a special presentation. J A Hot Idea Hot appetizers can be...

Bakeshop Formulas and Equipment

Sound Absorbing Area Rug For Piano

Stay Engaged One way to stay engaged when reading is to turn each of the headings into a question, then read the section to find the answers. For example, Use a Balance Scale might be, How do you properly use a balance scale Describe the function of various bakeshop equipment. Baking requires precise measurement and accuracy to achieve a good result. It also requires special baking equipment to produce professional quality products. As you read, use this chart to list the three different types...

The Modified Straight Dough Method

I Combine the fat, sugar, salt, milk solids, and flavorings in the mixer. Mix well, but do not whip. Add eggs one at a time, as they are absorbed into the mixture. Add eggs one at a time, as they are absorbed into the mixture. Q Add the rest of the liquids and mix briefly. Q Add the flour and the yeast last.

A Loaf Bread

Grease the bottom of deep pans, such as loaf pans. Prepare the loaf bread batter using either the creaming or blending method. The choice will depend on the formula. Heat a conventional oven to 400 F (204 C). Scale the appropriate amount of loaf bread batter into the greased pans. Allow the batter to rest. However, if the leavening agents are not used within a short time, they will deteriorate, or go down in quality. This will result in low-quality baked products. The money saved buying bulk...

Pancakes with Maple Syrup

Pancake And Syrup Presentation

YIELD 50 SERVINGS SERVING SIZE 4 EACH COOKING TECHNIQUE BAKE 1 qt. Pasteurized eggs 3 qt. Milk_ 6 lbs. All-purpose flour 8 oz. Sugar and kept warm at 135 F (57 C) or above Pancakes can be either savory or sweet, and made with different ingredients. Many different cultures have pancakes as part of their cuisines. Use the Internet or library to research these, and write a summary of each recipe's ingredients and cooking method. 1. In a mixing bowl, beat the eggs. 2. Add the milk and vanilla to...

Cold Platter Preparation

Vegetable Tray Ideas

Cold platters are a common product of the garde manger work station. Cold platters can be very simple or very complex. Here are some examples of typical foods that might be served on cold platters as part of a buffet, at a reception, or before a formal dinner Platters of raw sliced vegetables served with dips. Crudit .kr -di-'ta is the French word for raw, or in this case, raw vegetables. Platters of specially prepared food items, such as canap s, salads on croutons, pinwheel sandwiches, or...

Review and Applications

Interpersonal and Collaborative Skills 16. Coordinate Jobs As a class, choose a simple meal to prepare. Your teacher will assign you to work stations. As a group, coordinate responsibilities with those of the other work stations before beginning preparation. Then, prepare your meal, working together while manning each separate work station. 17. Make a List List the characteristics of a well-designed professional foodservice kitchen and give reasons for each characteristic you choose. What makes...

How Cooking Alters Food

What Different Cooking Procedures

Think of an Example Look over the Key Concepts for this section. Think of an example of how or when you could use one of the skills from the Key Concepts. Thinking of how you might apply a skill can help motivate your learning by showing you why the skill is important. dry cooking technique coagulate j moist cooking technique j caramelization j combination cooking Explain how cooking affects a food's nutritive value, texture, color, aroma, and flavor. Cooking is heating food to transform it in...

Standardized Recipes

One crucial tool used in the foodservice industry is the standardized recipe. Using your research and interview with a chef or cook, you will create a standardized recipe and share what you have learned with your class. If you completed the journal entry from page 217, refer to it to see what recipes you have used in the past. Add any additional notes about other recipes you think might be interesting to try. NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively. NCTE 7 Conduct research and...

Garnishing Tools

Vegetable Peeler Although this tool is used mainly to shave the skin from fruits and vegetables, it is also an important garnishing tool. Use it to make decorative carrot curls and chocolate curls. Butter Curler This tool has a curved, hook-like blade that can be used to make curls to grooves to marble-size balls. For best results, use ice-cold butter and a butter curler with a blade that has been warmed in hot water. Zester To add eye appeal and flavor to your dish, use the zester to remove...

Graphic Organizer About Cookery

Adjust Reading Speed Improve your comprehension by adjusting reading speed to match the difficulty of the text. Slow down and, if needed, reread each paragraph. Reading more slowly may take longer, but you will understand and remember more. Outline the steps in making and plating different types of hot sandwiches. Explain the procedure for making various types of cold sandwiches. Sandwiches can be either hot or cold. Many of the same type of ingredients As you read, use a web diagram like the...

Common Legumes

Rinsing Legumes

Navy Beans Navy beans are small and oval in shape. They are white in color, have a powdery texture, and a mild flavor. Peanuts Peanuts are oblong kernels. They are light brown in color, and have a firm texture. Pinto Beans Pinto beans are medium-size, oval-shaped beans. They are beige and brown in color, and are typically mottled. They have a powdery texture and an earthy flavor. Black Beans Black beans are medium-size and oval-shaped. They are also called turtle beans. Black beans have a...

Cost Control Techniques

Kitchen Food Cost Control

Continue writing for the entire time period. Ifyou cannot thinkof the correct word, just draw a blank line in that spot and keep going. Controlling costs will help ensure a successful business operation. What would happen if a business did not control its costs Controlling costs will help ensure a successful business operation. What would happen if a business did not control its costs Pace Yourself Short blocks of concentrated reading repeated frequently are more effective than one long...

Sanitation Challenges

Predict Before starting the section, read headings, bold terms, and photo captions to browse the content. Think about how they can help you predict the information in the section. Identify sources of chemical food Illustrate how to manage pests in Food becomes contaminated by exposure to harmful microorganisms or chemical substances. Insects and result transmit rodents can also physically contaminate food. There are three types of hazards that can cause contamination in a kitchen. Use this...

Nutrition Facts

Serving Size 1 cup (228 g) Servings Per Container 2 * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs _Calories 2,000 2,500 Total Fat Less than 65 g 80 g Sat Fat Less than 20 g 25g Cholesterol Less than 300 mg 300 mg Sodium Less than 2,400 mg 2,400 mg Total Carbohydrate 300 g 375 g nutrition labels. A nutrition label gives information on serving size, calories, and nutrients in the food. Nutrients are measured in...

Crme Anglaise

Heat heavy cream and vanilla to scalding, when bubbles form around the edges of the pan. In a separate bowl, whisk together egg yolks and sugar. Slowly mix in V2 cup of the scalded milk mixture into the eggs, to warm, or temper, them so they do not scramble. Gradually add the tempered egg yolk mixture to the remaining milk mixture on a double boiler. Whisk constantly while adding the egg yolk mixture. Cook on the double boiler until the cr me anglaise thickens, and can coat a spoon. Cook on...

Standardized Recipe Basics

Apple Graphic Organizer

Check for Understanding If you have questions as you are reading, that means you are checking your understanding of the material. To get the most out of the text, try to answer these questions. Explain how standardized recipes help to maintain product consistency. Recipes provide specific instructions to prepare food items. A recipe includes details on how to use ingredients, procedures, and cooking instructions. As you read, use a web diagram like this one to list the seven different parts of...

Manage Food Cost Factors

Prior Knowledge Look over the Key Concepts at the beginning of the section. Write down what you already know about each concept and what you want to find out by reading the lesson. As you read, find examples for both categories. NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes. NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes. S Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com for a printable graphic organizer. foodservice operation. These factors include...

Dry Cooking Techniques

Study with a Buddy It can be difficult to review your own notes and quiz yourself on what you have just read. According to research, studying with a partner for just 12 minutes can help you study better. Use a matrix like the one below to list the different dry cooking techniques, with a short description of each. Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com for a printable graphic organizer. NCTE5 Use different writing process elements to communicate effectively....

Preparation Equipment

Slicer A slicer has a 10-inch or 12-inch circular blade that rotates at high speed. It can be either automatic or manual. Slicers are used to slice foods into uniform sizes. Bench Mixer A bench mixer has a removable stainless steel bowl and dough hook, paddle, and whip attachments. Counter models are available in 5-, 12-, and 20-quart sizes. Floor models come in 30-, 40-, 60-, 80-, and 140-quart sizes. The bench mixer is used to mix or whip doughs and batters. It can be used to slice, chop,...

Safety Check

Take special care when you remove the lids from pots or containers that may have steam trapped inside. Always tip the lid open by lifting it away from your hand and body. Steam is at least 212 F (100 C) and can cause severe burns. CRITICAL THINKING Why do you think the steam is so hot 1. Explain how to blanch foods. 2. Describe the braising process. 3. Procedure Browning occurs in meat when it is cooked at high heat. Cook two pieces of meat. Sear one piece, and use another cooking technique on...

Fish and Shellfish

Examples Round Fish

Classifications help to break down and explain the parts of something that make up a whole. Write a classification of different types of fish or shellfish that you know, as an introduction to the subject. Begin with an introduction that defines the broad topic. Describe each category and provide supporting details. Keep it simple. Do not use too many categories. Fish and shellfish are healthful protein choices for a main dish or appetizer. What types of shellfish can you name Fish and shellfish...

Prostart Stock And Soup And Sauces Graphic Organizer

Preparing Roux Structure

( j Strain the stock through a china cap. Skim all of the impurities and fat from the stock. Cool the stock quickly, as discussed later in this section. 5. Place the browned bones in a stockpot and cover with water. Bring the water to a simmer. 6. Reserve, or keep, the excess fat from the roasting pan. 7. Deglaze the pan with water. To deglaze means to add a liquid and stir over heat until the drippings are dissolved. 8. Add the deglazed mixture to the stockpot. 9. Combine the mirepoix and...

What Is Done In The Garde Manger Workstation

Garde Manger Pantry Chef

Get Your Rest The more well rested and alert you are when you sit down to study, the more likely you will be to remember the information later. Studying in the same state of mind as when you are likely to take a test fully rested and mentally sharp will help to ensure your best performance. Identify the duties of the garde manger work station. The garde manger chef is responsible for preparing cold foods, such as salads, salad dressings, cold hors d'oeuvres, fancy sandwiches, canap s, and cold...

Section 164 totwi Review Key Concepts

Explain how lighting affects the perception of food. 2. Illustrate how product temperature can affect a customer's enjoyment of food. Practice Culinary Academics English Language Arts 3. The next time you eat a meal, focus on the sensory properties of the meal the color, appearance, flavor, and texture. Try to remember how you perceived each property when you ate the meal. Write a description of the meal using details to describe each of the sensory properties. NCTE 4 Use written language to...

Menu Planning and Design

Two-Column Notes Two-column notes are a useful way to study and organize what you have read. Divide a piece of paper into two columns. In the left column, write down main ideas. In the right column, list supporting details. menu board j spoken menu j extender Evaluate basic menu planning principles. Define menu styles and design guidelines. Explain different menu categories and how they are typically listed. Foodservice professionals have developed several principles to plan successful menus....

Disposal Point

The last stop in the flow of food is the disposal point. The disposal point is the point at which food remaining after being eaten is disposed of properly. Cleaning and sanitizing are the key actions to take at the disposal point. Dishes, glasses, cups, utensils, and equipment must be cleaned and sanitized. The first step is to scrape leftover food from dishes, equipment, tools, and glasses into the garbage can. Then, the dish or tool should be rinsed over the sink's garbage disposal unit...

Restaurant Inspections

All restaurants undergo an inspection on a regular basis to ensure that food is being prepared in a safe and sanitized area. Using your research and interview, you will develop your own inspection sheet. If you completed the journal entry from page 1, refer to it to see if you have ever had a complaint against a restaurant's cleanliness. Add any additional notes about specific sanitation steps that the restaurant could improve upon. NCTE 6 Apply knowledge of language structure and conventions...

Loss Prevention Factors

A foodservice operation must focus on loss prevention to stay profitable. Loss prevention is the steps a business takes to eliminate waste and theft. If you make sure that each loss prevention factor, or issue, is covered, you will save a foodservice operation both time and money. All foodservice facilities must be safe places to work. Unfortunately, foodservice employees are at risk for on-the-job injuries. The most common kitchen injuries include slips and falls, burns, and cuts. Chapter 1...

Keep Food Nutritious

Use Color As you read this section, try using different colored pens to take notes. This can help you learn new material and study for tests. You could use red for vocabulary words, blue for explanations, and green for examples. Evaluate cooking methods to prevent nutrient loss. Outline ways to reduce the amount of fat, cholesterol, and sodium in recipes. Knowing what nutrients are contained in food is just one part of nutritional knowledge. A chef should also know the effect of cooking on the...

The Commercial Kitchen

Predict Before starting the section, browse the content by reading headings, bold terms, and photo captions. Do they help you predict the information in the section Efficient work flow and preparation are the keys to an organized professional kitchen. Explain the roles of the different stations in a professional kitchen. A commercial kitchen is divided into work stations. Once the work stations have been identified, the cooking line is set up. The set up will determine the workflow. Use a...

Bakeshop Ingredients

Emulsified Shortening

Preview Understanding causes and effects can help clarify connections. A cause is an event or action that makes something happen. An effect is a result of a cause. Ask yourself, Why does this happen to help you recognize cause-and-effect relationships in this section. Identify the different categories of ingredients and their roles in the baking process. Compare and contrast different dough mixing methods. The basic ingredients in baking are flour, liquids, fat, sugar and sweeteners, eggs,...

RolledIn Fat Yeast Doughs

Rich Roll Overweight

Bakers use rolled-in fat yeast doughs to make rolls and pastries. Rolled-in fat doughs differ from regular yeast dough. When you make a rolled-in fat yeast dough, combine the fat into the dough through a rolling and folding action. This process yields a dough made of many thin, alternating l ayers of fat and dough. As the dough bakes, the heated fat layers release moisture in the form of steam. The steam becomes trapped between the layers of dough, pushing them apart and lifting them. The...

Make Hot Appetizers

Appetizers are served as the first course of a meal, while hors d'oeuvres are small bites of food served before the meal or at a separate reception. Many people use the word appetizer to mean a wide range of foods served before the main course. This could even include items such as soups and salads. Appetizers are designed to stimulate the appetite. Ingredients can come from every food group. This section will emphasize, or point out, how to prepare and arrange hot appetizers. Appetizers can be...

Mixing Batters and Doughs

Batters and doughs are formed when the dry and liquid ingredients are combined to create baked products. Batters contain almost equal parts of dry and liquid ingredients. Batters are usually easy to pour. Cakes and muffins are baked products made from batters. A dough contains less liquid than a batter, making it easy to work doughs with your hands. Doughs may even be stiff enough to be cut into shapes. Many types of breads are made from dough. Helpful Additions Additives can help color,...

Seasonings and Flavorings

Imagine eating food without any flavor. Or, imagine that you ate several foods that all had the same flavor. This does not sound very appetizing, does it Customers expect flavorful dishes when they visit a restaurant. Fortunately, foods have their own natural flavoring. Sometimes, however, these flavors need to be strengthened. Foodservice professionals use seasonings, flavorings, and flavor enhancers to help. Enhancing the natural flavor of foods is part of the art of cooking. You need to...

Small Bites

MSG Allergies Recent studies have shown that MSG is not dangerous to people unless they are sensitive to it. People who have food allergies, or are sensitive to certain ingredients, should avoid eating foods that contain those ingredients. Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is a type of salt that comes from seaweed. It intensifies the natural flavor of most of the foods to which it is added. It also provides a savory flavor to food. For example, MSG is often added to vegetables, poultry, and fish to...

Yeast Dough Basics

Mini Bread Basket

Prior Knowledge Look over the Key Concepts at the beginning of the section. Write down what you already know about each concept and what you want to find out by reading the lesson. As you read, find examples for both categories. Breads are usually a part of every meal. Learn about the characteristics of quality yeast products to plan a variety of menu accompaniments. Before you read the section, list the details of what you know already and what you wish to learn about yeast dough products in...

Cooling Storage and Serving

Once a yeast dough product is removed from the oven, it must be cooled and stored properly to maintain the highest possible quality. Remove yeast products from their pans immediately. j Place them on cooling racks or screens at room temperature. One exception is rolls baked on sheets. These may be left on the sheets to cool, if they are well spaced. Cool yeast products completely before slicing or wrapping. In some cases, you will brush melted butter or shortening or a glaze onto a hot yeast...

Rolled Cookies

Chill the dough for rolled cookies after mixing. Using as little flour as possible, roll out the dough to Va-inch thickness. Use cookie cutters to cut out the cookies. To minimize the amount of wasted dough, cut the cookies as close together as possible. The dough can be rolled and cut twice. The scrap left over after the second cutting should be discarded because it will make tough cookies. Place cookies on a parchment-lined baking sheet and bake. J FIGURE 29.1 Cookie Dough Troubleshooting '...

Making Biscuits

Images Types Batters

Create an Outline Use the section's heading titles to create an outline. Make the titles into Level 1 main ideas. Add supporting information to create Level 2, 3, and 4 details. Use the outline to predict what you are about to learn. biscuit method pour batter blending method drop batter creaming method deflate the biscuit, blending, and creaming methods of mixing. Deconstruct the steps required to make quality biscuits. Quick breads are products with a bread- or cake-like texture that do not...

Skills You Can Use at School and in the Workplace

As you read, look for feature boxes throughout each chapter. These features build skills that relate to other academic subjects and prepare you for the foodservice industry. Gourmet Math You can solve math problems related to culinary skills and techniques. Each math concept is described for you, as well as a starting hint to help you solve each problem. connect the information in the chapter with the science content you have learned or are learning. Each of these features include a scientific...

In Culinary Which Salad Is Designed To Sharpen The Appetite

Stay Engaged One way to stay engaged when reading is to turn each of the headings into a question, then read the section to find the answers. For example, Edible Flowers might be, Which edible flowers are used in salads spinach vinaigrette List the main types of salads served during a meal. Outline the preparation techniques for salad greens. Describe the different types of salad dressings. A salad is a mixture of ingredients with a dressing. In addition to greens and vegetables, salads can be...

Specialty Dessert Types

Frozen desserts are a convenient alternative, or option, to pastry desserts. Frozen desserts do not require the strict measurements and ingredient ratios that baked goods do. They can be a simple dessert solution for foodservice operations that do not have an accomplished pastry chef on staff. Some desserts may not be baked goods, such as gelatin desserts, or even cooked items. They may use a combination of preparation methods, such as dessert cr pes and souffl s. Frozen desserts, puddings,...

Leadership Skills

Besides basic skills and a strong work ethic, employers also look for employees who have leadership skills. Leadership is the ability to motivate others to cooperate in doing a common task. Leadership is a quality every employee should practice. You do not need to wait until you are employed to develop leadership skills. Many organizations and programs help students develop leadership skills. Two such organizations are FCCLA and SkillsUSA. (See Figure 4.2.) J j FIGURE 4.2 Leadership...

Creative Desserts

Most desserts are cooked or baked, but most frozen desserts do not require this. These convenient desserts often accompany elegant meals and can be easily made at foodservice operations that do not have an accomplished pastry chef on staff. If you completed the journal entry from page 675, refer to it to see what special desserts you have tried in the past. Add any additional notes about other desserts, especially frozen desserts, that you are interested in tasting or trying to make. English...

Meat Basics

Veal Hindsaddle And Foresaddle

How Can You Improve Before starting this section, think about the last exam you took on material you had to read. What reading strategies helped you on the test Make a list of ways to improve your strategies to succeed on your next exam. Identify the structure and cuts of meat. Summarize the details of meat inspection, grading, handling, and storage. Meat is an essential part of most foodservice operations' menus. It is important to know how to purchase and safely store meat. Use a chart like...

Foodservice Cuts Of Pork

Pork Blade

402A Pork Leg (Fresh Ham), Skinned, 402B Pork Leg (Fresh Ham), Boneless I I 1495 Coarse Chopped Pork 402A Pork Leg (Fresh Ham), Skinned, 402B Pork Leg (Fresh Ham), Boneless I I 1495 Coarse Chopped Pork The above cuts are a partial representation of NAMP IMPS items. For further representation and explanation of all cuts see The Meat Buyers Guide by the North American Meat Processors Association. NAMP IMPS Number (North American Meat Processors Association Institutional Meat Purchase...

Foodservice Cuts Of Lamb

800g Lamb Cutlets Bone Removed

233E Lamb Leg, Steamship, 3 4, Aitch Bone Removed 233E Lamb Leg, Steamship, 3 4, Aitch Bone Removed The above cuts are a partial representation of NAMP IMPS items. For further representation and explanation of all cuts see The Meat Buyers Guide by the North American Meat Processors Association. NAMP IMPS Number (North American Meat Processors Association Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications) 2000 North American Meat Processors Association Rack The rack is what results from cutting the rib...

A Chiffon Cake

P Whip the egg yolks and half of the sugar to full volume. They will be pale yellow in color. P Whip the egg yolks and half of the sugar to full volume. They will be pale yellow in color. Fold in sifted flour and other dry ingredients. Fold in sifted flour and other dry ingredients. Whip the egg whites and the remaining half of the sugar until a meringue with medium to stiff peaks forms. Gently fold the meringue into the yolk mixture a small amount at a time. Altitude Adjustments For high...

Pie Dough Basics

A few ripe peaches sweetened and baked in a crust with a latticework top make an appetizing pie. Latticework is a grid pattern on a pie crust made with individual strips of crust. Fruit pies, cream pies, and custard pies have long been considered favorite American desserts. This section presents the basics of pie dough and pie fillings. Basic pie dough is sometimes called 3-2-1 dough. This ratio refers to the weight of three parts flour, two parts fat, and one part water. Successful pie crusts...

Shellfish Basics

Packed Under Federal Inspection

Think of an Example Look over the Key Concepts for this section. Think of an example of how or when you could use one of the skills from the Key Concepts. Thinking of how you might apply a skill can help motivate your learning by showing you why the skill is important. Shellfish is a tasty treat that can be used in many dishes. Explain the structure, composition, and grading of shellfish. Differentiate between types of mollusks. Distinguish between types of crustaceans. Identify other types of...

Peel and Devein Shrimp

P First, use your forefinger to remove the legs. Use your fingertips to gently peel and remove the shell. Leave the tall on If the shrimp will be broiled or deep-fried. Remove the tall for most other preparations. Cut down the back of the shrimp with a paring knife and remove the vein just below the surface. Make the cut deeper to butterfly the shrimp. Make the cut deeper to butterfly the shrimp. Shrimp may be purchased raw in the shell, either fresh or frozen. These are called green shrimp....

Condiment Varieties

You have learned about herbs and spices and how they affect the flavor of foods, but what about the condiments, nuts, and seeds that can be served with food to enhance flavor You will need to know which foods they enhance. A condiment is traditionally served as an accompaniment to foods. An accompaniment is something that goes well with something else. Condiments' purpose is to complement, or go together well with, food flavors. They vary from sweet and tart to hot and spicy, or sour....

Salad Dressings

A dressing is a sauce that is added to salads to give them flavor and to help hold the ingredients together. When you plan dressings, pick ones that go well with the flavors in the salad but do not overwhelm them. Check the greens to make sure they are dry. Vinaigrette is a mixture of vinegar and oil. Most vinaigrette salad dressings have a ratio of three parts oil to one part vinegar. For interesting flavors, try different vinegars, such as balsamic or herbed, and different oils. Olive oil and...

Data Analysis and Probability

Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them A histogram displays numerical data that have been organized into equal intervals using bars that have the same width and no space between them. While a histogram does not give exact data points, its shape shows the distribution of the data. Histograms also can be used to compare data. A box-and-whisker plot displays the measures of central tendency and variation. A box is drawn...

Foodservice at a Glance

The foodservice industry is about people. This, of course, includes the customers who eat. However, it also includes the employees who cook and serve, and the managers who run the foodservice facilities. Foodservice continues to change and grow to meet the needs of its customers. This growth means that there are exciting job opportunities. Before you choose a career, you should explore all the job opportunities that are available to you. According to the National Restaurant Association, there...

Loaf Breads

Loaf breads are similar in preparation to muffins. Like other quick bread products, loaf breads are made from flour, leavening agents, eggs, fat, sugar, salt, and a liquid. Baking powder is the chemical leavening agent used in loaf breads. Loaf breads are made from a drop batter or a very thick pour batter. The baked product should have a uniform texture. The crust should be lightly browned, but not thick. The crumb should be tender and moist, not tough or dry. Loaf breads also should have...

Local and Seasonal Foods

Many restaurant customers want meals that include fresh, local ingredients and foods. Using local, seasonal ingredients can make your menu more attractive. If you completed the journal entry from page 373, refer to it to see if you have used any local or seasonal ingredients in your cooking. Add any additional notes about how you can use these ingredients to spice up your culinary creations. NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively. NCTE 7 Conduct research and gather, evaluate,...

Reading Guide

Preview Understanding causes and effects can help clarify connections. A cause is an event or action that makes something happen. An effect is a result of a cause. Ask yourself, Why does this happen to help you recognize cause-and-effect relationships in this section. Identify the elements of a stock. Explain the preparation of different varieties of stock. Stocks are the liquids that form the foundation of sauces and soups. Learning how to make stocks can help you create flavorful sauces and...

Holding and Service Equipment

Internal Proofing Equipment

Two-Column Notes Two-column notes are a useful way to study and organize what you have read. Divide a piece of paper into two columns. In the left column, write down main ideas. In the right column, list supporting ideas. Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com for a printable graphic organizer. NCTE 5 Use different writing process elements to communicate effectively. Identify the uses of hot food holding equipment. Evaluate the uses of service equipment....

Wheat Grains

Kamut (ka-'moot) Kamut is brown and has a rice-like shape. It has an earthy, nutty flavor. Ground kamut is used in baked goods and pasta making. Spelt ( spelt) Spelt is a wheat product that is available as a whole grain or ground. It can be boiled or simmered, and has a mild, nutty flavor. It is used in baked goods. Amaranth Amaranth is a very small, round grain that is light brown in color. It is used in salads, baked goods, and in cooking. Cooking rice and grains involves adding enough water...

Cooking Equipment

Deck Oven A deck oven is also known as a stack oven. Electric deck ovens have separate baking controls for the lower deck and for the upper deck. Deck ovens are used for baking, roasting, and braising. Convection Oven A convection oven has a fan that circulates the oven's heated air. This fan allows you to cook foods in about 30 less time and at temperatures approximately 50 lower than a conventional oven. Convection ovens are used for baking, roasting, and braising. Salamander A salamander is...

Nutrition Basics

Discover the building blocks of good nutrition. Think of an Example Look over the Key Concepts for this section. Think of an example of how or when you could use one of the skills from the Key Concepts. Thinking of how you might apply a skill can help motivate your learning by showing you why the skill is important. Summarize the six categories of nutrients. List the types and uses of food additives. Foodservice employees must understand the basics of nutrition to help them create healthful...

Know and Understand the Concepts

Review what you learned in the chapter and see how this learning applies to your other subjects and real-world situations. to review the most important ideas that you should have learned in the chapter. There are three different cooking techniques dry, moist, and combination cooking. The cooking technique, temperature, and cooking time affect nutritive value, texture, color aroma, and flavor Dry techniques include baking, roasting, There are three different cooking techniques dry, moist, and...

Cooking in Liquid

Boil Cooking

There is more than one way to cook eggs. Some people like them to be boiled so that they are hard-cooked, while others prefer their eggs lightly poached so that they are softer in texture. Boiling and poaching are both moist cooking techniques. Cooking food using a moist technique involves heating food in a liquid other than oil. Moist cooking techniques include boiling, blanching, parboiling, simmering, poaching, and steaming. Sometimes, a moist cooking technique is applied to foods that have...

Combination Cooking

Sometimes, great things happen when you combine the best of two techniques. This is the case with combination cooking. As the term suggests, combination cooking combines two techniques you have already learned moist and dry. Two major combination techniques are braising and stewing. Braising and stewing involve both a dry and a moist cooking process. The first step for both cooking methods is usually to brown the food using dry heat. Then, the food is completely cooked by simmering the food in...

Ataste Of History

The last Delmonico's restaurant closes Prohibition, banning consumption and sale of alcohol, begins The first Delmonico's Restaurant opened in New York City in 1827. It was one of the first restaurants to offer a true fine-dining experience to Americans. It allowed customers to order items from a menu, instead of offering a fixed menu each day. It was also the first restaurant in the United States to offer customers a wine list. Chicken la king and lobster Newberg were invented at Delmonico's....

Centerpieces

A centerpiece is a decorative object placed on tables to add beauty and interest. Centerpieces should not block the customer's view. Properly maintain and clean centerpieces. Lighting centerpieces, such as candles, are the most common centerpieces. Generally, they are used during the evening hours. Floral centerpieces can be made from fresh, dried, or artificial flowers, leaves, and branches. Fresh flowers require extra care and are not always available. Edible centerpieces are made from items...

Poultry Basics

Preview Scan the section and choose a Content or Academic Vocabulary word that is new to you. When you find it in the text, write down the definition. Identify different kinds, classes, and market forms of poultry. Explain how poultry is inspected and graded. Describe how to handle, store, and prepare poultry for cooking. Poultry products are available in a variety of forms and classes. They must be handled and stored properly to stay fresh. As you read, you will find eight factors you must...

Prepare for Academic Success

By improving your academic skills, you improve your ability to learn and achieve success now and in the future. It also improves your chances of landing a high-skill, high-wage job. The features and assessments in Culinary Essentials provide many opportunities for you to strengthen your academic skills National English Language Arts Standards To help incorporate literacy skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) into Culinary Essentials, each section contains a listing of the language...

Use Reading Strategies and Visuals to Study Effectively

In addition to the reading guide at the beginning of each section, there are a lot of reading strategies that can help you comprehend the text. help identify the main idea and supporting details. Breakfast foods are very popular. In the United States, many people eat breakfast foods at any meal. The standard breakfast menu includes eggs, meat, potatoes, breads, pancakes, waffles, cereals, fruit, and yogurt. Some restaurants offer customers more unusual choices, such as a special pizza or...

Making Muffins

Use Diagrams As you read through this section, write down the main idea. Write down any facts, explanations, or examples you find in the text. Start at the main idea and draw arrows to the information that directly supports it. Then, draw arrows from these examples to any information that supports them. baking cup streusel tunnels aftertaste desired deteriorate Explain the blending and creaming methods of mixing muffins. Describe how to make quality loaf quick breads. Outline the steps used to...

Taste of History

General Electric releases its first electric waffle iron Pancakes may well be the workhorse of today's breakfast menu, but if the Dutch settlers had not introduced the waffle iron to 17th-century Colonial America, that menu would be a lot shorter. The early device was created by a 13th-century craftsman. It was made of two hinged, iron honeycomb-patterned plates that were filled with a batter and held over the hearth to cook. Since then, the waffle iron has evolved, but it is still being used...

Safety Basics

Using The Correct Equipment Cookery

Write one or two sentences that predict what the section is about. occupational puncture back support Identify possible culinary workplace safety issues. Explain fire safety equipment and emergency procedures. Describe first aid measures for burns, wounds, and choking. Burns and injuries can easily occur in a foodservice workplace. Establish fire safety procedures and know first aid measures to prevent or minimize damage. As you read, you will discover...

Preparation and Cooking

Now you know how to safely receive and store food. But there are still several points in the flow of food at which food could become unsafe. One of those points is food preparation. Food preparation means cooking and preparing foods to be eaten. Remember that you need to cook certain foods, such as poultry and meat, to specific internal temperatures for them to be safe to eat. Another way to keep food safe is to prevent cross-contamination and microorganism growth. Salads with cold protein,...

Popular Specialty Rices

Arborio ,ar-bor-e-5 Arborio is a short-grain, white rice that becomes sticky when it is cooked. Use 3 cups of water for every cup of rice. It is the best rice to use for risotto-style preparation. Basmati ,baz-'ma-te Basmati has extra-long grains that are polished and cream-colored. It has a light, sweet flavor. Basmati is aged before it is used, so it should be well rinsed. Use cups of water for every cup of rice. Basmati has a delicate flavor that is best used in side dishes, including pilaf....

The Sponge Method

Sugar or malt may also be added to this mixture to promote faster yeast growth. Cover the sponge. Let it rise in a warm place for two to three hours or until it doubles in bulk. Combine the sponge with the remaining ingredients either by hand or in a mixer. Use a probe thermometer to measure the dough temperature before you place it in the proofer. If you are not using a proofer, regularly measure dough temperature throughout fermentation. Remember that allowing dough to become...

Yeast Dough

Grasp the dough and bring it toward you. Flip the dough, then form a fist and push the dough away with your knuckles. Q Repeat the process until the dough is smooth and elastic. Rounding dough provides it with a skin to prevent the loss of too much carbon dioxide. Some formulas call for the dough to be folded over during rounding. This provides a kind of second punching after dividing. If the dough is not rounded, it will rise and bake unevenly, with a lumpy or rough surface. When you round,...

Sharpen Your Basic Skills

Congratulations You have decided to pursue a career in foodservice Whether you see yourself as a pastry chef or a restaurant manager, your next step is to make your goal a reality. The skills you will need to have to find and keep a job in foodservice are the same skills that you need to find and keep a job in any other field. You may already have many of these basic skills. However, you may need to work on certain skills. This section will help you polish the abilities you have and develop the...

Opening Service

Customers have the most contact with servers when they dine out. From taking orders to presenting checks, the server plays a key role in how the customer rates his or her dining experience. In this section, you will learn about the role of servers and how their duties should be performed. The host or busser may serve bread and water before the server arrives at the table. However, the server is the main caretaker of customers' needs throughout the meal. The server's job is to greet customers,...

Yeast Dough Preparation

The production of quality yeast breads and rolls requires good technique, patience, and creativity. To produce a good yeast product, you will need to learn dough mixing methods. The steps involved in making yeast breads vary depending on the type of dough that is used and the item that is being produced. However, the same general stages apply to all yeast dough products Keep these quality guidelines in mind Maintain personal cleanliness at all times. Keep utensils, materials, and machinery...

Stages of Making Yeast Dough

Because each step in the process of making yeast dough is critical, it is important that you complete each step in the proper order. Skipping any steps or being unprepared for a step can lead to the failure of your product. Accurate, or correct, measurement, or scaling, of all ingredients is critical, or necessary, in the preparation of yeast doughs. Successful formulas are based on proportional mixtures of ingredients. Too much or too little of an ingredient will affect yeast activity, gluten...

Green Salads

Different Salad Greens

Green salads use fresh greens as their base. These salads can be served as an appetizer, or as a main course. Green salads can include many different kinds of ingredients, from vegetables to meat. Chefs often add fresh herbs, nuts, or even edible flower petals. You can make a salad mild or spicy by using different leafy greens. When you mix different greens, you can make salads with interesting, unusual flavors and textures. Three main types of greens and leafy vegetables are used in tossed...

HACCP Basics

As food moves through a foodservice operation, it is important to be able to spot potential hazards. By using a time-tested system called HACCP, the flow of food can be monitored. The flow of food is the path food takes from when it is received by an establishment to when it is disposed of as waste. Along this path, any hazards can be controlled and risks lowered. Local health departments regularly inspect foodservice establishments. Your workplace should also inspect the kitchen to keep...

The Flow of Food

Follow food as it moves through afoodservice e& ablishment. What You Want to Know Write a list of what you want to know about the flow of food. As you read, write down the heads in this section that provide the information. Summarize the steps in safely receiving and storing food. Identify safe holding, serving, cooling, and reheating guidelines. Explain how to properly clean, sanitize, and store dishes and glassware. Foodservice workers need to be conscious of food safety and sanitation at...

Serve the Order

Server Walking With Tray

The technical aspects of service refer to the way items are physically placed before a customer. You should check to make sure that all dishes are complete and properly garnished before you serve them. More important to customers, however, is the manner in which they are served. Most customers care about the following When delivering dishes, did the server keep his or her fingers on the edge of the plate, away from the food Did the server use his or her left hand to serve the food products from...

Breakfast Proteins

Several breakfast protein foods are from the pork family, including ham, bacon, and sausage. Eggs are another common breakfast protein food. These protein foods are often served together. Frequently, breakfast protein foods are served with a bread or potato choice to round out the meal. Typical breakfast meats that are found on foodservice menus include ham, bacon, Canadian bacon, sausage, hash, and steak, although there are many other protein-based breakfast possibilities, such as smoked...

Common Pasta Shapes

Fettuccini (fe-ta-'che-ne) Fettuccini are flat, long, -inch-wide noodles. They are best boiled and served with rich cream sauces, such as alfredo, or meat sauces that adhere well to these ribbon-like noodles. Orzo ('6rd-(,)zo) Orzo are small, rice-shaped pasta. They are best in pilaf, salads, and soups. Fusilli (fyu-'si-le) Fusilli are corkscrew-shaped twists. They are boiled, and baked in dishes with medium or thick, creamy sauces. Manicotti (,ma-na-'ka-te) Manicotti are medium-size hollow...

Using Standardized Recipes

13.1 Standardized Recipe Basics 13.2 Recipe Measurement and Conversion Choose a simple dish with few ingredients that you know how to prepare. Write a recipe for the dish. Before you begin, look at existing recipes as a guide. List any ingredients in the order that they will be used. Include a list of the equipment and tools you will need. Make each instruction brief and easy to follow. Using a recipe helps ensure that the quality of your food is consistent. Why would consistency be important...

Omelet with Cheese

Salt and ground white pepper, to taste Fresh parsley, washed, excess moisture removed, and chopped The classic omelet recipe originated in France, but egg dishes are popular in many countries. Use the Internet or library to research these international omelet recipes, and write a half-page report on your findings Frittata (Italy) j Datemaki (Japan) j Tortilla de patatas (Spain) 1. Season the eggs with salt and pepper. Add the milk, and whisk until the eggs...

Sensory Evaluation

Cooked Lamb Plaiting Computation

Sensory evaluation is the science of judging and evaluating the quality of a food by use of the senses. Many foodservice businesses conduct consumer taste tests to find out what their customers like and dislike. This helps food companies to design products that the customers will find tasty. Customers test foods based on their likes and dislikes, but other food taste testers need to evaluate food objectively. Their job is to describe only the sensory characteristics. To increase the objectivity...

Service Equipment

Alphabet Kabyle

Insulated Carriers Insulated carriers are large boxes that can hold hotel pans and sheet pans filled with cooked food. Insulated carriers keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Some insulated carriers have wheels. If the carrier has a spigot, warm or cold beverages can be stored inside. Chafing Dishes Chafing dishes are typically stainless steel pans used to keep food hot during service. Hotel pans of food can be inserted into the chafing dish. Chafing dishes are available in a variety of...

Quick Service Breakfasts

In the United States, many people eat breakfast foods at any meal. The standard breakfast menu includes eggs, meat, potatoes, breads, pancakes, waffles, cereals, fruit, and yogurt. Some restaurants offer customers more unusual choices, such as a special pizza or breakfast burritos. In short, anything goes Most restaurants that serve breakfast offer a variety of similar options and combinations. Eggs are often served either scrambled, over-easy, hard, basted,...

Section 27i nmmmit

Describe the function of a starter. 2. List products that can be made from a soft medium dough. 3. Summarize the characteristics of a quality croissant. Practice Culinary Academics l j Science 4. Procedure Make a yeast balloon. Take a balloon and stretch it out by blowing it up a few times. Add a packet of yeast and 2 tablespoons of sugar to 1 cup of very warm water. Once the yeast and sugar have dissolved, pour the mixture into a bottle and stretch the balloon over the mouth of the bottle....

Stocks Sauces and Soups

Imagine that you work in a restaurant that is planning on adding a selection of pastas to the menu. Write a memo to the executive chef explaining what sauces you think might go well with pasta, and why. State the purpose of your memorandum. Organize the paragraphs in a logical way. The right herbs and spices add flavor to a stock. What do you think stock is used for The right herbs and spices add flavor to a stock. What do you think stock is used for A good stock is the basis for good sauces...

Nuts and Seeds

Almonds A medium-brown nut that is white inside, almonds can be sweet or bitter. Sweet almonds are eaten bitter almonds are used as a source for almond flavoring. Almonds are available whole in the shell, shelled, skinned, sliced, in pieces, or as a paste. Cashews The cashew is the edible seed of a tropical evergreen tree. Most cashews are salted and roasted. They are available raw or toasted. Cashews The cashew is the edible seed of a tropical evergreen tree. Most cashews are salted and...

Rice and Other Grains

Rice And Other Grains

Prepare with a Partner Before you read, work with a partner. Read the titles of the heads and ask each other questions about the topics that will be discussed. Write down the questions you both have about each section. As you read, answer the questions you have identified. Describe different varieties of rice. j Identify common grains. j Demonstrate various cooking methods used for rice and other grains. Grains have a high nutritional value and can be dried for storage for long periods of time....