The Secret to Successfully Making and Baking Bread

Bread And Bread Making

BREAD is the most important article of food, and history tells of its use thousands of years before the Christian era. Many processes have been employed in making and baking and as a result, from the first flat cake has come the perfect loaf. The study of bread making is of no slight importance, and deserves more attention than it receives. 1 Considering its great value, it seems unnecessary and wrong to find poor bread on the table and would that our standard might be raised as high as that of our friends across the water Who does not appreciate the loaf produced by the French baker, who has worked months to learn the art of bread making 2 Bread is made from flour of wheat, or other cereals, by addition of water, salt, and a ferment. Wheat flour is best adapted for bread making, as it contains gluten in the right proportion to make the spongy loaf. But for its slight deficiency in fat, wheat bread is a perfect food hence arose the custom of spreading it with butter. It should be...

Bread Baking for the Home Chef

Yeast breads take a considerably longer time, but surprisingly not much more total work time once you are a regular bread baker. To assemble the ingredients and knead the dough takes 15 to 20 minutes, less if you use a food processor or mixer. The first rise takes about 1 to 1 hours. It takes only a few minutes to punch down the dough, shape it and place it in a pan for the second rise, which takes some 40 to 50 minutes. A bread bakes in another 40 to 50 minutes, rolls 15 minutes. Total time is over 3 hours, but your actual working time, including slicing and cleanup, is about 25 minutes when hand kneading or 15 minutes when using a machine. Is this realistic Once your bread baking is routine, it is and you can prove it to yourself.

Recognize the Problem

The bread-making suggestions in this bulletin have been adapted to meet conditions which are common throughout the State of Utah. Our high altitudes and dry atmosphere make problems in bread-making which are quite different from those found in lower elevations and more moist climates. You will find, in the pages which follow, many changes from the bread-making methods and recipes prepared for use at sea level. 4-H Foods club leaders will use the information to give some of their club members their first lesson in bread-making. Some new homemakers may also use these instructions for their first bread-making. Experienced homemakers who are veterans in the art of making bread may find a few ideas which can help them. The methods and recipes in the pages which follow, come to you as a result of several years of testing in different parts of Utah. Many of our homemakers and 4-H club members have adopted these bread-making practices. They report much improvement in the quality of their...

Ncl Lambstuffed Green Chiles With Fresh Tomato Furee

*Note Adobe Bread is a yeast bread, made in the outdoor ovens called hornos, in the Southwest. jt is sold on the plaza by Native American vendors in Santa Fe, New Mexico however, if this bread is not available to you, any yeast non-sour dough bread can be used and made into the bread crumbs for this recipe. (to see a photo demonstration of bread making go to

Use Cool Water To Soften Yeasts

Correct temperatures are so important for good bread-making. The first one to watch is that of the water in which the yeast is softened. The best temperature for this water is between 85 and 90 F if you are using compressed yeast. A higher temperature may kill many of the yeast cells before they ever get into the dough. If you have no thermometer, test the water on the inner side of your wrist. Water at 90 F will feel cool.

Boiled Corn Bread Gahagugwa

The boiling of the corn in ashes, in bread-making, was sometimes omitted. A kettleful of water was brought to the boiling point, according to an informant, Mrs. peter John, a Mohawk woman married to an Onondaga man. The ripe corn was added and boiled until softened a little. It was then drained in the washing basket, allowed to dry slightly, then pounded, sifted, and made into flour. Th is kind of flour is called ganehana'-we'di'. A similar omission is found in the Huron process of bread-making as recorded by Sagard-Theodat in his book, 'Le Grand Voyage du pays des Hurons,' Tross ed., (paris, 1865). Loaves of corn bread were frequently carried along while travelling, though parched corn flour sweetened with maple syrup was a more popular material.

Multigrain Bread

*Gluten Tip - Some bread machines have a whole wheat or whole grain cycle, which comes in handy when making whole grain breads. If your machine does not have this cycle, try adding gluten to whole wheat, whole grain, and rye bread recipes to improve loaf height, texture, and structure. (If your supermarket does not carry gluten, check with a health food store.)

Use Less Yeast

We have standardized our Utah bread recipes, to use only one-fourth cake or package of yeast to one loaf of bread. More yeast at our elevations, speeds up the fermentation period too fast. This means the dough will not have time to develop those desirable flavor and texture changes that make good bread. There may be times when you might want to use more yeast to speed up the bread making process. More yeast will hasten the rising periods but the quality of the bread will not be so good. Both flavor and texture are improved when the fermentation period is long enough for the desirable changes to take place in the gluten.

Staff of Life Bread

Review the fundamental facts for bread-making before you try these recipes. They give detailed methods for all the steps outlined in the recipe directions. They also tell you why these particular methods are recommended. The quality of the bread you make will be influenced by your application of

Related titles from Woodheads food science technology and nutrition list

This book is a major new review of key technological advances in cereals processing, covering the range of cereals products from bread making, pasta and rice production to breakfast cereals and starch products. This will be essential reading for raw material producers and primary and secondary cereal processors.

Converting Your Favorite Recipes

If you have some prized bread recipes that you'd like to make in your bread machine, read on. And remember, the first time you try a new bread in your machine, watch and listen carefully. You may have to make adjustments, and it often takes more than one attempt before the bread turns out the way you like it.

The Wonderful World Of Yeast

Wild Yeast and Starters, before yeast was available in grocery stores, families and bakers grew colonies of yeast for making bread. These colonies were known as starters, and were sometimes passed on from generation to generation. A good starter is a treasure, and like a treasure needs to be guarded and cared for. If you do not have a family starter, you can make one using commercial yeast or you can do it the old-fashioned and most basic way starting completely from scratch, using only the naturally occurring wild yeasts that are present in the air and water around us. We have several recipes on our site for sourdough starters If you want to speed the process even more you can add a package of yeast to the water before adding the flour. Use as directed in your favorite Sourdough Bread recipe.

Bread Making Equipment

You need something large enough to mix in. For me that's a stainless steel bucket or a big stainless steel bowl. For you it could be any sort of bowl or pan. If you are working in an old-fashioned kitchen, substitute potato masher when you see blender in a recipe. And substitute an eggbeater or a big mixing spoon and some elbow grease for electric mixer. A clock helps, but it isn't necessary. Baking Pans. If things are grim, large-size (46-oz.) juice cans with one end neatly removed can be used to make do for baking bread, and so can large coffee cans. If you have pie tins or Pyrex oven-type plates, you can make dough into large rolls and bake it that way. Or you can make rolls

How do you control the heat in a Dutch oven

The first is that you should rotate your oven a third of a turn every ten minutes. And then rotate the lid a third of a turn the other direction. Next if you are baking bread, rolls, or cake remove the bottom heat after two thirds of the cooking time. It will finish cooking from the top heat. This will keep it from burning on the bottom.

The glutenfree store cupboard

Breads and bread flours gluten-free breads and bread mixes are improving and becoming more widely available all the time. Pick from a wide range, from wraps to hamburger buns and fruit breads. To make your own, stock up on corn, rice, potato, tapioca, soya, and chickpea flours, or buy ready prepared gluten-free flour for bread making. Xanthan gum - a gluten substitute that adds springiness to bread - is essential, as are eggs and yeast.

Planning your menus for easy meal prep

Gluten-free ingredients aren't always easy to find. For instance, if you're going to make bread and you need xanthan gum, you can't run down to the corner store and get it. And if you don't have it, you're not making bread (unless you cheat and use a mix like I do oh, wait this is a cookbook ).

Creating the Gluten Free Flour Mixture

DjJ ER Precisely because of the mess that occurs when you assemble the flour mixture, we only use one flour mixture throughout this book. Why Because you can measure and sift once, and then spoon the combined flours into a self-seal plastic bag and freeze it. When you're ready to bake, you don't have to drag out all the different bags of flour one flour mixture will suffice for all the recipes in this book. Just take the bag out of the freezer, measure the amount you need, and begin baking. It doesn't get much easier than that. It should be noted that in a few of the bread recipes, sorghum flour or flaxseed meal is added to the basic flour mixture to get the right consistency.

Rise and Shine Breads and Bagels

In Chapter 8, we emphasize that only one gluten-free flour mixture is used throughout this book to make it easier for the baker. You may notice that the bread recipes that follow use the gluten-free flour mixture and then call for additional flours to be used. Here's the reason Adding cornstarch and or sorghum flour changes the consistency of the bread for the better. Occasionally coconut flour is used for flavor. You can use just the gluten-free flour mixture, but your breads won't turn out as well. Light flaxseed meal is also added frequently. Flax not only adds fiber to the bread, but it helps to activate the yeast so your bread is lighter. The light flaxseed meal has virtually no taste, so it doesn't affect the taste of the bread.

Working the dough You dont need Popeye arms

Kneading is an important step in making bread, but not with gluten-free breads. The process of turning the dough on a board activates the gluten in wheat so the bread will rise. Because wheat gluten is absent in the alternative flours, kneading is only done long enough to form a smooth ball from the dough. However, many gluten-free bread doughs are more like the consistency of cake batter, so they usually need no kneading at all.

Troubleshooting breads

It may take several attempts at bread making to get it right, so don't get discouraged if your first try isn't perfect. Here are a few troubleshooting points to keep in mind We've made these adjustments to the recipes that follow. When you convert a wheat bread recipe, experiment several times with the options above until you get a loaf of bread that rises, tastes fantastic, has the ideal crust, and doesn't crumble. You can do it

Adding Vegetables to Your Bread Summer Zucchini and Carrot Bread

Here is a wonderful bread recipe for all that zucchini squash that seems to overwhelm us each summer. Some fresh carrots are added for color and nutrition. Unlike the quick bread recipes for zucchini squash, this is a yeasted recipe. This is not a sweet bread recipe and so it makes wonderful sandwiches and toast. We like it with peach and apricot jam.

Using Cornmeal in Your Bread Southern Cornbread Yeast

We find cornmeal in bread recipes from time to time and love the crunchy goodness that it adds. Hearty peasant, artisan, and whole grain breads have cornmeal added. Anadama bread has cornmeal in it and is one of our favorite breads for morning toast. Though not popular, there are cornbreads made with yeast. (They deserve to be popular.)

The Whys and Hows of Bread Dough

Of the large number of cooking and baking techniques you undertake in your kitchens, there are a few where your understanding what is happening is helpful if you want the best. Bread baking is one of them. Understanding the basics behind the process can be an enormous help in producing a good bread. And in the unlikely case of a failure, you can pin down the problem if you understand the process. Many accomplished cooks refuse baking breads thanks to some failed loaves in the distant past, an obvious embarrassment to their cooking ego. Yet it is an even more embarrassment not to be able to put a fabulous fresh yeast loaf on the table. There are a number of good bread-baking books on the market. Most give no more than recipes and describe bread-making techniques. Some are accurate, others must have copied the information from another source without the bother to understand it. To illustrate, the author of an otherwise excellent book on bread baking used the words yeast and bacteria...

What else you can add

When you add cornmeal, wheat berries, oatmeal or rye flour, or vary the proportion of several flours within the dough, you change the texture and flavor of the bread. You can further enrich the dough by adding flavor-rich foods such as milk and egg. You can change the flavor by adding potato or caraway seeds, fennel seeds or herbs, among other things. Only robust, strong-flavored spices and herbs are effective the essential oils of milder herbs evaporate during the baking process. Some bread recipes use onion and cheese, others carrots, raisins, cranberries there is virtually no limit to what you can legally incorporate. But the best bread to all of us, bread purists, is plain ordinary crusty, chewy bread with very little or no addition.

Tastings Fresh warm bread in minutes

Even though bread making is relatively simple, it is not like boiling potatoes. There are a few precautions you must be aware of or the bread-baking turns into disaster. Start with a simple bread recipe to practice on. Most breads have only four major ingredients flour, water, yeast and salt. Even the proportion of these ingredients doesn't vary from bread to bread. The amount of yeast you use may varies somewhat.

Dairy Products and How They Work

You will learn about the composition of each of these dairy products we just mentioned and how to use them in your baking. In the practice lessons, you will learn how to use cream cheese to make a cheese cake, how to make whipped cream, how to use cheese in bread baking, and how to make a cream pie filling. But first, we've got to talk about principles and techniques.

Tastings How to slow down yeast

Most bread recipes call for a fixed amount of liquid and instruct you to adjust the dough by adding more or less flour. However, starting with fixed amount of flour is a better approach, because you end up with a specific-sized bread. Start with the flour and add warm water gradually until the dough has the perfect consistency.

Tastings Protein and starch in flour

Hard wheat flour that is ideal for bread making has 12 percent protein, while a soft cake flour contains 7.5 percent. All-purpose flour is a blend with around 10.5 percent protein. As the amount of protein goes down, the starch content goes up, since protein and starch are the two main ingredients of flour.

Stuffed Bread Italian Filled Bread

The convenient way to make this bread is with our Tuscany Tomato Basil Bread Mix, but you can use your favorite plain white bread recipe. If you are making this bread from a recipe, use a two loaf recipe and mix according to directions. Add two tablespoon dried crushed basil during the mixing. (If you are making this from our mix, follow the directions but set the dried tomatoes aside and use slightly less than the two cups of water called for. The dried tomatoes soak up some water so using less than the directions call for is appropriate.) Place the bread dough in an oiled bowl, turn once, and cover to let rise until doubled. Use the following recipe for the filling. Stuffed bread recipes lend themselves to customization so add or substitute ingredients according to your taste.

To View This Figure Please Refer To The Printed Edition

Figure 11.2 Algerian peasant woman baking bread Bread, more than any other food, contains God's blessing, baraka. When studying Algerian Arabic, I had to translate the sentence 'The worker of bread is a blessed man, because the bread contains baraka' (Tapiero, 197, p. 47). Bread is the symbol of food and of life in general the term aysh (life) is often used for bread. It therefore deserves proper religious respect.1 The bread is broken, not cut, to which some add the prayer 'in the name of God'. Crumbs should be picked up and leftover bread should not be thrown out, but carefully collected and used for other dishes or to feed the animals (Goichon, 1927, p. 263 Lizot, 1973, p. 41). Because it is thought that bread has power, over time it has been used in various magical practices and beliefs. Goichon noted that it was part of a ritual to wean a child without tears (1927, p. 40), and I saw mothers use it to cure their child's hiccups. Magical precautions were taken to protect wheat,...

Vegetable and Olive Oils

Although some muffin and quick bread recipes call for vegetable oil, vegetable oils are not used extensively in baking. They lack the ability to aerate as the solid fats do. Because the liquid oil migrates through the batter readily, it is a more effective agent in shortening gluten strands and making baked goods crumbly and often too crumbly for many baked goods.

Changes in Production Processes and the Gendered Division of Labour

The traditional preparation of bread was a woman's affair, as can still be seen occasionally in the villages. Some peasant women still grind their own flour with a heavy handmill of two round halves of stone. They set it between their legs on the floor, while they rhythmically turn the wooden stick in the upper half counterclockwise with the right hand, and deftly put the grains in the hole in the middle with the left-hand. They change hands when they get tired. The flour is collected on a goatskin or a piece of cloth. It is then sieved through three different sieves. The coarser granules are ground again or set aside for couscous, the finest flour is used for bread. An expert housewife in the oasis of Tabelbala could thus grind about 3 kg of flour in an hour and a half (Champault, 1969, p.71). The women of the Aures considered it a long and arduous task (Gaudry, 1928, p. 152). Milling is strictly women's work. When assistance is needed with very large handmills, other women help. Not...

The Limitations of Bread as Identity Marker

That couscous survived the French cultural domination while Arab bread did not, can be explained as follows. The status of couscous as national dish has less to do with the grain itself, than with its 'face', the meat, vegetables and nuts on top. Its higher value is derived from being an inseparable carrier of meat and vegetable stews. The preparation of couscous is time-consuming, but somewhat less heavy and less time-restricted than that of bread. Couscous granules are made by stirring and rolling freshly ground grain sprinkled with salt water in a large round plate. Ferchiou argues that the process of rolling and drying couscous is a way of preserving grain, as starch accumulates around the larger and harder particles of bran and germ during the process, and thus, when dried, seals off the most perishable part of the grain from the air. The granules thus formed can be stored for months or years without staling (Ferchiou, 1978, pp. 183-5 Perry, 1990, p. 176). The most laborious part...

Popular Specialty Rices

Wheat, in the form of flour, is a staple in bread-making and other kinds of baking. Wheat is actually a very versatile grain that is also milled into semolina and cracked wheat. These two wheat products can be served as side dishes, and used in stuffings and casseroles.

Yeast Risen Specialties

It's difficult to create a blanket definition that covers the recipes in this chapter, both because they overlap so much with bread recipes, and because yeast-risen specialties can be so different from one another. Most of the recipes here originated using a plain bread dough as a base. In the case of the sweet variations, butter, eggs, sugar, and enrichments such as dried or candied fruit, nuts, toppings, and fillings transformed them. In the savory variations, different methods of shaping, enrichments some of which overlap with the ones for sweet variations and savory fillings or toppings were used to create new specialties.

Harvesting Processing and Using

To create pearled sorghum, follow directions for pearling barley (see Pearling under Barley ). Sorghum bran is the flour that results from the pearling it has a good part of the vitamins in it. So cook the pearled sorghum like rice, but add the bran to your bread recipes so you don't lose the vitamins. Or make a coarse grind of the whole kernel and use in recipes that call for cracked wheat or meal.

Tastings How to make pure gluten

The flour you use to make bread must have high enough protein content to develop gluten sheets in the dough. Flours range from soft to hard, terms that describe the starch content. The more the starch, the less the protein. Soft flours are high in starch, low in protein, hard flours the opposite. For bread you want the high-protein hard flours. For general baking purposes, flour mills blend various types of flours to produce a single flour suitable for most household cooking and baking purposes. This compromise product is our all-purpose flour. You can use it for bread baking but you don't get the best, highest-rising breads with it. Modern flours need no sifting before mixing them into bread dough. You can measure flour directly from the bin to the mixing bowl or on your work surface. It is always surprising to see in a new cookbook that the author still starts bread baking with the familiar, sift dry ingredients into a bowl. Sifting is still a good idea if you have several dry...

Baking the Bread What Heat does

Baking seems simple to us put the well-risen, proofed dough in the hot oven and take it out when it is fully baked. If all went well (and there is no reason why it shouldn't), we place a still-steaming, irresistibly-perfumed, brown-crusted, mouth-wateringly beautiful loaf of bread on a wire rack, and we are ready to cut into it after a short cooling period. But the baking process is anything but simple. There is a series of very complex chemical reactions and physical processes that happen during bread baking, so complex that even food scientists who have studied the baking process for decades are far from fully understanding it. For our purposes as home chefs we don't need to know more about these complex reactions than the very basics which are simple.

Yeast Bread Ingredients

Basic Procedure for Bread Making Start with a yeast solution and add that to a liquid. A sweetening for the yeasties to feed on is helpful, plus some shortening, salt if you want, other things in the fruit and vegetable kingdoms, and finally your flours, the kneading process, and the rising, punching down, second rising, and baking. yeast Use sourdough (homemade) or store-bought. There are different kinds of commercial yeast. Brewer's yeast won't raise bread. Neither will the dry yeast sold as a vitamin and protein supplement in health food stores. Commercial Yeast Containers. You can buy yeast in a bulk 2-lb. package, a 4-oz. jar, or 2, t. at a time in little foil packages. Don't buy the 2-lb. container unless you know you're going to use it all up reasonably soon. Yeast is alive, but it can live only so long confined to a jar. The 4-oz. jar is large enough to be more economical and small enough that the yeast will probably stay alive until you've used up the last of it. If you...

Flours Thickeners Grains Grain Flakes

Bread flour Bread flour is high in protein, which means that it results in bread doughs with a strong gluten, lending chewiness and resistance, exactly the qualities you would not want in a cake or pastry. Bread flour also usually incorporates some barley flour or malt, which provides food for yeast. I call for unbleached all-purpose flour in all of my bread recipes.

Baking Decent Bread without Wheat Flour Its No Joke

The first time you try to convert a wheat yeast bread recipe to gluten-free, you'll most likely end up with a glob that is raw in the center, has a crust that requires a jackhammer to cut through it, and an aftertaste that redefines the word bitter. If the loaf actually bakes all the way through, then the slices may crumble beyond recognition when you attempt to cut it. Fortunately, you have this book in your hands. It contains excellent bread recipes with all the necessary adjustments, so you don't have to worry about converting your Grandma's homemade bread recipe immediately. Be aware that if you use a different flour mixture with the recipes in this book, you may get different results.

Jlrree Seed Bread1 LLe Meat or Bask cTl

A true sourdough starter is nothing more than the flour and milk or water which sits at room temperature for several days and catches live yeast bacteria from the air. Most starter recipes today include yeast as an original ingredient as it is much easier and less time-consuming. In addition, many sourdough bread recipes also indicate usage of yeast itself, as it does provide a higher-rising, lighter loaf.

Starch C6h10o5

Starch subjected to dry heat is changed to dextrine (C6H10O5), British gum. Dextrine subjected to heat plus an acid or a ferment is changed to dextrose (C6H12O6). Dextrose occurs in ripe fruit, honey, sweet wine, and as a manufactured product. When grain is allowed to germinate for malting purposes, starch is changed to dextrine and dextrose. In fermentation, dextrose is changed to alcohol (C2H5HO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Examples bread making, vinegar, and distilled liquors.

Our Daily Bread

Making bread from scratch is probably the most time consuming task of all baking. Bread baking is not hard to do, it just takes time. If you like to create unique flavors or like special health type breads, then scratch baking is the way to go. If you like the smell and taste of fresh baked bread, but don't want to spend the time making it from scratch, there are plenty of frozen breads you can bake. A premix will still take a lot of time to prepare, but everything is pre-measured and ready to go. You'll need a powerful mixer to mix bread from scratch. If you are a serious bread maker, you must keep notes of your technique. Bread making is extremely variable, but can be done correctly time after time simply by paying attention to your environment.

The White Flours

The natural tone of unbleached wheat flour is cream-colored. If you don't mind the ivory or cream color of products made with unbleached flour, by all means use that. The only bleached flour that we use is bleached cake flour when we want to obtain the pure white texture we prefer in white cakes. In yellow cakes or chocolate cakes, we use unbleached pastry flour. If you switch from bleached to unbleached flour in your bread recipes, be aware that the two flours may exhibit different performance characteristics and you may need to make minor changes in the recipe. Buy flours for their intended uses bread flour for breads and pastry flours for pastries plus all-purpose flours for gravies and other general uses. Keep in mind that most recipes except bread recipes--were developed with all-purpose flour since that is what is common in nearly all kitchens. You may wish to use all-purpose flour for a new recipe and then switch to a specialty flour after you become familiar with the recipe.


Baking bread at home needn't be time consuming. In reality, most breads require very little attention aside from the mixing and shaping process. You'll need to be available to check the risings both as dough and as the formed loaf, loaves, or rolls of course, but that's just a matter of taking a quick look.


Alternatively, if you have a bread machine, use bread machine yeast and just follow the general bread making instructions for your machine. With mine you just mix the ingredients as instructed in the machine, allow to allow to rise and then let the machine do the rest. This is an excellent bread to use for dipping oils. I use equal parts extra virgin olive, flax oil and garlic and herb spices. This is fantastic with the bread fresh from the oven (or machine).


Many bakers claim the second reason for bread baking is the sensuous feel and delight of manipulating the living dough by hand. It is relaxing, therapeutic and a thrill to work with responsive dough. It also gives your hands, wrists and entire arms a good workout. If you choose hand kneading, keep the board and your hands floured to prevent the dough from sticking, but avoid using any more than a dusting or your dough stiffens up. Choose a solid, firm and hard work surface, such as a sturdy table, butcher block or counter at waist level or lower.

Bread Machines

That ingenious invention, the bread machine came on the market in the late 1980s. (Originally they called it bread making machine.) It makes bread with almost no effort on your part, systematically going through all the steps of yeast bread baking with the electronic computer brain of a robotic baker.

Yeast Products

Yet for something that seems so simple, bread can be one of the most exacting and complex products to make. Success in bread-making depends largely on your understanding two basic principles gluten development, which we discussed in the previous chapter, and yeast fermentation, which we have touched on and which we study in greater detail here.

Cookbook I

I urge you to read the information in the chapters which precede the recipes themselves. Many of your questions will be answered before you begin baking bread, and many problems that you may have had will be avoided. The techniques you learn in these pages will help you to produce a perfect loaf every time.

Oca di guerra

Cold beef with onions and vinegar Ochsenniere Germany Beef kidney Ochsenschwanz Germany Oxtail Ochsenschwanzsuppe Germany Oxtail soup Ochsenzunge Germany Ox tongue Ocimum basilicum Botanical name Basil octadecyl ammonium acetate An anti-caking agent for yeast foods used in bread making. Aids dispersion throughout the mix. octopus An eight-armed cephalopod, Octopus vulgaris, found worldwide in warm seawater and usually in the range 30 cm to 1 m long (head and tentacles), although they can reach 3 m. They vary in colour from transparent to blue-black. The tentacles and head flesh of larger animals are usually cooked after pounding to soften the tissues. To cook, put a cork in the head and place in boiling unsalted water and boil for 10 to 20


Mushrooms are really neither vegetable nor animal. Although technically classified as plants, fungi curiously straddle the plant and animal kingdoms. They don't make food from sunshine and air as plants do. Instead they extract it from decaying matter and make it into fresh and concentrated protein food for us, the way a cow turns grass into the fine protein foods of milk and meat. Molds (for making antibiotics), yeasts (for making bread, brew, and vinegar), and truffles are related fungi.

Whole Wheat Flour

Because it is made from wheat, whole wheat flour contains gluten, so it can be used alone in bread making. However, a bread made with 100 percent whole wheat will be heavy because the gluten strands are cut by the sharp edges of the bran flakes. Also, the fat from the wheat germ contributes slightly to the shortening action.This is why most whole wheat breads are strengthened with white bread flour.

Shaping and Baking

Put bread in a plastic bag to retain moisture and soften the crust. Bread will freeze and keep indefinitely, so put the extra loaves in your freezer. For maximum freshness, freeze immediately after baking and cooling. Yeast Bread Recipes The easiest bread to make is a basic white bread. I never use white flour now. But if you are just learning to make bread, you might want to start with a recipe that uses 100 percent white or unbleached flour. It rises better and generally cooperates better. You can learn what you're doing with a white bread recipe and then move on to one that uses a heavier flour. Or you can just plunge in with any old recipe that takes your fancy, and enthusiasm will carry you over the difficulties. Here's the recipe I learned bread making with. RUTH'S EUROPEAN-STYLE BREAD One thing I noticed, when I was visiting in the States a couple years ago, is that the texture of North American bread is so cakelike even whole grain bread. I think it's because of the...

Coohboo h V

Carol Sclove finds bread baking to be a great hobby. Her recipe proves she has talent for it One small can (6 oz.) equals i4 cup of pineapple juice. One half egg equals I yolk or white or 2 tbs. egg substitute. This has been an often requested recipe Bread recipes that use fruit or vegetables for some or part of the liquid must be watched carefully for the proper moisture content. The moisture content of the fruit or vegetable which you use may vary from one day to the next depending on the ripeness and freshness of the produce.

Yeastraised Doughs

Bread is an accepted term used for centuries to describe a mixture of flour, sugar, shortening, salt, and liquid that is made into dough. When yeast is added, the dough is raised by the action of the added ingredient, and the dough mass that results is leavened, or fermented, and baked at a determined stag. This same combination of ingredients is used for making bread rolls. Sweet dough products including sweet rolls, coffee cakes, and doughnuts differ from loaf bread and bread rolls principally in the proportion of ingredients used. The dough formula for these items is richer than that used for bread. Also. more sugar is used, and eggs and spices, ingredients not usually contained in bread, are incorporated.